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Secondary myelofibrosis in visceral leishmaniasis — case report

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image of Haematologia

A 39-year-old woman with a history of travel to the Montenegrin coast presented with a 9-month long history of fever and weakness, and on examination was found to be emaciated with hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia. Marrow aspiration showed poor cellularity with abundant Leishman Donovan (LD) bodies in the macrophages. Bone marrow trephine biopsy revealed a marked myelofibrosis (Manoharan classification: grade III) with osteosclerosis. The impression smears of a trephine biopsy stained with Güiemsa also showed LD bodies. The patient did not exhibit evidence of any risk factors for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). She was treated with meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime®) without any adverse effect. The spleen returned to a normal volume after 4 months and bone marrow trephine biopsy performed 6 months after initiation of the therapy had returned to normal. A diagnosis was difficult to establish as VL is rarely encountered in the continental parts of Yugoslavia, and with the presence of associated myelofibrosis it could easily have been mistaken for chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis. The association of myelofibrosis with visceral leishmaniasis has been reported in the literature only three times; we thus feel that documentation of this case is merited.


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