Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Economic Inequality, Poverty, and Tolerance: Evidence from 22 Countries1

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Comparative Sociology
For content published from 1960-2001, see International Journal of Comparative Sociology.

AbstractUsing multilevel models fitted to data from the World Values Survey and national statistics for 22 countries, this paper explores the relationship between both economic inequality and poverty - both across and within nations - and ethnic and religious tolerance. Consistent with previous research, the results demonstrate a positive relationship between individual-level incomes and tolerance. The results also provide contextual modifications to aspects of Inglehart’s (1987) post-materialist thesis by showing that while tolerance is positively associated with national-level economic prosperity, the relationship is stronger for higher income earners than for those who earn less. Finally, the study also contributes an entirely new finding regarding the influence of poverty on tolerance. Specifically, tolerance tends to be highest in countries with low poverty levels. This finding holds for people throughout the income distribution. The paper concludes with a discussion of the policy implications of these findings.

Affiliations: 1: University of Tübingen, Email: scott.milligan@unituebingen.de

Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/15691330-12341235
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Ainsworth James , Roscigno Vincent "“Stratification, school-work linkages and vocational education”" Social Forces 2005 Vol 84 1 257 285 http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/sof.2005.0087
2. Alderson Arthur , Nielsen François "“Globalization and the great U-turn: Income in equality trends in 16 OECD countries”" American Journal of Sociology 2002 Vol 107 5 1244 1299 http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/341329
3. Andersen Robert , Fetner Tina "“Inequality and postmaterialism: Reconsidering economic development’s impact on acceptance of homosexuality in 35 democracies”" American Journal of Political Science 2008a Vol 52 4 942 958 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5907.2008.00352.x
4. Andersen Robert , Fetner Tina "“Cohort differences in the tolerance of homosexuals: Attitudinal change in Canada and the United States, 1981–2000”" Public Opinion Quarterly 2008b Vol 72 2 311 330 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/poq/nfn017
5. Robert Andersen , Milligan Scott Grabb Edward , Guppy Neil "“Inequality and Intolerance: Canada in Cross-national Perspective”" Social Inequality in Canada: Patterns, Problems, and Policies 2009 Fifth Edition Toronto Prentice Hall
6. Barrett David World Christian Encyclopaedia 1982 Oxford Oxford University Press
7. Beckfield Jason "“European integration and income inequality”" American Sociological Review 2006 Vol 41 6 964 985 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000312240607100605
8. Boardman Jason , Robert Stephanie "“Neighborhood socioeconomic status and perceptions of self-efficacy”" Sociological Perspectives 2000 Vol 43 1 117 136 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1389785
9. Bobo Lawrence , Zubrinsky Camille "“Attitudes on residential integration: Perceived status differences, mere in-group preference, or racial prejudice?”" Social Forces 1996 Vol 74 3 883 909 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sf/74.3.883
10. Brady David , Fullerton Andrew , Moren Cross Jennifer "“More than just nickels and dimes: A cross-national analysis of working poverty in affluent democracies”" Social Forces 2010 Vol 57 4 559 585
11. Brint Steven "“‘New-class’ and cumulative trend explanations of the liberal political attitudes of professionals”" American Journal of Sociology 1984 Vol 90 1 30 71 http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/228047
12. Brooks Clem "“Civil rights liberalism and the suppression of a Republican political realignment in the United States, 1972–1996”" American Sociological Review 2000 Vol 65 4 435 505 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2657379
13. Caro Francis "“Social class and attitudes of youth relevant for realization of adult goals”" Social Forces 1966 Vol 44 4 492 498 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sf/44.4.492
14. Cattell Vicky "“Poor people, poor places, and poor health: The mediating role of social networks and social capital”" Social Science and Medicine 2001 Vol 52 10 1501 1516 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(00)00259-8
15. Coenders Marcel , Scheepers Peer "“Support for ethnic discrimination in the Netherlands, 1979–1993: Effects of period, cohort, and individual characteristics”" European Sociological Review 1998 Vol 14 4 405 422 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.esr.a018247
16. Cotter David , DeFiore JoAnne , Hermsen Joan , Kowalewski Brenda Marsteller , Vanneman Reeve "“All women benefit: The macro-level effect of occupational integration on gender earnings equality”" American Sociological Review 1997 Vol 62 5 714 734 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2657356
17. Deininger Klaus , Squire Lyn "“New ways of looking at old issues: Inequality and growth”" Journal of Development Economics 1998 Vol 57 2 259 287 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3878(98)00099-6
18. Edlund Jonas "“The influence of the class situations of husbands and wives on class identity, party preference, and attitudes towards redistribution: Sweden, Germany, and the United States”" Acta Sociologica 2003 Vol 46 3 195 214 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00016993030463002
19. Embrick David , Walther Carol , Wickens Corrine "“Working class masculinity: Keeping gay men and lesbians out of the workplace”" Sex Roles 2007 Vol 56 11–12 757 766 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11199-007-9234-0
20. Ferreira Leonor Vasconcelos "“Persistent poverty: Portugal and the southern European welfare regime”" European Societies 2008 Vol 10 1 49 71 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616690701419470
21. Firebaugh Glenn "“Observed trends in between-nation income inequality, and two conjectures”" American Journal of Sociology 2000 Vol 106 1 215 221 http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/303114
22. Fischer Claude , Hout Michael Century of Difference: How America Changed in the Last One Hundred Years 2006 New York Russell Sage Foundation
23. Gay Claudine "“Seeing difference: The effect of economic disparity on black attitudes toward Latinos”" American Journal of Political Science 2006 Vol 50 4 982 997 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5907.2006.00228.x
24. Gesthuizen Maurice , Scheepers Peer "“Economic vulnerability among low-educated Europeans: Resource, composition, labour market and welfare state influences”" Acta Sociologica 2010 Vol 53 3 247 267 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0001699310374491
25. Gibson James "“The structure of attitudinal tolerance in the United States”" British Journal of Political Science 1989 Vol 19 4 562 570 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007123400005640
26. Gibson James "“Intolerance and political repression in the United States: A half-century after McCarthyism”" American Journal of Political Science 2008 Vol 52 1 96 108 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5907.2007.00301.x
27. Goesling Brian "“Changing income inequalities within and between nations: New evidence”" American Sociological Review 2001 Vol 66 5 745 761 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3088956
28. Gottschalk Peter , Joyce Mary "“Cross-national differences in the rise in earnings income inequality: Market and institutional factors”" The Review of Economics and Statistics 1999 Vol 80 4 489 502 http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/003465398557672
29. Guest Avery "“Class consciousness and American political attitudes”" Social Forces 1974 Vol 52 4 496 510
30. Haubert Jeannie , Fussell Elizabeth "“Explaining pro-immigrant sentiment in the US: Social class, cosmopolitanism, and perceptions of immigrants”" International Migration Review 2006 Vol 40 3 489 507 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-7379.2006.00033.x
31. Hicks Gary , Lee Tien-Tsung "“Public attitudes toward gays and lesbians: Trends and predictors”" Journal of Homosexuality 2006 Vol 51 2 57 77 http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v51n02_04
32. Hill R. J. Budge I. , McKay D. "Democracy in Eastern Europe" Developing Democracy: Comparative Research in Honour of J. F. P. Blondel 1994 Sage London 267 283
33. Howard-Hassman Rhoda "“‘Canadian’ as an ethnic category: Implications for multiculturalism and national identity”" Canadian Public Policy 1999 Vol 25 4 523 537 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3552426
34. Inglehart Ronald "“Value change in industrial societies”" American Political Science Review 1987 Vol 81 4 1289 1303f http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1962590
35. Inglehart Ronald "“Culture Shift in Advanced Industrial Society”" 1990 Princeton Princeton University Press
36. Inglehart Ronald Modernization and Postmodernalization: Culture, Economic, and Political Change in 43 Societies 1997 Princeton Princeton University Press
37. Inglehart Ronald , Baker Wayne "“Modernization, cultural change, and the persistence of traditional values”" American Sociological Review 2000 Vol 65 1 19 51 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2657288
38. Jackman Mary "“General and applied tolerance: Does education increase commitment to racial integration?”" American Journal of Political Science 1978 Vol 22 2 302 324 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2110618
39. Jowitt K. New World Disorder: The Leninist Extinction 1992 Berkeley University of California Press
40. Kunivich Robert , Hodson Randy "“Ethnic diversity, segregation, and inequality: A structural model of ethnic prejudice in Bosnia and Croatia”" The Sociological Quarterly 2002 Vol 43 2 185 212 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.2002.tb00046.x
41. Laurence James "“The effect of ethnic diversity and community disadvantage on social cohesion: A multilevel analysis of social capital and interethnic relations in UK communities”" European Sociological Review 2011 Vol 27 1 70 89 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/esr/jcp057
42. Lipset Seymour Martin "“Democracy and working-class authoritarianism”" American Sociological Review 1959 Vol 24 3 482 502 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2089536
43. Locke John A letter concerning toleration 1689 London Awnsham Churchill
44. Luxembourg Income Study Huber Evelyn , Ragin Charles , Stephens John Comparative Welfare States Dataset 2004 Updated by David Brady, Jason Beckfield, John Stephens
45. Marmot Michael "“Social determinants of health inequalities”" The Lancet 2005 Vol 365 9464 1099 1104 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)74234-3
46. Merchant David , Rich Paul "“Canada and the Commonwealth: Does the Commonwealth have a future as well as a past?”" American Behavioural Scientist 2004 Vol 47 10 1319 1328 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002764204264257
47. Moore Laura , Ovadia "“Accounting for spatial variation in tolerance: The effects of education and religion”" Social Forces 2006 Vol 84 4 2205 2222 http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/sof.2006.0101
48. Moors Guy "“Facts and artefacts in the comparison of attitudes among ethnic minorities: A multigroup latent class structure model with adjustment for response style behavior”" European Sociological Review 2004 Vol 20 4 303 320 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/esr/jch026
49. Morenoff Jeffrey , Sampson Robert , Raudenbush Stephen "“Neighborhood inequality, collective efficacy, and the spatial dynamics of urban violence”" Criminology 2001 Vol 39 3 517 558 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2001.tb00932.x
50. Mulder Marlene , Krahn Harvey "“Individual and community-level determinants of support for immigration and cultural diversity in Canada”" Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 2005 Vol 42 2 421 444
51. Organization for Cooperation and Economic Development Growing Unequal? Income Distribution and Poverty in OECD Countries 2008 Paris OECD Publications
52. Pedersen Willy "“Working class boys at the margins: Ethnic prejudice, cultural capital, and gender”" Acta Sociologica 1996 Vol 39 3 257 279 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000169939603900301
53. Peterson Ruth , Krivo Lauren , Harris Mark "“Disadvantage and neighborhood violent crime: Do local institutions matter?”" Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 2000 Vol 37 1 31 63 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022427800037001002
54. Persell Caroline Hodges , Green Adam , Gurevich Liena "“Civil society, economic distress, and social tolerance”" Sociological Forum 2001 Vol 16 2 203 230 http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1011048600902
55. Phelan Jo , Link Bruce , Stueve Ann , Moore Robert "“Education, social liberalism, and economic conservatism: Attitudes toward homeless people”" American Sociological Review 1995 Vol 60 1 126 140 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2096349
56. Popper Karl The Open Society and its Enemies 1971 Princeton Princeton University Press
57. Quillian Lincoln "“Prejudice as a response to perceived group threat: Population composition and anti-immigrant and racial prejudice in Europe”" American Sociological Review 1995 Vol 60 4
58. American Sociological Review Vol 60 4 586 611
59. Raudenbush Stephen , Bryk Anthony Hierarchical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis Methods 2002 Thousand Oaks Sage
60. Reutter Linda , Veenstra Gerry , Stewart Miriam , Raphael Dennis , Love Rhonda , Makwarimba Edward , McMurray Susan "“Public attributions for poverty in Canada”" Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 2006 Vol 43 1 1 22 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-618X.2006.tb00852.x
61. Rousseau John Jacques Oeuvres Complètes 1967 Paris Éditions du Seuil
62. Scholtz Hanno "“Inequality rose from above so it shall fall again: Income skewness trends in 16 OECD countries as evidence for a second Kuznets cycle”" International Journal of Comparative Sociology 2010 Vol 51 4 246 267 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0020715210368842
63. Schreiber E. M. , Nygreen G. Theodore "“Subjective social class in America, 1945–68”" Social Forces 1970 Vol 48 3 348 356 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2574653
64. Seidman Edward , Yoshikawa Hirokazu , Roberts Ann , Chesir-Teran Daniel , Allen Larue , Friedman Jennifer L. , Aber J. Lawrence "“Structural and experiential neighborhood contexts: Developmental stage and anti-social behavior among urban adolescents in poverty”" Development and Psychopathology 1998 Vol 10 2 259 281 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579498001606
65. Semyonov Moshe , Raijman Rebeca , Gorodzeisky Anastasia "“The rise of anti-foreigner sentiment in European societies, 1988–2000”" American Sociological Review 2006 Vol 71 3 426 449 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000312240607100304
66. Small Mari , Jacobs Erin , Massengill Rebekah "“Why organization ties matter for neighborhood effects: Resource access through childcare centers”" Social Forces 2008 Vol 87 1 387 414 http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/sof.0.0079
67. Solt Frederick "“Standardizing the World Income Inequality Database”" Social Science Quarterly 2009 Vol 90 2 231 242 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6237.2009.00614.x
68. Sullivan John , Pierson James , Marcus George "“An alternative conceptualization of political tolerance: Illusionary increases, 1950s-1970s”" American Political Science Review 1979 Vol 73 1 233 249 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1954773
69. Svallfors Stefan The Moral Economy of Class: Class and Attitudes in Comparative Perspective 2006 Stanford Stanford University Press
70. Tajfel Henri "“Social identity and intergroup behaviour”" Social Science Information 1974 Vol 13 65 93
71. Topor G. "Review of The Politics of Nationalism and Ethnicity " Journal of International Affairs 1992 Vol 45 645 648
72. United Nations "“National accounts main aggregates database”" 2011
73. Uslaner Eric The Moral Foundations of Trust 2002 Cambridge Cambridge University Press
74. Uslaner Eric , Brown Mitchell "“Inequality, trust, and civic engagement”" American Politics Research 2005 Vol 33 6 868 894 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1532673X04271903
75. Weakliem David "“Class consciousness and political change: Voting and political attitudes in the British working class, 1964–1970”" American Sociological Review 1993 Vol 58 3 382 397 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095907
76. Wen Ming , Browning Christopher , Cagney Kathleen "“Poverty, affluence, and income inequality: Neighborhood economic structure and its implications for health”" Social Science and Medicine 2003 Vol 57 5 843 860 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(02)00457-4
77. Williams Robin M. Jr. "“The sociology of ethnic conflict: Comparative international perspectives”" Annual Review of Sociology 1994 Vol 20 49 79 http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.20.080194.000405
78. Wilson William Julius The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy Chicago University of Chicago Press
79. White Linda "“Liberalism, group rights, and the boundaries of toleration: The case of minority religious schools in Ontario”" Canadian Journal of Political Science 2003 Vol 36 5 975 1003 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0008423903778937
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/15691330-12341235
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/15691330-12341235
2012-01-01
2016-12-08

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    Comparative Sociology — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation