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Effects of global warming on nematode diversity in a Swedish tundra soil - a soil transplantation experiment

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For more content, see Nematologica.

The implications of global warming on nematode populations were studied in a soil transplantation experiment. Blocks of peat from an ombrotrophic mire at Abisko, northern Sweden, were transplanted to nine warmer sites in Sweden in June 1996. The changes in nematode abundance and species composition were followed by monthly samplings from July to December 1996 with a final sampling in June 1997. In all sites except the most northern the total nematode numbers increased during the study period. However, especially at the three northern-most sites the composition of the nematode fauna changed very little. Most species from the mire survived in all transplants and the number of immigrating species was low. The most clearcut effects on faunal composition were seen in blocks transferred to open sites in central and southern Sweden. This was also indicated by the Maturity index (sensu Bongers) and Renkonen numbers (comparing similarity in fauna structure between source site and transplantation sites). These parameters had the lowest values in blocks placed in the exposed sites where the greatest fluctations in temperature and moisture occurred. One conclusion of the study is that a climatic change has no rapid influence on the composition of the nematode fauna; soil structure and vegetation have a stronger influence. If the soil structure and vegetation start to change this will certainly also influence the nematode fauna. Upon warming above certain temperature thresholds, expected changes would result in an increased rate of mineralization followed by higher abundance of fungal and bacterial feeders belonging to the Secernentea. Influence du rechauffement terrestre sur la diversite des nematodes dans un sol de toundra suedoise - une experience de transfert de sol - Une experience fondee sur des transferts de sol a permis d'etudier l'influence du rechauffement terrestre sur les peuplements de nematodes. Des blocs de tourbe provenant d'un bas-fond ombrotrophique d'Abisko (nord de la Suede) ont ete transferes en neuf sites plus chauds de la Suede en juin 1996. Les changements dans l'abondance des nematodes et la composition en especes ont ete suivis grace a des prelevements mensuels de juillet a decembre 1996, un prelevement final ayant eu lieu en juin 1997. Pour tous les sites, excepte le plus septentrional, le nombre total de nematodes a augmente pendant la duree de l'etude. Toutefois, et plus particulierement pour les trois sites septentrionaux, la composition de la faune est tres peu modifiee. La plupart des especes presentes dans le bas-fond subsistent dans tous les lots transferes, le nombre d'especes y migrant restant d'autre part faible. Les effets les plus nets sur la composition faunistique sont observes dans les blocs transferes dans des sites degages de Suede centrale et meridionale. Cela est corrobore par l'index de maturite (sensu Bongers) et les nombres de Renkonen (comparant la similarite de la structure faunistique dans le site original et dans les sites de transfert). Ces parametres ont les valeurs les plus faibles dans les blocs places dans des endroits exposes ou s'observent les plus fortes fluctuations de temperature et d'humidite. Une des conclusions de cette etude est que l'influence des changements climatiques sur la composition des peuplements nematologiques n'est pas rapide, la structure du sol et la vegetation ayant une influence beaucoup plus forte. Si ces deux derniers parametres commencent a se modifier, ce phenomene influera certainement sur le peuplement nematologique. En cas de rechauffement au-dessus d'un certain seuil, les modifications attendues pourraient provoquer une augmentation du taux de mineralisation, suivie par une plus grande abondance de fongivores et de bacillivores appartenant aux Secernentea.


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