Althusser Louis "‘A Letter on Art in Reply to André Daspre’" Althusser 1971a
Althusser Louis "‘Cremonini, Painter of the Abstract’" Althusser 1971b
Althusser Louis Brewster Ben Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays 1971c New York Monthly Review Press
Anderson Benedict Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism 2006  Revised Edition London Verso
Aricó José Mariátegui y los orígenes del marxismo latinoamericano 1978 Mexico City Siglo XXI Editores
Burbach Roger , Orlando Núñez Soto Fire in the Americas: Forging a Revolutionary Agenda 1987 London Verso
Craven David The New Concept of Art and Popular Culture in Nicaragua since the Revolution in 1979: An Analytical Essay and Compendium of Illustrations 1989 New York Edwin Mellen Press of New York
Craven David Art and Revolution in Latin America, 1910–1910 2002 First Edition New Haven Yale University Press
Craven David Art and Revolution in Latin America, 1910–1910 2006 Second Edition New Haven Yale University Press
Craven David "‘Dora Longo Bahia and the Post-Medium Situation in Brazil’" 2008
Craven David , Ryder John Art of the New Nicaragua 1983 New York New York Council for the Humanities
Craven David , Winkenweder Brian Dialectical Conversions: Donald Kuspit’s Art Criticism 2010 Liverpool Liverpool University Press
Cruz Maricela La polémica Siqueiros-Rivera: Planteamientos estético-políticos, 1934–1935 1996 Mexico City Museo Dolores Olmedo Patiño
Eder Rita "‘El Público de Arte en México: Los Espectadores de la Exposición Hammer’" Plural 1977 Vol 4 70 12 23
Eder Rita El Sueño Y Los Fragmentos 1993 Mexico City Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Unidad Xochimilco
Eder Rita El arte en México: autores, temas, problemas 2001 Mexico City Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes
Eder Rita Pintores de Oaxaca 2005 Mexico City Fomento Cultural Banamex
Eder Rita , Acha Juan , Laeur Mirko Teoría Social Del Arte: Bibliografía Comentada 1986 Mexico City Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Investigaciones Estéticas
Engels Frederick Baxandall Lee , Morawski Stefan "‘Letter to Minna Kautsky, November 26, 1885’" Karl Marx and Frederick Engels on Literature and Art 1974  New York International General
Fornet-Betancourt Raúl Estudios de Filosofía Latinoamericana 1992 Mexico City Universidad Nacional Autonómia Mexico
Fornet-Betancourt Raúl Hacia una filosofía intercultural latinoamericana 1994 San José Editorial Departamento Ecuménico de Investigaciones
Fornet-Betancourt Raúl Quo vadis, Philosophie?: Antworten der Philosophen: Dokumentation einer Weltumfrage 1999 Aachen Wissenschaftsverlag Mainz
Fornet-Betancourt Raúl Neue Kolonialismen in den Nord-Süd-Beziehungen 2005 Frankfurt IKO, Verlag für Interkulturelle Kommunikation
Fornet-Betancourt Raúl Culturas del saber y su encuentro en el diálogo norte-sur 2008 Frankfurt IKO, Verlag für Interkulturelle Kommunikation
Gombrich Ernst Art and Illusion: A Study in the Psychology of Pictorial Representation 1960 London Phaidon
Hadjinicolaou Nicos Asmal Louise Art History and Class Struggle 1973 London Pluto Press
Híjar Alberto "‘El otro marxismo’" Pensares Quehaceres 2005 Vol 2 181 190
Hodges Donald The Intellectual Foundations of the Nicaraguan Revolution 1986 Austin University of Texas Press
Hodges Donald Mexican Anarchism after the Revolution 1995 Austin University of Texas
Hoyt Katherine The Many Faces of Sandinista Democracy 1997 Athens, OH. Ohio University Center for International Studies
Hodges Donald "‘Parties and Pacts in Contemporary Nicaragua’" Undoing Democracy: The Politics of Electoral Caudillismo 2004 Lanham Lexington Books
Jörgensen Beth E. The Writings of Elena Poniatowska: Engaging Dialogues 1994 Austin University of Texas Press
Mariátegui José Carlos Etapas de su vida 1959 Lima Empresa Editora Amauta
Mariátegui José Carlos El artista y la época 1970 Lima Empresa Editora Amauta
Mariátegui José Carlos Siete ensayos de interpretación de la realidad peruana 1971 Austin University of Texas Press
Mariátegui José Carlos Defensa del marxismo: polémica revolucionaria 1985 Lima Empresa Editora Amauta
Mariátegui José Carlos Ideología y política 2006 Caracas Ministerio de Comunicación e Información
Mariátegui José Carlos Vanden Harry E. , Becker Marc José Carlos Mariátegui: An Anthology 2011 New York Monthly Review Press
Marx Karl Livingstone Rodney , Benton Gregor "‘Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts’" Early Writings 1975  Harmondsworth Penguin
Miranda Nelly Teoría sociológica contemporánea 1994a Managua Editorial UCA
Miranda Nelly "‘El sistema sexo-género con dominación masculina: análisis de la situación de la mujer nicaragüense’" Programa Interdisciplinario de Estudios de Género 1994b Managua Universidad Centroamericana
Miranda Nelly Mitos y Paradojas Sobre Sociedad Civil 2002 Managua Centro de Derechos Constitucionales
Mitchell William J. Thomas Iconology: Image, Text, Ideology 1986 Chicago University of Chicago Press
Mosquera Gerardo Caminar con el Diablo. Textos sobre arte, internacionalismo y culturas 2010 Madrid Exit Publicaciones
Orozco Leticia López Escenas de la Independencia y la Revolución en el Muralismo Mexicano 2010 Mexico City Asamblea Legislativa del Distrito Federal
Panofsky Erwin Studies in Iconology: Humanist Themes in the Art of the Renaissance 1972  New York Harper and Row
Payeras Mario Paniagua Lita Black George Days of the Jungle: The Testimony of a Guatemalan Guerrillero, 1972–1976 1983 New York Monthly Review Press
Payeras Mario Los días de la selva 1985 San José Editorial Universitaria Centroamericana
Payeras Mario El trueno en la ciudad: episodios de la lucha armada urbana de 1981 en Guatemala 1987 Mexico City Juan Pablos Editor
Payeras Mario Asedio a la utopía: ensayos políticos, 1989–1994 1996 Guatemala City Magna Terra
Poniatowska Elena La noche de Tlatelolco 1971 Mexico City Ediciones Era
Poniatowska Elena Massacre in Mexico 1975 New York Viking Press
Randall Margaret , Yanz Lynda Sandino’s Daughters: Testimonies of Nicaraguan Women in Struggle 1995 Piscataway Rutgers University Press
Rose Margaret Marx’s Lost Aesthetic: Karl Marx and the Visual Arts 1984 Cambridge Cambridge University Press
Soto Orlando Núñez Transición y lucha de clases en Nicaragua 1979–1986 1987 Mexico City Siglo XXI Editores
Tibol Raquel Siqueiros, introductor de realidades 1966 Mexico City Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Tibol Raquel Textos de Rufino Tamayo: Recopilación, prólogo y selección veňelas 1987 Mexico City Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Tibol Raquel Albuquerque Elinor Randell Frida Kahlo: An Open Life 1993  University of New Mexico Press
Tibol Raquel Dechant Gregory Frida by Frida: Selection of Letters and Texts 2006 Mexico City Editorial RM
Tibol Raquel Jose Clemente Orozco: Una Vida Para El Arte. Breve Historia Documental 2010 Mexico City Fondo De Cultura Económica.
Tibol Raquel Textos de David Alfaro Siqueiros 1974 Mexico City Fondo de Cultura Económica
Traba Marta El museo vacío: un ensayo sobre el arte moderno 1958
Traba Marta La pintura nueva en Latinoamérica 1961 Bogotá Ediciones Librería Central
Traba Marta Dos décadas vulnerables en las artes plásticas latinoamericanas, 1950–1970 1973 Mexico City Siglo XXI Editores
Traba Marta Conversación al sur 1981 Mexico City Siglo XXI Editores
Traba Marta Labanyi Jo Mothers and Shadows 1986  Columbia Readers International
Traba Marta Arte de América Latina 1900–1980 1994 Washington, DC. Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo
Vázquez Adolfo Sánchez Las Ideas Estéticas de Marx 1965 Mexico City Ediciones Era
Vázquez Adolfo Sánchez Riofrancos Maro Art and Society: Essays in Marxist Aesthetics 1973  New York Monthly Review Press
Vázquez Adolfo Sánchez "‘La pintura como lenguaje’" Nicaráuac 1984 Vol 10 115 125
Vázquez Adolfo Sánchez "‘El marxismo en la America Latina’" Casa de las Américas 1990 Vol 30 178 3 14
Vázquez Adolfo Sánchez De Marx al marxismo en América Latina 1999 Mexico City Itaca-BUAP
Yera Luis Marcelo En busca del paradigma perdido de Marx y Engels 2004 Havana Editorial de Ciencias Sociales
Yera Luis Marcelo Repensando la economía socialista: el quinto tipo de propiedad 2010 Havana Editorial de Ciencias Sociales
FN0 * David Craven was a Marxist art historian I deeply admired. When I suggested to him in 2010 to do an interview for Historical Materialism, partly motivated by my desire to get to know more about his extraordinary work, I never imagined that the interview would appear posthumously. At the time of David’s death, the interview required editing by someone with greater expertise in the subject than myself. I am immensely grateful to art historian and Historical MaterialismEditor Steve Edwards for his commitment to this and for ensuring that the interview would reach the public.
FN1 1.See Craven and Winkenweder (eds.) 2010.
FN2 2.Craven and Ryder 1983; Craven 1989; Craven 2002; Craven 2006.
FN3 3.José Carlos Mariátegui (c.1895–1930) was a Peruvian intellectual and labour organiser who edited the journal Amauta(September 1926 to 1930); in 1928 he wrote the brilliant text Siete ensayos de interpretación de la realidad peruana(Mariátegui 1971). The same year he founded the Communist Party of Peru, then called the Socialist Party. His other books include Mariátegui 1959, 1970, 1985, 2006 and 2011.
FN4 4.[David Craven’s note] Indigensimomeans at least three different things – however much current US art historians assume that this ‘movement’ was a unitary phenomenon. First, there was the Vasconcelos position that indigenismoinvolved ‘essential’ Native-American values now antiquated because of a necessarily new ‘mestizaje’ that absorbed and ‘improved’ these ‘essential Indian’ values from the past. Second, there was a so-called official indigenismothat believed in a ‘return to roots’ of the indigeneous past, as if there still were a ‘pure’ culture, genetically based, that could be unproblematically ‘reclaimed’ – as if this pure past were somehow unsullied with European cultural mixtures from the colonial past or neocolonial present. Third, there was the position of Mariátegui, among others, that indigenismoentailed a critical reclamation of some key things from the pre-colonial past – none of them ‘pure’ – plus an embrace of other things from the modern era in an internationally progressive mixture hitherto unknown historically. José Vasconcelos Calderón (1882–1959) was a Mexican writer and politician who is often seen as the founder of indigenismo; Gamio (1883–1960) was a Mexican anthropologist and social scientist who played a prominent role in the indigenismomovement.
FN5 5.On this, see Craven 2001.
FN7 7.Mosquera is a Cuban art critic and curator. Between 1995 and 2009 he was curator at the New Museum of Contemporary Art, New York. A collection of his essays is available in Spanish (see Mosquera 2010). Craven sometimes acted as his translator.
FN8 8.A very brief bibliography would include the following: Aricó 1978; Fornet-Betancourt 1992; Fornet-Betancourt 1994; Fornet-Betancourt 1999; Fornet-Betancourt 2005; Fornet-Betancourt 2008; Burbach and Soto 1987; Híjar 2005; Hodges 1986; Hodges 1995; Payeras 1983; Payeras 1985; Payeras 1987; Payeras 1996; Soto 1987; Vázquez 1990; Vázquez 1999; Yera 2004 and Yera 2010.
FN10 10.Luis Emilio Recabarren (1876–1924) began work as a typographer and was active in the Socialist Party, before his involvement in the foundation of the Communist Party of Argentina. He played a central role in taking the Chilean Socialist Party into the Third International and was the only Chilean delegate to the Fourth Congress of the Comintern. Under fire from the International and the Chilean Central Committee as a rightist, he committed suicide.
FN11 11.Works by Marta Traba include: Traba 1958, 1961, 1973 and 1994. A novel, Conversación al sur(Traba 1981), has appeared in English as Mothers and Shadows(Traba 1986).
FN12 12.Raquel Tibol has written works on, and edited important collections relating to, Frida Kahlo and the Mexican Muralists: see Tibol 1966; Tibol (ed.) 1974; Tibol 1987, Tibol 1993; Tibol 2006; Tibol 2010.
FN13 13.Rita Eder is the author of many exhibition-catalogue essays, see Eder 1993 and 2005. Her books include Eder 2001 and Eder, Acha and Laeur 1986. See also the essay Eder 1977. For Leticia López Orozco, see Orozco 2010 and her many essays in the journal she edits: Crónicas. El Muralismo, Producto de la Revolución Mexicana, en América(available at < http://www.revistas.unam.mx/index.php/cronicas/issue/archive>); for Maricela Cruz, see Cruz 1996.
FN14 14.She is the author of numerous works including La noche de Tlatelolco(Poniatowska 1971), published in English as Massacre in Mexico(Poniatowska 1975). See also Jörgensen 1994. It should be noted that she has publicly distanced herself from Hugo Chávez and the Venezuelan Revolution.
FN15 15.Miranda 1994a, 1994b and 2002.
FN16 16.Hoyt 1997 and 2004.
FN17 17.See Randall and Yanz 1995.
FN18 18.Dora María Téllez, a Nicaraguan historian and Sandinista commander.
FN19 19.Dolores Jiménez y Muro (1848–1925) was a Mexican schoolteacher and revolutionary; a prominent Zapatista and opponent of President Díaz, she supported economic and land reforms and campaigned for women’s economic rights. Sara Estela Ramírez (1881–1910) was a teacher, poet and journalist and member of the Partido Liberal Mexicano. Her popular poem Rise Up!advocated a new place for women in Mexican politics. Juana Belén Gutiérrez de Mendoza (1875–1942) was an anarcho-syndicalist poet and activist. She co-founded the weekly Vésperin 1901, as well as translating many of the works of Bakunin, Kropotkin and Proudhon into Spanish. She was repeatedly jailed and forced into exile for her attacks on the Porfirio Díaz government. Associated with Zapata during the revolution, she took part in the writing of the Plan de Alaya agrarian reform and helped establish an experimental farm collective. She later became a hospital director and schools inspector as well as continuing her journalism. Elisa Acuña y Rosete (1875–1946) was a teacher and journalist. A co-founder of Vésper, she collaborated with Juana Belén Gutiérrez in editing the socialist newspaper Fiat Luxduring their period of imprisonment and exile. Part of the leadership of the Partido Liberal Mexicano, in 1908 she helped found Socialismo Mexicanoand in 1914 joined the Zapatistas. She later worked for the Consejo Feminista Mexicano and the Liga Panamericana de Mujeres.
FN21 21.[David Craven’s note] In a letter (26 November 1885) to a well-intentioned ‘social-realist’ author of the period (Minna Kautsky), Friedrich Engels gave some brilliant advice on negotiating the difference between engagéart and art that merely serves up the pieties of propaganda. In stating the case for art that ‘causes doubt about the eternal validity of the existing order’, Engels wrote: ‘Evidently you felt the need in this book to declare publicly for your party, to bear witness before the whole world and to demonstrate your convictions. Now you have done this; you have it behind you and have no need to do so again in this form . . . [but] the writer is not obliged to offer the reader the future historical resolution of the social conflicts he depicts.’ (Engels 1974, p. 114.)
FN22 22.Erwin Panofsky (1892–1968) was an influential German art historian. His works include Panofsky 1972.
FN23 23.See Hadjinicolaou 1973.
FN24 24.Vázquez 1984. Las Ideas Estéticas de Marxhas been published in English as Vázquez 1973.
FN25 25.Sir Ernst Gombrich (1909–2001) was an Austrian-born art historian who spent most of his working life in London. The book at issue here is Gombrich 1960.
FN26 26.Mitchell 1986.
FN27 27.See Vázquez 1984.
FN28 28.[David Craven’s note] For an analysis of how ‘abstract art’ was definitely engagéat times during the Nicaraguan Revolution, see Craven 2006, pp. 149–53.
FN29 29.[David Craven’s note] See Althusser 1971c. There are two brief essays on art – one about the painter Cremonini (Althusser 1971b) and the other a polemical response to André Daspre (Althusser 1971a) – in this key anthology that insist on the ‘relative autonomy of art’. See the completely opposite position that was taken in Hadjinicolaou 1973 and especially in Chapter 8: ‘Style as Ideology’. There style equals class-ideology without any sense of individual agency or relative autonomy being remotely evident in the artistic process. In this sense and perhaps others, Hadjinicolaou departs from an Althusserian approach to art history and to ideological critique.
FN30 30.Regina Galindo is an internationally acclaimed performance artist working with her own body and the thematic of state violence.
FN31 31.Gustavo Larach was a PhD student under Craven and acted as curator of the Third Honduran Biennial of Visual Art in 2010.
FN32 32.Dora Longo Bahia is a Brazilian multi-media artist who has worked in painting, video, performance, set-design and engraving, often focusing on urban violence.
FN33 33.For an account of ‘Marcelo do Campo’ and his relation to Dora Longo Bahia, see Craven 2008.
FN34 34.Anderson 2006.