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Nematode distribution in roots of banana (Musa AAA cv. Valery) in relation to plant height, distance from the pseudostem and soil depth

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The horizontal and vertical distribution of plant parasitic root nematodes on banana (Musa AAA cv. Valery) was determined in a sandy clay loam in Costa Rica. Root samples were taken from soil blocks at distances of 0 to 30, 30 to 60, and 60 to 90 cm from the pseudostem, from 0 to 120 cm depth at intervals of 15 cm, and from plants of 120, 150, 180 or 210 cm high (non-flowering), plus a set from plants at flower stalk. The horizontal distance from the pseudostem affected the percentage of Radopholus similis, Pratylenchus spp., and total nematodes (R. similis + Helicotylenchus spp. + Meloidogyne spp. + Pratylenchus spp.). There was a significant effect of soil depth on the density of each genus. An interaction between soil depth and plant height and with horizontal distance was found for R. similis and total nematodes. For the three horizontal distances from the pseudostem, the percentage of each genus decreased with soil depth. Higher percentages of R. similis and total nematodes were found at 0 to 30 cm horizontal distance from the pseudostem than at greater distances in the upper 30 cm of the soil profile. Therefore, samples for monitoring nematode populations in bananas should be taken within a horizontal distance of 0 to 30 cm from the plant base and down to 30 cm deep from the soil surface. Additional studies are needed to relate the nematode population density at this sampling point to yield. Repartition des nematodes dans les racines du bananier (Musa AAA cv. Valery) en relation avec la hauteur de la plante, la distance au pseudo tronc et la profondeur du sol - La repartition horizontale et verticale des nematodes parasites du bananier (Musa AAA cv. Valery) a ete determinee dans un sol sablo-argileux, au Costa Rica. Les echantillons de racines ont ete preleves dans les blocs de sol extraits a differentes distances (de 0-30, de 30-60 et 60-90 cm) et profondeurs (de 0 a 120 cm avec des intervalles de 15 cm) du pseudo tronc des plantes: ces plantes, non encore fleuries, etaient de differentes hauteurs (120, 150, 180 et 210 cm). Quelques plantes entre le premier et le huitieme jour apres floraison ont egalement ete testees. La distance horizontale affecte le pourcentage de Radopholus similis et de Pratylenchus spp., et le nombre total de nematodes (R. similis + Helicotylenchus spp. + Meloidogyne spp. + Pratylenchus spp.). La profondeur du sol affecte la densite de population pour chaque genre. Pour R. similis et le nombre total de nematodes; il existe des interactions entre la profondeur du sol et la hauteur de la plante et entre la profondeur du sol et la distance horizontale. Le pourcentage de chacun des genres decroit avec la profondeur du sol aux trois distances au pseudo tronc. Les pourcentages les plus eleves de R. similis et du nombre total de nematodes ont ete trouves de 0 a 30 cm de profondeur. De ces resultats, il est conclu que pour etudier correctement les populations des nematodes du bananier, les echantillons de racines devraient ete preleves dans les premiers 30 cm de distance au pseudo tronc et jusqu'aux premiers 30 cm de profondeur du sol. Des etudes complementaires sont necessaires pour mieux etablir les rapports entre la densite des populations de nematodes dans ces points d'echantillonnage et le rendement.


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