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Changes in immunological recovery in patients who received post-transplant G-CSF or GM-CSF after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT)

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image of Haematologia

In this prospective study, the effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on immunological reconstitution after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) were investigated for 6 months. Thirty-five patients received G-CSF 5 μg/kg per day and 26 patients received GM-CSF SC 5 μg/kg per day from day 1 to leukocyte engraftment (>1000 per mm3). Peripheral blood samples were obtained on 14, 28, 100, and 180 days after transplantation for immunological evaluation. CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD19+, and CD56+ cells were analysed by flow cytometry. Immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgA, and IgM) and complement levels (C3c and C4) were measured by nephelometry. Both G-CSF and GM-CSF groups were comparable with respect to age, sex, the period from diagnosis to transplantation, total nucleated cells infused, the number of CD34+ cells, conditioning regimens (TBI and non-TBI), and post-transplant infection. CD3+ and CD8+ cells on day 14 following autologous PBSCT+ G-CSFwere significantly higher than following autologous PBSCT+ GM-CSF (p = 0.008 and p = 0.021, respectively). The number of CD4 cells and the CD4/CD8 ratio were not different at several time points between the two groups. CD19+, CD56+ cells and immunoglobulin levels showed a faster recovery pattern in the autologous PBSCT + G-CSF group. The effect of G-CSF on immune reconstitution after autologous PBSCT is more prominent than that of GM-CSF. The possible role of haematopoietic growth factor on immune recovery and its clinical importance should be investigated in further studies.


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