Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

A Phenomenological Analysis of the Experience of Security and Contentment for Latency Aged Children in Shared-time Parenting Arrangements

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Journal of Phenomenological Psychology

This study explored the lived experience of security and contentment, and their absence, for latency-aged children (aged 8–12) living in shared-time parenting arrangements following their parents’ separation. A descriptive phenomenological methodology was utilized (Giorgi, 1985, 2009; Giorgi & Giorgi, 2003, 2008). Sixteen children living in shared-time were interviewed about their experiences of two phenomena: “feeling secure and content living in shared-time” and “not feeling secure and content living in shared-time.” The eight richest protocols were selected for analysis. The two resultant general structures and their core constituents are presented, and individual variations discussed. Central to each phenomenon is the parent/s’ capacity, or incapacity, to create and sustain a physical and emotional space in which the child feels secure and held in the mind, feels the arrangements are responsive to their needs, feels free to access the “absent” parent, and experiences integration between the two parental homes. Implications for phenomenological human science research are considered, including the use of descriptive phenomenology with children.

Affiliations: 1: Federation University Australia ; 2: Deakin University Australia


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Abarbanel A. "Shared parenting after separation and divorce: A study of joint custody" American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 1979 Vol 49 2 320 329 [Crossref]
2. Amato P. R. , Cheadle J. E. "Parental divorce, marital conflict and children’s behavior problems: A comparison of adopted and biological children" Social Forces 2008 Vol 86 3 1139 1161 Retrieved from [Crossref]
3. Birnbaum R. , Saini M. "A qualitative synthesis of children’s experiences of shared care post divorce" International Journal of Children’s Rights 2015 Vol 23 1 109 132 [Crossref]
4. Bowlby J. Separation: Anxiety and anger 1973 London, UK Hogarth Press
5. Bowlby J. Attachment and loss: Volume ii, separation and anxiety 1980 2nd Ed. New York, NY Basic Books
6. Braver S. L. , Ellman I. M. , Votruba A. M. , Fabricius W. "Lay judgments about child custody and divorce" Psychology, Public Policy and Law 2011 Vol 17 2 212 240 [Crossref]
7. Butler I. , Scanlan L. , Robinson M. , Douglas G. , Murch M. Divorcing children: Children’s experience of their parents’ divorce 2003 London and New York Jessica Kingsley Publishers
8. Calloway G. , Erard R. E. "Introduction to the special issue on attachment and child custody" Journal of Child Custody 2009 Vol 6 1–2 1 7 Retrieved from [Crossref]
9. Carlberg M. , Hardy A. , Elfver-Lindstrom E. , Julin S. Alternating residency—different perspectives 2004 Sweden The National Board of Health and Welfare
10. Carlsund Å. , Eriksson U. , Löfstedt P. , Sellström E. "Risk behaviour in Swedish adolescents: Is shared physical custody after divorce a risk or a protective factor?" The European Journal of Public Health 2012 doi:10.1093/eurpub/cks011
11. Cashmore J. , Parkinson P. , Weston R. , Patulny R. , Redmond G. , Qu L. , Katz I. Shared care parenting arrangements since the 2006 Family Law Reforms: Report to the Australian Government Attorney-General’s Department 2010 Sydney, Australia Social Policy Research Centre, University of New South Wales
12. Colaizzi P. Valle R. , King M. "Psychological research as the phenomenologist views it" Existential phenomenological alternatives for psychology 1978 New York Oxford University Press 48 71
13. Davies H. "Shared parenting or shared care? Learning from children’s experiences of a post-divorce shared care arrangement" Children and Society 2013 doi:10.111/chso.12013
14. Emery R. E. , Waldron M. , Kitzmann K. M. , Aaron J. "Delinquent behavior, future divorce or nonmarital childbearing, and externalizing behavior among offspring: A 14-year prospective study" Journal of Family Psychology 1999 Vol 13 4 568 579 doi:10.1037/0893-3200.13.4.568 [Crossref]
15. Family Law Amendment (Shared Parental Responsibility Act) 2006 Australian Commonwealth Government
16. Fabricius W. , Sokol K. , Diaz P. , Braver S. Kuehnle K. , Drozd L. "Parenting time, parent conflict, parent-child relationships, and children’s physical health" Parenting plan evaluations: Applied research for the Family Court 2011 Oxford, USA Oxford University Press 188 213
17. Fabricius W. , Braver S. , Diaz P. , Velez C. Lamb M. "Custody and parenting time: Links to family relationships and wellbeing after divorce" The father’s role in child development 2010 5th ed. New Jersey Wiley and Sons 201 260
18. Fabricius W. "Listening to children of divorce: New findings that diverge from Wallerstein, Lewis, and Blakeslee" Family Relations 2003 Vol 52 4 385 Retrieved from Fabricius, W., & Hall, J. (2000). Young adults’ perspectives on divorce: Living arrangements. Family and Conciliation Courts Review, 38, 446–461. Retrieved from [Crossref]
19. Fehlberg B. , Smyth B. M. Caring for children after parental separation: Would legislation for shared parenting time help children? 2011 University of Oxford, UK Department of Social Policy and Intervention (Family Policy Briefing No. 7)
20. Fehlberg B. , Smyth B. , Maclean M. , Roberts C. "Legislating for shared time parenting after separation: A research review" International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family 2011 Vol 25 3 318 337 doi:10.1093/lawfam/ebr015 [Crossref]
21. Giorgi A. Giorgi A. "Sketch of a psychological phenomenological method" Phenomenology and psychological research 1985 Pittsburgh, PA Duquesne University Press 8 22
22. Giorgi A. "Difficulties encountered in the application of the phenomenological method in the social sciences" Analise Psicologica 2006 Vol 3 XXIV 353 361
23. Giorgi A. The descriptive phenomenological approach in psychology: A modified Husserlian approach 2009 Pittsburgh, PA Duquesne University Press
24. Giorgi A. , Giorgi B. Smith J. A. "Phenomenology" Qualitative psychology: A practical guide to research methods 2003 1st Ed. London, UK Sage Publications 25 50
25. Giorgi A. , Giorgi B. Smith J. A. "Phenomenology" Qualitative psychology: A guide to research methods 2008 2nd Ed. London, UK Sage Publications 26 52
26. Halling S. "Making phenomenology accessible to a wider audience" Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 2002 Vol 33 1 19 38 doi:10.1163/156916202320900400 [Crossref]
27. Haugen G. M. D. "Children’s perspectives on everyday experiences of shared residence: Time, emotions and agency dilemmas" Children & Society 2010 Vol 24 2 112 122 doi:10.1111/j.1099-0860.2008.00198.x [Crossref]
28. Husserl E. Findlay J. N. Logical investigations 1900/1970 London, UK Routledge and Kegan Paul [Logische Untersuchungen] [Crossref]
29. Husserl E. Landgrebe L. Churchill J. S. , Ameriks K. Experience and judgment: Investigations in the geneology of logic 1973 London, UK Routledge and Kegan Paul
30. Kaspiew R. , Gray M. , Weston R. , Moloney L. , Hand K. , Qu L. , & the Family Law Evaluation Team Evaluation of the 2006 family law reforms 2009 Melbourne, Australia Australian Institute of Family Studies
31. Kelly J. B. , Emery R. E. "Children’s adjustment following divorce: Risk and resilience perspectives" Family Relations 2003 Vol 52 352 362 [Crossref]
32. Kurki-Suonio K. "Joint custody as an interpretation of the best interests of the child in critical and comparative perspective" International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family 2000 Vol 14 183 205 [Crossref]
33. Langdridge D. "‘The child’s relation with others’ Merleau-Ponty, embodiment and psychotherapy" Existential Analysis 2005 Vol 16 1 87 99
34. Lee I. , Koro-Ljungberg M. "A phenomenological study of Korean students’ acculturation in middle schools in the usa " Journal of research in international education 2007 Vol 6 1 95 117 [Crossref]
35. Lodge J. , Alexander M. Views of adolescents in separated families: A study of adolescents’ experiences after the 2006 reforms to the family law system 2011 Melbourne, Australia Australian Institute of Family Studies
36. Luepnitz D. A. Child custody: A study of families after divorce 1982 Lexington, MA Lexington Books
37. McIntosh J. E. Multiple loss: A phenomenolgical study of attachment and its felt absence in fostered children 1997 (Unpublished PhD). University of Melbourne, Melbourne, vic
38. McIntosh J. E. "Legislating for shared parenting: Exploring some underlying assumptions" Family Court Review 2009 Vol 47 3 20 July 2009 [Crossref]
39. McIntosh J. E. "Guest Editor’s Introduction to special issue on attachment theory, separation, and divorce: Forging coherent understandings for family law" Family Court Review 2011 Vol 49 3 418 425 doi:10.1111/j.1744-1617.2011.01382.x [Crossref]
40. McIntosh J. E. , Chisholm R. "Cautionary notes on the shared care of children in conflicted parental separation" Journal of Family Studies 2008 Vol 14 1 37 52 [Crossref]
41. McIntosh J. E. , Smyth B. Kuehnle K. , Drozd L. "Shared-time parenting: An evidence-based matrix for evaluating risk" Parenting plan evaluations: Applied research for the Family Court 2011 Oxford, UK Oxford University Press 155 187
42. McIntosh J. E. , Smyth B. M. , Kelaher M. , Wells Y. , Long C. Post-separation parenting arrangements and developmental outcomes for infants and children: Collected reports 2010 Canberra Australian Government Attorney General’s Department
43. McIntosh J. E. , Smyth B. M. , Kelaher M. , Wells Y. , Long C. "Post-separation parenting arrangements: Patterns and developmental outcomes: Studies of two risk groups" Family Matters 2011 Vol 86 40 48
44. Merleau- Ponty M. Cobb W. Edie J. "“The child’s relation with others" The Primacy of perception 1964 Evanston, Il Northwestern University Press 96 158
45. Melli M. S. , Brown P. R. "Exploring A new family form—the shared time family" International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family 2008 Vol 22 2 231 269 doi:10.1093/lawfam/ebn002 [Crossref]
46. Miller S. "Hearing from children who have diabetes" Journal of child health care 1999 Vol 3 1 5 12 [Crossref]
47. Moustakas C. Phenomenological research methods 1994 Thousand Oaks, CA Sage Publications
48. Neoh J. , Mellor "Shared parenting: Adding children’s voices and their measures of adjustment to the evaluation" Journal of child custody 2010 Vol 7 3 155 175 doi:10.1080/15379418.2010.512230 [Crossref]
49. Polkinghorne D. E. Valle R. S. , Steen H. "Phenomenological research methods" Existential-phenomenological perspectives in psychology: Exploring the breadth of human experience 1989 First ed New York Plenum Press 41 62 [Crossref]
50. Rhoades H. "The dangers of shared care legislation: Why Australia needs (yet more) family law reform" Federal Law Review 2008 Vol 36 3 279 299 Retrieved from
51. Rhoades H. , Boyd S. B. "Reforming custody laws: A comparative study" International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family 2004 Vol 18 2 119 146 doi:10.1093/lawfam/18.2.119 [Crossref]
52. Ryba T. V. "Researching children in sport: Methodological reflections" Journal of applied sport psychology 2008 Vol 20 334 348 [Crossref]
53. Sadowski , McIntosh "On laughter and loss: Children’s perspectives of parenting behaviors that enable security in shared-time parenting arrangements" Childhood 2015 Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/0907568215570072
54. Sages R. , Szybek P. "A phenomenological study of students’ knowledge of biology in a Swedish comprehensive school" Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 2000 Vol 31 2 155 187 [Crossref]
55. Smart C. "From children’s shoes to children’s voices" Family Court Review 2002 Vol 40 3 307 319 Retrieved from [Crossref]
56. Smart C. "Equal shares: Rights for fathers or recognition for children?" Critical Social Policy 2004 Vol 24 484 503 [Crossref]
57. Smart C. , Neale B. , Wade A. The changing experience of childhood: Families and divorce 2001 Cambridge, UK Polity Press
58. Smyth B. M. "A 5-year retrospective of post-separation shared care research in Australia" Journal of Family Studies 2009 Vol 15 1 36 59 [Crossref]
59. Sokolowski R. Introduction to phenomenology 2000 Cambridge, UK Cambridge University Press
60. St Luke’s Innovative Resources "The Bears" 2005 New edition available at . Original Bear Cards available at
61. Steinman S. B. "The experience of children in a joint-custody arrangement: A report of a study" American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 1981 Vol 31 3 403 414 [Crossref]
62. Steinman S. B. "Joint custody: What we know, what we have yet to learn and the judicial and legislative implications" University of California-Davis Law Review 1983 Vol 16 739 762
63. Trinder L. Bainham A. , Lindley B. , Richards M. , Trinder L. "Introduction" Children and their families: Contact, rights and welfare 2003 Oxford and Portland, Oregon Hart Publishing 1 14
64. Trinder L. Bainham A. , Lindley B. , Richards M. , Trinder L. "Introduction" Children and their families: Contact, rights and welfare 2003 Oxford, UK and Portland, OR Hart Publishing 1 14
65. Trinder L. "Shared residence: A review of recent research evidence" Child and Family Law Quarterly 2010 Vol 22 4 475 498
66. van Krieken R. "The ‘best interests of the child’ and parental separation: On the ‘civilising of parents’" Modern Law Review 2005 Vol 68 1 25 48 [Crossref]
67. Welsh T. The child as natural phenomenologist: Primal and primary experience in Merleau-Ponty’s Psychology 2013 Chicago Northwestern University Press
68. Weston R. , Qu L. , Gray M. , DeMaio J. , Kaspiew R. , Moloney L. , Hand K. "Shared care time: An increasingly common arrangement?" Family Matters 2011 Vol 88 51 56
69. Zukauskas P. R. , Silton N. , Assumpcao F. B. "Temporality and Asperger’s Syndrome" Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 2009 Vol 40 1 85 106 [Crossref]

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Journal of Phenomenological Psychology — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation