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Allelopathy: a possible mechanism of suppression of plant-parasitic nematodes by entomopathogenic nematodes

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For more content, see Nematologica.

A possible mechanism of suppression of a plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita by entomopathogenic nematodes is described. Heat-killed entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema feltiae and S. riobrave temporarily suppressed penetration of the root-knot nematode M. incognita into tomato roots, but live nematodes had no effect. Infective juvenile M. incognita were repelled from all entomopathogenic nematode treatments that included their symbiotic bacteria. They were repelled by Galleria mellonella cadavers infected with S. carpocapsae, S. feltiae, and S. riobrave and from cell-free culture filtrates of the symbiotic bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophilus, X. bovienii, and Xenorhabdus sp. "R" from the three nematode species, respectively. Cell-free filtrates from all three Xenorhabdus spp. were toxic to M. incognita infective juveniles causing 98-100% mortality at 15% concentration. Cell-free filtrate of Xenorhabdus sp. "R" also reduced the hatch of M. incognita eggs. Application of formulated bacterial cell-free filtrates temporarily suppressed M. incognita penetration into tomato roots in a greenhouse trial. The short-term effects of cell-free bacterial filtrates, namely toxicity and repellency, were almost entirely due to ammonium. These results demonstrate allelopathic interactions between plant-parasitic nematodes, entomopathogenic nematodes and their symbiotic bacteria. The likely role of allelopathy in the suppression of plant-parasitic nematodes by innundative applications of entomopathogenic nematodes is discussed. Allelopathie: Ein moglicher Mechanismus zur Unterdruckung pflanzenparasitarer Nematoden durch insektenpathogene Nematoden - Es wird ein moglicher Mechanismus zur Unterdruckung des pflanzenparasitaren Nematoden Meloidogyne incognita durch insektenpathogene Nematoden beschrieben. Durch Hitze abgetotete insektenpathogene Nematoden Steinernema feltiae und S. riobrave underdruckten das Eindringen des Wurzelgallenalchens M. incognita in Tomatenwurzeln, lebende Nematoden hatten keine Wirkung. Infektionsjuvenile von M. incognita wurden von allen Behandlungen mit insektenpathogenen Nematoden abgestossen, die auch die symbiontischen Bakterien einschlossen. Sie wurden durch die Kadaver von Galleria mellonella abgestossen, die mit S. carpocapsae, S. feltiae und S. riobrave infiziert waren sowie durch zellfreie Kultursubstrate der symbiontischen Bakterien Xenorhabdus nematophilus, X. bovienii und Xenorhabdus sp. "R" aus den drei genannten Nematodenarten. Zellfreie Kultursubstrate von allen drei Xenorhabdus spp. waren giftig fur die Infektionsjuvenilen von M. incognita und verursachten in einer Konzentration von 15% Abtotungsraten von 98-100%. Zellfreie Kultursubstrate von Xenorhabdus sp. "R" vermiderten ausserdem das Schlupfen von M. incognita-Eiern. In einem Gewachshausversuch unterdruckten formulierte zellfreie Bakterienfiltrate vorubergehend das Eindringen von M. incognita in Tomatenwurzeln. Die Kurzzeitwirkungen von zellfreien Bakterien filtraten, namentlich Giftigkeit und Abstossung, waren nahezu ganz bedingt durch Ammoniak. Diese Ergebnisse zeigen das Vorhandensein von allelopathischen Wechselwirkungen zwischen pflanzenparasitaren Nematoden, insektenpathogenen Nematoden und deren symbiontischen Bakterien. Die wahrscheinliche Rolle von Allelopathie bei der Unterdruckung pflanzenparasitarer Nematoden durch eine Massenanwendung insektenpathogener Nematoden wird diskutiert.


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