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The Gaussian Derivative model for spatial-temporal vision: I. Cortical model

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image of Spatial Vision
For more content, see Multisensory Research and Seeing and Perceiving.

How do we see the motion of objects as well as their shapes? The Gaussian Derivative (GD) spatial model is extended to time to help answer this question. The GD spatio-temporal model requires only two numbers to describe the complete three-dimensional space-time shapes of individual receptive fields in primate visual cortex. These two numbers are the derivative numbers along the respective spatial and temporal principal axes of a given receptive field. Nine transformation parameters allow for a standard geometric association of these intrinsic axes with the extrinsic environment. The GD spatio-temporal model describes in one framework the following properties of primate simple cell fields: motion properties, number of lobes in space-time, spatial orientation, location, and size. A discrete difference-of-offset-Gaussians (DOOG) model provides a plausible physiological mechanism to form GD-like model fields in both space and time. The GD model hypothesizes that receptive fields at the first stage of processing in the visual cortex approximate 'derivative analyzers' that estimate local spatial and temporal derivatives of the intensity profile in the visual environment. The receptive fields as modeled provide operators that can allow later stages of processing in either a biological or machine vision system to estimate the motion as well as the shapes of objects in the environment.

Affiliations: 1: Harmony/Human Factors Group, General Motors Engineering, Warren, Michigan 48090-9010, USA; 2: Enterprise Systems Lab, General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, Michigan 48090-9055, USA


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