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Effect of selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 on lipopolysaccharide-induced hyperalgesia

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image of Inflammopharmacology

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is known to increase the expression and release of various pro-inflammatory mediators, including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and produce hyperalgesia. It is also well known that prostaglandins (PGs), synthesised both in the periphery and centrally by COX isoforms, play a key role in sensitisation of nociceptors and nociceptive processing. To investigate the role of COX-2 in LPS-induced hyperalgesia, parecoxib, a selective COX-2-inhibiting pro-drug, was injected intravenously 30 min before assessing hyperalgesia induced by intraperitoneal or subcutaneous administration of LPS (50 μg/mouse or 25 μg/paw of rat, respectively). Acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion assay in mice and paw withdrawal response to thermal and mechanical stimuli in rats were used to assess the effect of inhibition of COX-2 on LPSinduced hyperalgesia. Animals showed significant hyperalgesic behavior 8 h after LPS injection. Parecoxib (up to 20 mg/kg, i.v.) had no effect in the two acute nociceptive assays but showed marked antinociceptive activity in writhing and tail immersion assay in LPS-pretreated mice. Similarly, parecoxib reversed the hyperalgesia in the LPS-injected paw but not in the contralateral paw of rats. Pre-treatment with dexamethasone, an inhibitor of COX-2 expression before LPS injection significantly affected the development of hyperalgesia in both mice and rats. These findings suggest that inducible COX-2 derived PGs are involved in central nociceptive processing, which resulted in hyperalgesic behavior following LPS administration and inhibition of COX-2 or its expression attenuated LPS-induced hyperalgesia.

Affiliations: 1: Pharmacology Division, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, India; 2: R&D Division, Panacea Biotec Ltd., P.O. Lalru, Ambala-Chandigarh Road, Punjab-140501, India


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