Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Mobilization in Military-Controlled Transitions: Lessons from Turkey, Brazil, and Egypt

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Comparative Sociology
For content published from 1960-2001, see International Journal of Comparative Sociology.

How, and under what circumstances, does popular mobilization democratize military rule? Democratization does not always involve grassroots protest, but it is important to understand its role when it does. The authors make two propositions. First, mobilization can aid transitions, and forestall military tutelage regimes, by generating popular demands for democratization, altering politicians’ incentives and capacities to push for democracy, and establishing legacies that preserve and deepen democracy after civilians assume power. Elected civilians do not automatically challenge militaries or replace them with more accountable governance, if not so compelled from below. Second, mobilization is most likely to have a democratizing impact when it crosses social cleavages and develops organizational structures. When it reinforces cleavages, militaries easily denounce dissent as threatening national unity or security. When it lacks organization, it cannot translate disruptive power into transformation of state institutions. Comparative analysis of Brazil (1974-1999), Turkey (1980-2013), and Egypt (2011-2013) demonstrates these relationships.

Affiliations: 1: Department of Political Science and International Relations, Bogazici University IstanbulTurkey mert.arslanalp@boun.edu.tr ; 2: Northwestern University EvanstonUSA pearlman@northwestern.edu

Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/15691330-12341426
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Acemoglu Daron, Robinson James A. Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy 2006 New York Cambridge University Press
2. Aguero Felipe Pion-Berlin David"“Institutions, Transitions and Bargaining: Civilians and the Military in Shaping Post-Authoritarian Regimes”" Civil-Military Relations in Latin America: New Analytical Perspectives 2001 Chapel Hill, NC The University of North Carolina Press
3. Yuksel Akkaya"“Türkiye’de 1980 Sonrası Emek-Sermaye Arasındaki Bölüşüm Mücadelesinde Grevlerin Yeri”" Toplum ve Bilim 2000 FallVol 86 211 240
4. Al-Ahram Online"Muslim Brotherhood Leader Argues the Case for a Boycott of Friday’s Demonstration" 2011 Revised May 27, 2011. Retrieved July 15, 2012. ()
5. Al-Ahram Online"Muslim Brotherhood’s Party will not Participate in Million-man Protest" 2011 Revised September 6, 2011. Retrieved July 15, 2012. ()
6. Amar Paul Haddad Bassam, Bsheer Rosie, Abu-Rish Ziad"“Why Mubarak is Out”" The Dawn of the Arab Uprisings: End of an Old Order? 2012 London Pluto Press
7. Amnesty International"Egypt’s Roadmap to Repression: No End in Sight to Human Rights Violations" 2014 Revised January 23, 2014. Retrieved March, 19, 2014. ()
8. Arias Enrique Desmond "“Faith in Our Neighbors: Networks and Social Order in Three Brazilian Favelas”" Latin American Politics and Society 2004 SpringVol 46 1 38 [Crossref]
9. Avritzer Leonardo"“Civil Society in Brazil: From State Autonomy to Political Interdependency”" dcp/ufmg 2009 Spring
10. Avritzer Leonardo Participatory Institutions in Democratic Brazil 2009 Baltimore, MD Johns Hopkins University Press
11. Barkey Henry, Fuller Graham Turkey’s Kurdish Question 1998 Lanham, MD Rowmand & Littlefield
12. Bermeo Nancy "“Myths of Moderation: Confrontation and Conflict during Democratic Transitions”" Comparative Politics 1997 AprilVol 29 305 322 [Crossref]
13. Beissinger Mark "“Structure and Example in Modular Political Phenomena: The Diffusion of Bulldozer/Rose/Orange/Tulip Revolutions”" Perspectives on Politics 2007 JuneVol 5 259 276 [Crossref]
14. Boix Charles Democracy and Redistribution 2003 New York Cambridge University Press [Crossref]
15. Bozarslan Hamid"“Human Rights and the Kurdish Issue in Turkey: 1984-1999”" Human Rights Review 2001 October-December 45 54 [Crossref]
16. Brinks Daniel"“Informal Institutions and the Rule of Law: the Judicial Response to State Killings in Buenos Aires and São Paulo in the 1990s”" Comparative Politics 2003 OctoberVol 36 1 19 [Crossref]
17. Burns E. Bradford A History of Brazil 1993 3rd edition New York Columbia University Press [Crossref]
18. Christian Science Monitor"Tahrir Square Fills Again as Protestors Contest Egypt’s Military Rule" 2012 Revised June 19, 2012. Retrieved July 18, 2012. ()
19. Cizre-Sakallioglu Umit "“The Anatomy of the Turkish Military’s Autonomy”" Comparative Politics 1997 JanuaryVol 29 151 166 [Crossref]
20. Cizre-Sakallioglu Umit, Cinar Menderes"“Turkey 2002: Kemalism, Islamism, and Politics in the Light of the February 28 Process”" South Atlantic Quarterly 2003 Spring/SummerVol 102 309 332 [Crossref]
21. Collier Ruth Berins Paths toward Democracy: The Working Class and Elites in Western Europe and South America 1999 Cambridge Cambridge University Press [Crossref]
22. Collier Ruth Berins , Mahoney James "“Adding Collective Actors to Collective Outcomes: Labor and Recent Democratization in South America and Southern Europe”" Comparative Politics 1997 AprilVol 29 285 303 [Crossref]
23. Cook Steven Ruling but not Governing: The Military and Political Development in Egypt, Algeria and Turkey 2007 Baltimore, MD John Hopkins Press
24. Demirel Taner "“Lessons of Military Regimes and Democracy: The Turkish Case in Comparative Perspective”" Armed Forces and Society 2005 WinterVol 31 245 271 [Crossref]
25. Diamond Lary "“Thinking about Hybrid Regimes”" Journal of Democracy 2002 AprilVol 13 21 35 [Crossref]
26. Dogan Mustafa "“When Neoliberalism Confronts the Moral Economy of Workers: The Final Spring of Turkish Labor Unions”" European Journal of Turkish Studies 2010Vol 11 1 17 [Crossref]
27. El Amrani I. "Sightings of the Egyptian Deep State" 2012 Revised January 1, 2012. Retrieved November 2, 2012 ()
28. El-Din G. E. "How Did Mubarak’s Last PM Make it to Egypt’s Second Round of Presidential Elections?" 2012 Revised May 26, 2012. Retrieved May 26, 2012 ()
29. El-Ghobashy Mona "Egyptian Politics Upended" 2012 Revised August 20, 2012. Retrieved November 2, 2012 ()
30. El-Hamalawy Hossam "Morsi, SCAF, and the Revolutionary Left" 2012 Revised July 1, 2012. Retrieved August 24, 2012 ()
31. Eligur Banu The Mobilization of Political Islam in Turkey 2010 Cambridge Cambridge University Press [Crossref]
32. Esen Berk, Gumuscu Sebnem "“Rising Competitive Authoritarianism in Turkey”" Third World Quarterly 2016Vol 37 9 1581 1606 [Crossref]
33. European Commission "“Turkey 2012 Progress Report”" 2012 Revised 2012. Retrieved March 15, 2013 ()
34. Fausto Boris A Concise History of Brazil 1999 Cambridge Cambridge University Press
35. Filho Alfredo Saad"“Mass Protests under Left Neoliberalism: Brazil, June-July 2013”" Critical Sociology 2013Vol 39 5 657 669 [Crossref]
36. Fitch John Samuel Armed Forces and Democracy in Latin America 1998 Baltimore, MD Johns Hopkins University Press
37. George Alexander L. , Bennett Andrew Case Studies and Theory Development in Social Sciences 2005 Cambridge, MA MIT Press
38. Glenn John K. "“Contentious Politics and Democratization: Comparing the Impact of Social Movements on the Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe”" Political Studies 2003Vol 51 103 120 [Crossref]
39. Gunes Cengiz The Kurdish National Movement in Turkey 2012 New York Routledge
40. Haggard Stephan, Kaufman Robert "“Inequality and Regime Change: Democratic Transitions and the Stability of Democratic Rule”" American Political Science Review 2012 August 1 22
41. Hamid Shadi "The Muslim Brotherhood’s New Power in Egypt’s Parliament" 2011 Revised December 23, 2011. Retrieved July 18, 2012. ()
42. Hamzawy Amr"“Egypt’s anti protest law: Legalising authoritarianism”" 2016 Al-Jazeera. Revised November 24, 2016. Retrieved November 24, 2016. ()
43. Heper Metin, Guney Aylin "“The Military and the Consolidation of Turkish Democracy: The Recent Turkish Experience”" Armed Forces and Society 2000 SummerVol 26 619 642 [Crossref]
44. Higley John, Burton Michael G. "“The Elite Variable in Democratic Transitions and Breakdowns”" American Sociological Review 1989 FebruaryVol 54 17 32 [Crossref]
45. Hochstetler Kathryn Kingstone Peter R., Power Timothy Joseph"“Democratizing Pressures from Below: Social Movements in the New Brazilian Democracy”" Democratic Brazil 2000 Pittsburgh, PA University of Pittsburgh Press
46. Holston James Insurgent Citizenship 2008 Princeton Princeton University Press
47. Human Rights Watch "“Turkey Report 2013”" 2013 Revised 2013. Retrieved February 21, 2014 ()
48. Hunter Wendy "“Politicians against Soldiers: Contesting the Military in Post-Authoritarian Brazil”" Comparative Politics 1995 JulyVol 27 425 443 [Crossref]
49. Hunter Wendy Kingstone Peter R., Power Timothy Joseph"“Assessing Civil-Military Relations in Post-Authoritarian Brazil”" Democratic Brazil 2000 Pittsburgh, PA University of Pittsburgh Press
50. Insel Ahmet "“The AKP and Normalizing Democracy in Turkey”" South Atlantic Quarterly 2003 Spring/SummerVol 102 293 308 [Crossref]
51. Jelin Elizabeth "“The Politics of Memory: The Human Rights Movement and the Construction of Democracy”" Latin American Perspectives 1994 SpringVol 81 38 58 [Crossref]
52. Jenkins Gareth "“Continuity and Change: Prospects for Civil-Military Relations in Turkey”" International Affairs 2007Vol 83 339 355 [Crossref]
53. Jenkins Gareth "“Between Fact and Fantasy: Turkey’s Ergenekon Investigation”" Central Asia-Caucasus Institute & Silk Road Studies Program 2009
54. Kandil Hazem Soldiers, Spies and Statesmen: Egypt’s Road to Revolt 2014 London Verso
55. Keck Margaret Stepan A."“New Unionism in the Brazilian Transition”" Democratizing Brazil: Problems of Transition and Consolidation 1989 Oxford Oxford University Press
56. Keck Margaret The Worker’s Party and Democratization in Brazil 1992 New Haven, CT Yale University Press
57. Kirisci Kemal, Winrow Gareth Kürt Sorunu 1997 Istanbul Tarih Vakfı Yurt Yayınları
58. Kuran Timur "Turkey’s Electoral Dictatorship" 2014 Revised April 14, 2014. Retrieved April 15, 2014. ()
59. Lamouiner Bolivar Stepan Alfred"“Authoritarian Brazil Revisited: The Impacts of Elections on the Abertura”" Democratizing Brazil: Problems of Transition and Consolidation 1989 Oxford Oxford University Press
60. de Leon Cedric, Desai Manali , Tugal Cihan "“Political Articulation: Parties and the Constitution of Cleavages in the United States, India, and Turkey”" Sociological Theory 2009 SeptemberVol 27 193 216 [Crossref]
61. Levistky Steven, Way Lucan Competitive Authoritarianism 2010 Cambridge Cambridge University Press
62. Linz Juan, Stepan Alfred Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation 1996 Baltimore, MD John Hopkins Press
63. Mahoney James "“Qualitative Methodology and Comparative Politics”" Comparative Political Studies 2007 February Vol 40 122 144 [Crossref]
64. Mainwaring Scott The Catholic Church and Politics in Brazil 1986 Redwood City, CA Stanford University Press
65. Mainwaring Scott "“Urban Popular Movements, Identity, and Democratization in Brazil”" Comparative Political Studies 1987 JulyVol 20 131 159 [Crossref]
66. Mainwaring Scott Stepan Alfred"“Grassroots Popular Movements and the Struggle for Democracy: Nova Iguacu”" Democratizing Brazil: Problems of Transition and Consolidation 1989 Oxford Oxford University Press
67. Mainwaring Scott, Viola Eduardo"“New Social Movements, Political Culture, and Democracy: Brazil and Argentina in the 1980s”" Telos 1984Vol 61 17 52 [Crossref]
68. Marcus Aliza Blood and Belief: The PKK and the Kurdish Fight for Independence 2007 New York New York University Press
69. Navarro Zander"“Democracy, Citizenship and Representation: Rural Social Movements in Southern Brazil, 1978-1990”" Bulletin of Latin American Research 1994 MayVol 13 129 154 [Crossref]
70. O’Donnell Guillermo, Schmitter Philippe C. Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies 1986 Baltimore, MD John Hopkins Press
71. Ondetti Gabriel A."“Repression, Opportunity, and Protest: Explaining the Takeoff of Brazil’s Landless Movement”" Latin American Politics and Society 2006 SummerVol 48 61 94 [Crossref]
72. Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe "“Lack of equal opportunities, one-sided media coverage and limitations on fundamental freedoms created unlevel playing field in Turkey’s constitutional referendum, international observers say”" 2017 Revised April 17, 2017. Retrieved April 24, 2017 ()
73. Ozbudun Ergun Contemporary Turkish Politics: Challenges to Democratic Consolidation 2000 Boulder, CO Lynne Rienner Publishers
74. Paoli Maria Celia , Telles Vera S. Alvarez Sonia, Dagnino Evilina, Escobar Arturo"“Social Rights: Conflicts and Negotiations in Contemporary Brazil,”" Cultures of Politics, Politics of Culture: Re-visioning Latin American Social Movements 1998 Boulder, CO Westview Press
75. Pion-Berlin David Pion-Berlin David"“Civil-Military Circumvention: How Argentine State Institutions Compensate for a Weakened Chain of Command”" Civil-Military Relations in Latin America: New Analytical Perspectives 2001 Chapel Hill, NC The University of North Carolina Press
76. Power Timothy Joseph Kingstone Peter R., Power Timothy Joseph "“Centering Democracy? Ideological Cleavages and Convergence in the Brazilian Political Class”" Democratic Brazil Revisited 2008 Pittsburgh, PA University of Pittsburgh Press
77. Przeworski Adam Democracy and the Market 1991 Cambridge, MA Cambridge University Press [Crossref]
78. Rouquie Alan O’Donnell Guillermo, Schmitter Philippe C., Whitehead Laurence"“Demilitarization and the Institutionalization of Military- Dominated Polities in Latin America”" Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Comparative Perspectives 1986 Baltimore, MD John Hopkins Press
79. Rueschemeyer Dietrich, Stephens Evelyne Huber , Stephens John D. Capitalist Development and Democracy 1992 Chicago, IL University of Chicago Press
80. Samuels David, Abrucio Fernando Luiz "“Federalism and Democratic Transitions: The ‘New’ Politics of the Governors in Brazil”" Journal of Federalism 2000Vol 30 2 43 61 [Crossref]
81. Sandoval Salvador A. M. Giugni Marco, McAdam Doug, Tilly Charles"“Social Movements and Democratization: The Case of Brazil and the Latin Countries”" From Contention to Democracy 1998 Lanham, MD Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
82. Sayigh Yezid "“Above the State: The Officer’s Republic in Egypt”" Carnegie Paper Series 2012 Revised August 2012. Retrieved March 18, 2013 ()
83. Sezgin Yuksel "Erdogan-Gulen-Gul Rivalry: All the Sultan’s Men" 2014 Revised January 1, 2014. Retrieved March 8, 2014. ()
84. Siaroff Alan Comparing Political Regimes: A Thematic Introduction to Comparative politics 2009 Toronto, Canada University of Toronto Press
85. Silva Patricio "“Searching for Civilian Supremacy: The Concertación Governments and the Military in Chile”" Bulletin of Latin American Research 2002Vol 21 375 395 [Crossref]
86. Singer Andre "“Rebellion in Brazil: Social and Political Complexion of the June Events”" New Left Review 2014 January-FebruaryVol 85 19 37
87. Skidmore Thomas E. The Politics of Military Rule in Brazil, 1964-1985 1988 New York Oxford University Press
88. Skidmore Thomas E. Stephan Alfred"“Brazil’s Slow Road to Democratization”" Democratizing Brazil: Problems of Transition and Consolidation 1989 Oxford Oxford University Press
89. Skidmore Thomas E. Brazil: Five Centuries of Change 1999 Oxford Oxford University Press
90. Slater Dan Ordering Power: Contentious Politics and Authoritarian Leviathans in Southeast Asia 2010 Cambridge Cambridge University Press [Crossref]
91. Sozen Yunus "“Authoritarianism and Political Crisis”" Perspectives Turkey 2014 AprilVol 8 4 8
92. Springborg Robert "The View from the Officers’ Club" 2012 Revised November 29, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2012. ()
93. Stepan Alfred O’Donnell G., Schmitter P., Whitehead L."“Paths towards Redemocratization”" Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Comparative perspectives 1986 Baltimore, MD John Hopkins Press
94. Stepan Alfred Rethinking Military Politics: Brazil and Southern Cone 1988 Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press
95. Tarek Sherif "Egypt’s Islamists Dominate Tahrir Square’s Dense Friday" 2011 Revised November 18, 2011. Retrieved July 22, 2012. ()
96. Tilly Charles Regimes and Repertoires 2006 Chicago, IL University of Chicago Press [Crossref]
97. Tugal Cihan "“Transforming Everyday Life: Islamism and Social Movement Theory”" Theory and Society 2009Vol 38 423 458 [Crossref]
98. Tugal Cihan "‘‘ ‘Resistance Everywhere’: The Gezi Revolt in Global Perspective”" New Perspectives on Turkey 2013Vol 49 157 172 [Crossref]
99. Washington Post"In Istanbul, Protest Leader Sees his Movement Dispersed" 2013 Revised June 19, 2013. Retrieved December 17, 2013 ()
100. Watts Nicole "“Allies and Enemies: Pro-Kurdish Parties in Turkish politics, 1990-94”" International Journal of Middle East Studies 1999 NovemberVol 31 631 656 [Crossref]
101. Watts Nicole Activists in Office: Kurdish Politics and Protest in Turkey 2010 Seattle, WA University of Seattle Press
102. Wood Elizabeth J. "“An Insurgent Path to Democratization: Popular Mobilization, Economic Interests and Regime Transition in South Africa and El Salvador”" Comparative Political Studies 2001 OctoberVol 34 862 888 [Crossref]
103. Yoltar Cagri, Bozcali Firat "“A Look at Gezi Park from Turkey’s Kurdistan”" Hot Spots 2013 Revised October 31, 2013. Retrieved December 16, 2013. ()
104. Zurcher Erik Turkey: A Modern History 2004 London I.B. Tauris
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/15691330-12341426
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/15691330-12341426
2017-06-02
2018-05-28

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    Comparative Sociology — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation