Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Sonochemical Oxidation of Phenol and Three of Its Intermediate Products in Aqueous Media: Catechol, Hydroquinone, and Benzoquinone. Kinetic and Mechanistic Aspects

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Research on Chemical Intermediates

The sonochemical oxidation of phenol has been examined in air-equilibrated aqueous media at various pH's and at various insonation powers. Its disappearance follows zero-order kinetics at [phenol]initial ~ 30 to 70 μM. Three principal intermediate species formed at pH 3: catechol (CC), hydroquinone (HQ), and p-benzoquinone (BQ); at natural pH (5.4-5.7) only catechol and hydroquinone formed. No intermediate species were detected at pH 12 under the conditions used. The sonochemical fate of CC, HQ, and BQ was also examined at pH 3 and at natural pH's. At pH 3, BQ is the major species formed during insonation of HQ, while HQ is produced during insonation of BQ. In both cases, an additional intermediate formed in trace quantities that is identified as hydroxy-p-benzoquinone. These same intermediate species have been identified in the heterogeneous photocatalyzed oxidation of phenol in irradiated titania suspensions. The present results confirm the important role of .OH radicals in degradation processes. Although CO2 is the ultimate product in heterogenous photocatalysis, irradiation of a phenolic aqueous solution by ultrasounds showed no loss of total organic carbon (TOC) after several hours, even though the aromatic substrate and the intermediates had degraded. A simple kinetic model/scheme is described to account for the events in the conversion of the substrates to products. It is concluded that the hydrophobic benzoquinone reacts with .OH and H. radicals at the hydrophobic gas bubble/liquid interface, while the hydrophilic species (phenol, CC, and HQ) react, to a large extent, with the .OH radicals in the solution bulk.

Affiliations: 1: Laboratory of Pure & Applied Studies in Catalysis, Environment and Materials Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry Concordia University 1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd. W. Montréal, Québec, CANADA H3G 1M8; 2: Dipartimento di Chimica Analitica Università di Torino Via Pietro Giuria 5, 10125 Torino, ITALIA; 3: Department of Chemistry Meisei University 2-1-1 Hodokubo, Hino, Tokyo 191, JAPAN


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Research on Chemical Intermediates — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation