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Simulated climate change in subarctic soils: responses in nematode species composition and dominance structure

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The nematode fauna at two contrasting subarctic sites was studied at Abisko, Swedish Lapland. One site was a dwarf shrub dominated, tree-line heath (450 m a.s.l.) and the other a high altitude fellfield (1150 m a.s.l.). Responses in the composition of the nematode fauna to eight growing seasons with simulated climate change were monitored. The environmental manipulations consisted of temperature increase by using passive greenhouses, NPK fertilization, and a combination of both. A total of 98 species was found at the sites, with twice as many species at the heath compared to the climatically harsh fellfield. Species similarity was low, most likely due to differences in soil type and vegetation cover. The environmental perturbations caused distinct changes in dominance and trophic structure. Taxa common at both sites responded similarly with increases in Aphelenchoides, Filenchus and Plectus , and decreases in Eudorylaimus, Monhystrella and Teratocephalus . Generally, the manipulations changed the trophic composition in favour of fungal and plant feeding species, indicating a shift in the decomposition pathway. Modification provoquee du climat dans des sols subarctiques: reaction de la composition specifique des nematodes et de la structure de la dominance - La faune des nematodes a ete etudiee a Abisko (Laponie suedoise) en deux sites subarctiques contrastes. L'un consistait une vegetation de bruyere dominee par des buissons nains (a 450 m d'altitude) et l'autre etait situe sur un coteau a haute altitude (1150 m). La reaction de la faune nematologique aux modifications provoquees du climat a ete observee. Ces modifications comprenaient une augmentation de la temperature par utilisation de serres passives, une fertilisation NPK et une combinaison des deux. Un total de 98 especes ont ete trouvees dans les deux sites. La similitude des especes etait peu elevee, ce tres probablement du aux differences dans les types de sols et la couverture vegetale. Le nombre d'especes etait deux fois plus eleve sous bruyeres, que pour le coteau au climat rude. Apres huit saisons de croissance ayant comporte des perturbations de l'environnement, de nets changements sont apparus dans la dominance et la structure trophique. Les nematodes communs aux deux sites ont montre une reaction similaire, positive pour les Aphelenchoides, Filenchus et Plectus et negative pour les Eudorylaimus, Monhystrella et Teratocephalus. En general, les modifications ont change la composition trophique en faveur des especes fungivores et herbivores, indiquant par la des changements dans le mode de decomposition des vegetaux.

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