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The American Civil War Considered as a Bourgeois Revolution

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[AbstractThe discussion of the American Civil War as a bourgeois revolution, reopened by John Ashworth’s recent work, needs to be based on a more explicit conceptualisation of what the category does, and does not, involve. This essay offers one such conceptualisation. It then deals with two key issues raised by the process of bourgeois revolution in the United States: the relationship between the War of Independence and the Civil War, and whether the nature of the South made conflict unavoidable. It then argues that the American Revolution is unique for two reasons: the non-feudal nature of Southern society and the fact that the Northern industrial bourgeoisie, unlike their European contemporaries, were still prepared to behave in a revolutionary way., Abstract The discussion of the American Civil War as a bourgeois revolution, reopened by John Ashworth’s recent work, needs to be based on a more explicit conceptualisation of what the category does, and does not, involve. This essay offers one such conceptualisation. It then deals with two key issues raised by the process of bourgeois revolution in the United States: the relationship between the War of Independence and the Civil War, and whether the nature of the South made conflict unavoidable. It then argues that the American Revolution is unique for two reasons: the non-feudal nature of Southern society and the fact that the Northern industrial bourgeoisie, unlike their European contemporaries, were still prepared to behave in a revolutionary way.]

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111. FN11. The major exceptions are Schlüter 1965, Du Bois 1969 and Mandel 2007.
112. FN22. Genovese 1972b; Foner 1988.
113. FN33. See, for example, Williams 2005, p. 12.
114. FN44. Novick 1988, pp. 95–6, 155.
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123. FN1313. Ashworth 2007, p. 647.
124. FN1414. Runkle 1964, pp. 138–41.
125. FN1515. A third letter from the IWMA, ‘To the People of the United States’, emphasising the need for blacks to be granted full equality, was not written by Marx but by one of the International’s trade-unionist leaders, William Cremer. See Anderson 2010, pp. 193–4.
126. FN1616. Cairnes 1862; Olmstead 1862.
127. FN1717. Anderson 1992a, p. 106; Fernbach 1973, pp. 31–2; Genovese 1972b, pp. 321–35.
128. FN1818. Marx 1976, p. 90.
129. FN1919. Marx and Engels 1973, p. 69, n. 15; Engels 1990, pp. 302–3.
130. FN2020. See, for example, in relation to the Meiji Restoration, Hobsbawm 1975, p. 151, and Soboul 1977, pp. 167–8.
131. FN2121. Eley 1984, p. 85.
132. FN2222. Abbott 2001, p. 250.
133. FN2323. Callinicos 1982, p. 110.
134. FN2424. See, for example, Lenin 1962, pp. 75–6.
135. FN2525. Lenin 1977, pp. 110–11.
136. FN2626. Acemoglu and Robinson 2000, pp. 1182–6; Therborn 1977, pp. 4, 17.
137. FN2727. Ste Croix 1981, p. 52.
138. FN2828. Banaji 1977, pp. 4–5, 30–1; Marx 1973b, p. 463. See also the useful summary of Banaji’s position in Bakan 1987, pp. 75–7.
139. FN2929. Callinicos 1989, pp. 124–7; Davidson 2005, pp. 27–32; Stedman Jones 1977, p. 86. For a recent, tentative acceptance of this position by a non-Marxist, see Beik 2010, p. 122.
140. FN3030. Marx and Engels 1973, p. 67.
141. FN3131. Ste Croix 1981, p. 66.
142. FN3232. Marx and Engels 1973, p. 68.
143. FN3333. The bourgeoisie were included in an earlier version of this list. See Marx and Engels 1976a, p. 432.
144. FN3434. Katz 1989, p. 181.
145. FN3535. Mann 1993, p. 229. See also Goldmann 1964, p. 117.
146. FN3636. Draper 1978, p. 169.
147. FN3737. Draper 1978, p. 289.
148. FN3838. Anderson 1992a, p. 112.
149. FN3939. Stedman Jones 1977, p. 87.
150. FN4040. Anderson 1974, p. 431; Anderson 1992a, pp. 110–11; Callinicos 1989, pp. 136–59; Davidson 2003, pp. 9–15.
151. FN4141. Davidson 2010, pp. 345–6. For a detailed account, see Davidson 2003, pp. 73–285.
152. FN4242. Garfield 1881, p. 161.
153. FN4343. Davis 1986, p. 12.
154. FN4444. Redpath 1859, pp. 300–1.
155. FN4545. Clemenceau 1928, p. 226.
156. FN4646. Anderson 1992b, pp. 155–6. See also, specifically in relation to the US, Callinicos 1989, pp. 153–4.
157. FN4747. See, for example, Panitch 2001, pp. 21, 40.
158. FN4848. See, for example, Wood 1992, pp. 175–6.
159. FN4949. See, for example, Stedman Jones 1970, pp. 63–5.
160. FN5050. See, for example, The Economist 1989.
161. FN5151. Independent Chronicle, 5 September 1776, quoted in Douglass 1955, p. 153.
162. FN5252. Adams 1851, pp. 454–5, 464.
163. FN5353. Berthoff and Murrin 1973, pp. 261–86; Byres 1996, pp. 165–86.
164. FN5454. Draper 1978, pp. 17–21.
165. FN5555. Volume 2 of Beard and Beard 1935, p. 54.
166. FN5656. Merrill 1990, pp. 481–93.
167. FN5757. McDonald 1979, p. 3.
168. FN5858. Drayton 1836, pp. 179, 180, 181.
169. FN5959. Macon Telegraph, 8 November 1860, as quoted in Johnson 1977, p. 46.
170. FN6060. The Congressional Globe 1862.
171. FN6161. Marx 1975, p. 340; Marx 1973a, pp. 192–3.
172. FN6262. Marx 1973c, p. 351.
173. FN6363. Blackburn 1988, pp. 9, 383–4; Finley 1983, pp. 11, 80–1.
174. FN6464. Marx 1973b, p. 224.
175. FN6565. Marx 1973b, p. 513.
176. FN6666. Roediger 1994, p. 49.
177. FN6767. Marx 1976, p. 878.
178. FN6868. Kolchin 1993, p. 6.
179. FN6969. Blackburn 1997, p. 374.
180. FN7070. Banaji 1977, pp. 15–7.
181. FN7171. Hook 1999, pp. 103–10, 193–201.
182. FN7272. McPherson 1997, p. 27.
183. FN7373. Fox-Genovese and Genovese 1983, pp. 39–40.
184. FN7474. Kolchin 1993, p. 190.
185. FN7575. Lenin 1963, p. 128.
186. FN7676. Byres 1996, pp. 27–8.
187. FN7777. Hobsbawm 1975, p. 188.
188. FN7878. Blum 1978, pp. 362, 370; Byres 1996, pp. 105–8.
189. FN7979. Kolchin 1993, pp. 99–105.
190. FN8080. Fox-Genovese and Genovese 1983, p. 263.
191. FN8181. Allen 1997, p. 249.
192. FN8282. Bowman 1980, pp. 783, 785–6, 795, 806–7.
193. FN8383. Tchakerian 1994, pp. 519–20.
194. FN8484. Kolchin 1993, p. 153.
195. FN8585. Bakan 1987, pp. 86–91; Wright 1987, pp. 865–73.
196. FN8686. Turley 1996, pp. 187–9.
197. FN8787. Blackburn 1997, pp. 492–3.
198. FN8888. Russell 1863, p. 179.
199. FN8989. Ransom and Sutch 1988, pp. 138–9.
200. FN9090. Brown 1859, pp. 594–5.
201. FN9191. Fogel 1989, pp. 414–15.
202. FN9292. Wright 1987, p. 863.
203. FN9393. Lenin 1964, p. 59.
204. FN9494. Trotsky 1977, p. 223.
205. FN9595. Dawson 2003, p. 115.
206. FN9696. Engels 1995, p. 364.
207. FN9797. Marx 1995, p. 277.
208. FN9898. Probably the most balanced assessment of Lincoln by either man can be found in Marx 1984, pp. 249–51.
209. FN9999. Schurz 1913, p. 354.
210. FN100100. See, for example, Foner 1988 (‘unfinished revolution’) and Camejo 1976, pp. 169–87 (‘Republican betrayal’).
211. FN101101. McPherson 1995, pp. 430–1.
212. FN102102. Lowe 1996, pp. 27–8.
213. FN103103. Volume 2 of Beard and Beard 1935, p. 115.
214. FN104104. McPherson 1988, p. 861.
215. FN105105. See Davidson 2003, pp. 272–5.
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2011-01-01
2015-07-04

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