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Radicalar probes to measure the action of energy on granular materials

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Measuring the action of energy on matter is a complex problem, especially in the case of granular materials. For example, particle size reduction by grinding generally shows poor overall energetic yields and a significant challenge in this area is to accurately estimate the energy consumed, including that stored in the particles. Fine or ultra-fine grinding processes require a lot of energy, part of which becomes internal energy and can lead to mechanochemical reactions and useful products. We studied the appearance of free radicals during the grinding of α-lactose monohydrate by means of electron spin resonance (ESR). These radicals are the same as those induced by γ-radiation and comparison of ESR spectra intensities with those from ground products allows the determination of an 'equivalent γ-irradiation dose'. This gives a novel concept for characterizing the action of mechanical energy on matter in fine grinding by using molecular probes. This is the first example of the investigation of mechanochemical energy during the fine grinding process.

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