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The Limits of Sociological Marxism?

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AbstractWithin the agenda of historical-materialist theory and practice Sociological Marxism has delivered a compelling perspective on how to explore and link the analysis of civil society, the state, and the economy within an explicit focus on class exploitation, emancipation, and rich ethnography. This article situates a major analysis of state formation, the rise of the Justice and Development Party (AKP), and the growth of a broader Islamist movement in Turkey within the main current of Sociological Marxism. It does so in order to critically examine the rather bold revision of the theory of hegemony at the heart of Cihan Tuğal’s Passive Revolution: Absorbing the Islamic Challenge to Capitalism, which posits the separate interaction of political society, civil society and the state in theorising hegemonic politics in Turkey. My contention is that the revision of hegemony that this analysis offers and its state-theoretical commitments are deeply problematic due to the reliance on what I term ‘ontological exteriority’, meaning the treatment of state, civil society and the economy as always-already separate spheres. The focus of the critique then moves toward highlighting a frustrating lack of direct engagement with Antonio Gramsci’s writings in this disquisition on hegemony and passive revolution, which has important political consequences. While praise for certain aspects of ethnographic and spatial analysis is raised, it is argued that any account of the reordering of hegemony and the restructuring of spatial-temporal contexts of capital accumulation through conditions of passive revolution also needs to draw from a more sophisticated state theory, a direct reading of Gramsci, and broader scalar analysis of spatial relations and uneven development under capitalism.

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76. FN1 1. See Özuğurlu 2011.
77. FN2 2. See also De Leon, Desai and Tuğal 2009.
78. FN3 3. Tuğal 2009, p. 24.
79. FN4 4. Tuğal 2007, pp. 20, 23.
80. FN5 5. Tuğal 2009, pp. 4, 31–2. Note that the Turkish edition carries a slightly different emphasis in its subtitle, see Tuğal 2010.
81. FN6 6. Tuğal 2007, p. 34.
82. FN7 7. Tuğal 2009, p. 33.
83. FN8 8. See Burawoy 2003 and Tuğal 2009, pp. 24–31 and 270, n. 15, emphasis added.
84. FN9 9. Tuğal 2009, p. 262.
85. FN10 10. Tuğal 2009, p. 24.
86. FN11 11. Burawoy 2003, pp. 199–200.
87. FN12 12. Burawoy 2003, p. 198; Tuğal 2009, pp. 24–31.
88. FN13 13. Wright 2005, pp. 5, 30.
89. FN14 14. Burawoy and Wright 2001.
90. FN15 15. Burawoy and Wright 2001, p. 462, n. 9.
91. FN16 16. Burawoy 1998; Burawoy, Blum, George, Gille, Gowan, Haney, Klawiter, Lopez, Riain and Thayer 2000; Burawoy 2009.
92. FN17 17. Burawoy 1998, pp. 5, 14–16; Burawoy 2005, p. 11; Burawoy 2009, pp. 38–44.
93. FN18 18. See Tuğal 2009, pp. 12–13.
94. FN19 19. See Bozdoğan and Akcan 2012, pp. 239–42.
95. FN20 20. Burawoy 2003, p. 211; Burawoy 2012, p. 192.
96. FN21 21. Gramsci 1971, p. 220: Q13§27 (1932–4). It should be noted that I follow a specific convention associated with citing the Prison Notebooks. In addition to giving the reference to the selected anthologies, the notebook number (Q), section (§), and notebook date accompanies all citations, to enable the reader to trace their specific collocation. The concordance table used is that compiled by Marcus Green and is available at the website of the International Gramsci Society, < http://www.internationalgramscisociety.org>.
97. FN22 22. Gramsci 1971, p. 243: Q13§7 (1932–4).
98. FN23 23. Burawoy 2003, pp. 213, 214.
99. FN24 24. Gramsci 2007, p. 213: Q7§83 (1930–2). For more detail on Gramsci’s theorising of political modernity and the origins of capitalism in terms of feudal crisis, agrarian class structures and the rise of specific social property relations, see Morton 2005; Morton 2007, Chapter 3. My Unravelling Gramsci: Hegemony and Passive Revolution in the Global Political Economyhas also been translated into Turkish, see Morton 2011b.
100. FN25 25. Gramsci 2007, p. 187: Q7§35 (1930–2).
101. FN26 26. Gramsci 2007, p. 310: Q8§130 (1931–2).
102. FN27 27. See Cox 1981, pp. 135–8; Cox 1983, pp. 162–9.
103. FN28 28. van der Pijl 1993, pp. 237–40; van der Pijl 1998, pp. 64–83.
104. FN29 29. Gramsci 2007, p. 310: Q8§130 (1931–2).
105. FN30 30. van der Pijl 1998, p. 79.
106. FN31 31. Gramsci 1971, pp. 119–20: Q10I§9 (1932–5).
107. FN32 32. Gramsci 2007, p. 317: Q8§142 (1931–2).
108. FN33 33. Gramsci 2007, p. 75: Q6§88 (1930–2).
109. FN34 34. Tuğal 2009, p. 24.
110. FN35 35. Tuğal 2009, p. 25.
111. FN36 36. Tuğal 2009, p. 270, n. 15.
112. FN37 37. Tuğal 2009, p. 263.
113. FN38 38. See Ollman 1976 and, for further development, Bieler and Morton 2008.
114. FN39 39. This loose practice of reading and appropriation is further evident in a subsequent article on Turkey’s and Egypt’s passive revolutionary processes, see Tuğal 2012a.
115. FN40 40. The key phrase is from Wood 1986, p. 55, n. 15.
116. FN41 41. Burawoy 2003, p. 201.
117. FN42 42. Burns 2011a, pp. 13–26.
118. FN43 43. Burns 2011a, p. 16.
119. FN44 44. Burns 2011b, p. 317.
120. FN45 45. Gramsci 1971, p. 450: Q11§28 (1932–3); and see Morton 2007, pp. 15–38.
121. FN46 46. Buttigieg 2005, pp. 36–7.
122. FN47 47. Gramsci 2007, p. 117: Q6§155 (1930–2).
123. FN48 48. Tuğal 2009, p. 27.
124. FN49 49. Löwy 1996.
125. FN50 50. Weber 2009, pp. 82–3.
126. FN51 51. Keyder 2004, p. 65.
127. FN52 52. Göker 2010.
128. FN53 53. Wood 1995, pp. 31–6.
129. FN54 54. Marcuse 1968, pp. 210, 215.
130. FN55 55. Williams 1980, p. 36
131. FN56 56. But see Morton 2010.
132. FN57 57. See Morton 2007, pp. 63–73; Morton 2011a.
133. FN58 58. Gramsci 1977, p. 69.
134. FN59 59. Gramsci 2007, p. 9: Q6§10 (1930–2).
135. FN60 60. Gramsci 1971, p. 115: Q10II§61 (1932–5).
136. FN61 61. Buci-Glucksmann 1980, p. 315.
137. FN62 62. Gramsci 1971, p. 219: Q13§27 (1932–4).
138. FN63 63. See Riley and Desai 2007.
139. FN64 64. Tuğal 2009, p. 32.
140. FN65 65. Tuğal 2009, p. 32.
141. FN66 66. Tuğal 2009, pp. 8, 36, 222, 230, 232.
142. FN67 67. Tuğal 2009, p. 272, n. 1.
143. FN68 68. See, for example, Gülalp 1994; Keyder 1987; Öncü 2003; Trimberger 1978; or Zürcher 1992.
144. FN69 69. Yalman 2002.
145. FN70 70. Tuğal 2009, p. 40.
146. FN71 71. Tuğal 2009, p. 40.
147. FN72 72. İnsel 2011.
148. FN73 73. Yalman 2002, p. 33.
149. FN74 74. See Yalman 2009.
150. FN75 75. Tuğal 2009, p. 235. But see how Tuğal (Tuğal 2011, 2012b) usefully questions whether Egypt’s future pathway out of the Arab Spring might be a restoration along the lines of the ‘Turkish model’ in the form of passive revolutionaries such as Mohamed Morsi narrowing the agenda and demands of the revolution. Similarly, Morton (Morton 2011c) focuses on the Arab ‘revolutions’ that pose anew some venerable questions of revolutionary transformation, not least whether they will result in fundamental changes to economic life in the region or a passive revolutionary restoration of the old political order whereby state machines remain significantly intact, a process continually in development and subject to change and challenge.
151. FN76 76. Tuğal 2009, p. 255.
152. FN77 77. See Cox 1983, p. 167; Gill 2008, p. 58.
153. FN78 78. See Macciocchi 1975, pp. 112–14; Thomas 2009, pp. 133–57.
154. FN79 79. Gramsci 1971, p. 132: Q13§1 (1932–4).
155. FN80 80. Gramsci 1971, pp. 105–6: Q15§59 (1933).
156. FN81 81. Gramsci 1971, p. 243: Q13§7 (1932–4).
157. FN82 82. Gramsci 1971, p. 239: Q6§155 (1930–2); see Thomas 2009, pp. 137–41.
158. FN83 83. Jessop 2008, p. 113.
159. FN84 84. See Morton 2007, pp. 87–94.
160. FN85 85. Gramsci 1971, pp. 105–6: Q15§59 (1933).
161. FN86 86. See Portelli 1973, p. 33; van der Pijl 1998, pp. 79–83.
162. FN87 87. Portelli 1973, p. 30.
163. FN88 88. See Morton 2011a, pp. 18–24; and Femia 1981, pp. 35–50.
164. FN89 89. Gramsci 1971, p. 80, n. 49: Q19§24 (1934–5).
165. FN90 90. Gramsci 1971, p. 80, n. 4: Q19§24 (1934–5).
166. FN91 91. Gramsci 1971, p. 59: Q19§24 (1934–5); Gramsci 2007, p. 75: Q6§88 (1930–2).
167. FN92 92. Gramsci 2007, p. 252: Q8§25 (1930–2). It should be commented such a draft note in the Prison Notebooksnow falls into the common categorisation of an ‘A-text’, to be distinguished from ‘B-texts’ that exist in only one version, or ‘C-texts’ that consist of material derived from previous drafts.
168. FN93 93. Gramsci 2007, p. 252: Q8§25 (1931–2).
169. FN94 94. Sassoon 1987, p. 207; see also Femia 1981, p. 260, n. 74.
170. FN95 95. Hall 1980, p. 182.
171. FN96 96. On his ethnography of social transformations, Burawoy (Burawoy 2009, p. 264) has stated that he ‘would have done well to have adopted and adapted Gramsci’s concept of passive revolution’.
172. FN97 97. See Bozdoğan and Akcan 2012 on the architecture of revolution and building for the modern state.
173. FN98 98. Tuğal 2008, p. 66.
174. FN99 99. Lefebvre 2009, pp. 243–4.
175. FN100 100. Tuğal 2009, p. 30.
176. FN101 101. Tuğal 2009, p. 119.
177. FN102 102. Tuğal 2009, p. 208.
178. FN103 103. Bekmen 2011.
179. FN104 104. Tuğal 2009, p. 272, n. 29.
180. FN105 105. See Ekers, Hart, Kipfer and Loftus (eds.) 2012.
181. FN106 106. Soja 1989, pp. 89–90; see also Jessop 2006.
182. FN107 107. Said 2001, p. 464.
183. FN108 108. Gramsci 1971, p. 182: Q13§17 (1932–4).
184. FN109 109. Gramsci 1996, p. 53: Q3§49 (1930).
185. FN110 110. Harvey 2007, p. 235.
186. FN111 111. See Lefebvre 1991.
187. FN112 112. Gramsci 1971, p. 109: Q15§11 (1933).
188. FN113 113. Green and Ives 2011, pp. 282–3.
189. FN114 114. See Wright 2010 and Ruccio 2011.
190. FN115 115. Gramsci 1971, p. 160: Q13§18.
191. FN116 116. Foucault 1980, pp. 53–4.
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2013-01-01
2015-07-29

Affiliations: 1: University of Nottinghamadam.morton@nottingham.ac.uk

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