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Effect of promoters on the behavior and properties of VPO catalysts for the selective oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride

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A series of vanadyl pyrophosphate (VPO) modified by several additives has been investigated with the aim to reveal the promotion mechanism of the additives for selective conversion of n-butane to maleic anhydride (MA). Catalyst performance and various physicochemical characterization including XPS, XRD, FT-IR, DTA and BET indicated that the properties of additives, such as electronegativity and ion radius, contributed much to the effect of the additives on the structure and surface characteristics of VPO catalysts, and then influenced the catalytic behavior. The remarkable effects of additives on the surface vanadium and oxygen species were discussed. It was shown that maximum MA selectivity could be found with a moderate V5+ /V4+ ratio, and the catalytic activity and selectivity were improved, respectively, with the increase of surface active oxygen species, as well as as their amount and stability.


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