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Zionism: The Real Enemy of the Jews, Volume 1: The False Messiah, Alan Hart, Atlanta: Clarity Press, 2009; Zionism: The Real Enemy of the Jews, Volume 2: David Becomes Goliath, Alan Hart, Atlanta: Clarity Press, 2009; Zionism: The Real Enemy of the Jews, Volume 3: Conflict Without End, Alan Hart, Atlanta: Clarity Press, 2010

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Abstract This review-essay looks at a recent trilogy of works on Israeli history, the political history of the relationship between the United States and Israel, and the effect of the Israel lobby on the relationship between the two states. While the books attempt to construct a narrative that essentially blame the lobby for close to one hundred years of American malfeasance in the Middle East, they falter due to their idealism, their weak grasp of regional political economy and American capital accumulation, and their conspiracism. Instead, this review proposes a reinterpretation of regional political economy, materially grounding the lobby and the Special Relationship while situating the two within the patterns of accumulation pushed by Jonathan Nitzan and Shimshon Bichler’s ‘weapondollar-petrodollar coalition’, the main determinant of American foreign policy in the Middle East.

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5. Bahour Sam "‘Economic Prison Zones’" MERIP 2010 19 November, available at: < >.
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24. Hart Alan Zionism: The Real Enemy of the Jews, Volume 1: The False Messiah 2009a Atlanta Clarity Press
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61. FN1 1. Mearsheimer and Walt 2006 and 2007.
62. FN2 2. Plitnick and Toensing 2007; Neumann 2008.
63. FN3 3. Anderson 2007, p. 15.
64. FN4 4. The most circulated critiques were Chomsky 2006, Massad 2006 and Zunes 2006. The very best, Ash 2006, was ignored. Note that according to Mearsheimer and Walt, they ‘use “Israel lobby” as a convenient shorthand term for the loose coalition of individuals and organizations that actively work to shape U.S. foreign policy in a pro-Israel direction’. They write on the same page, ‘Pro-Israel forces surely believe that they are promoting policies that serve the American as well as the Israeli national interest. We disagree. Most of the policies they advocate are not in America’s or Israel’s interest, and both countries would be better off if the United States adopted a different approach’ (Mearsheimer and Walt 2007, p. 112). Who exactly these policies serve is left up to the reader to ponder.
65. FN5 5. The theoretical architecture was dismantled in Gowan 2002.
66. FN6 6. Hanieh 2010.
67. FN7 7. Obtusely missed by those myopically focusing on the uniqueness of this arrangement is that the remaining 75 per cent goes straight to American corporations.
68. FN8 8. Feinstein 2011; Fayazmanesh 2003, pp. 230–1.
69. FN9 9. Ash 2006.
70. FN10 10. Ibid.
71. FN11 11. Petras 2006, 2007, 2008; Sniegoski 2008.
72. FN12 12. Machover 2006, pp. 26–8.
73. FN13 13. Wood 2005, p. 159.
74. FN14 14. Although even then focusing on states rather than flows leads one to miss the absolutely crucial petrodollar recycling, for example; Spiro 1999.
75. FN15 15. Hanieh 2011.
76. FN16 16. Cited as Hart 2009a.
77. FN17 17. Cited as Hart 2009b.
78. FN18 18. Cited as Hart 2010.
79. FN19 19. Hart 2009a, p. 146.
80. FN20 20. Hart 2009a, p. 181.
81. FN21 21. Hart 2009b, p. 244.
82. FN22 22. Hart 2009b, p. 248.
83. FN23 23. Hart 2009a, p. 67; Hart 2009b, p. 235.
84. FN24 24. Hart 2009a, p. 134.
85. FN25 25. Hart 2009a, p. 135.
86. FN26 26. Cited in Matthew 2011, p. 32.
87. FN27 27. Cited in Karp 1979, p. 189.
88. FN28 28. Karp 1979, p. 190.
89. FN29 29. Hart 2009a, p. 133.
90. FN30 30. Rodinson 1983.
91. FN31 31. Laor 2010, p. xvii.
92. FN32 32. Hart 2010, p. 109.
93. FN33 33. Finkelstein 2003, p. 145 and passim.
94. FN34 34. Hart 2010, p. 187.
95. FN35 35. Wolfe-Hunnicutt 2011, p. 204.
96. FN36 36. Hart 2010, p. 190.
97. FN37 37. Hart 2010, p. 223.
98. FN38 38. Ibid.
99. FN39 39. Hart 2010, p. 218.
100. FN40 40. Hart 2010, p. 243.
101. FN41 41. Mitchell 2011, p. 44.
102. FN42 42. Quoted in Vitalis 2009, p. 164.
103. FN43 43. Vitalis 2009.
104. FN44 44. Blair 1976, p. 81.
105. FN45 45. Engdahl 1992, pp. 169–73, 238–9.
106. FN46 46. Elliot (ed.) 1955, p. 42
107. FN47 47. Mitchell 2011, p. 38.
108. FN48 48. Nitzan and Bichler 2002, p. 224.
109. FN49 49. Rowley, Bichler and Nitzan 1989.
110. FN50 50. Gendzier 2011.
111. FN51 51. Mitchell 2011, pp. 158–9.
112. FN52 52. Kuburi and Mansur 1994.
113. FN53 53. Spiro 1999, p. x.
114. FN54 54. Nitzan and Bichler 2002, p. 244. Much of what follows tracks their analysis.
115. FN55 55. Hart 2010, p. 257.
116. FN56 56. Nitzan and Bichler 2002, pp. 246–7.
117. FN57 57. Quandt 2001, p. 104.
118. FN58 58. Feiler 2003, pp. 164, 183.
119. FN59 59. Nitzan and Bichler 2009.
120. FN60 60. Cockburn and Cockburn 1991, especially pp. 211–44.
121. FN61 61. Cockburn and Cockburn 1991, p. 292
122. FN62 62. Nitzan and Bichler 2002, pp. 84–136, 274–357.
123. FN63 63. Smith 2009.
124. FN64 64. Ash 2006.
125. FN65 65. Important exceptions in recent years are Hanieh 2008a and 2008b.
126. FN66 66. Nitzan and Bichler 2002, pp. 84ff.
127. FN67 67. Nitzan and Bichler 2002, p. 355.
128. FN68 68. Nitzan and Bichler 2007, p. 5.
129. FN69 69. Finkelstein 2001; Ash 2009.
130. FN70 70. Chomsky 1999, pp. 27ff.
131. FN71 71. Vest 2002.
132. FN72 72. Tellingly, William Quandt registers little impact from the lobby in terms of US rejectionism: Quandt 2001.
133. FN73 73. Gowan 2002.
134. FN74 74. Hanieh 2008b.
135. FN75 75. Hassanien 2010, pp. 92–3.
136. FN76 76. Schott 2004, pp. 58–9.
137. FN77 77. Bahour 2010.
138. FN78 78. Cited in Nitzan and Bichler 2006, p. 23. The above paragraph tracks their argument.
139. FN79 79. Palast 2006.
140. FN80 80. This is the core of the realist argument against war with Iran – that Iran must simply be allowed to make its own path.
141. FN81 81. Lomnitz and Sánchez 2009.
142. FN82 82. Behar 2011 makes the emotional case that the world would simply not care were Israel to amplify its cleansing process amidst an Israeli-American war on Iran, and correctly considers the latter a far more serious prospect than a substantive and minimally just two-state settlement.
143. FN83 83. Nitzan and Bichler 2002, p. 214.
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2012-01-01
2015-07-02

Affiliations: 1: Cornell University Max.Ajl@gmail.com

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