Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Evolution of the East Central Eurasian Hydrocarbon Energy Complex

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

The Case of China, Russia, and Kazakhstan

image of African and Asian Studies
For more content, see Journal of Asian and African Studies.

AbstractThis article analyzes the evolution of the East Central Eurasian energy triangle China-Kazakhstan-Russia. It treats in depth the behavior of Chinese national oil companies (NOCs) regarding foreign direct investment (FDI) in Kazakhstan and Russia. The first section sets out the framework of geo-economics in a complexity-science perspective, in particular the key analytical categories of the ‘emergent coherence’ approach, and it defines a ‘hydrocarbon energy complex’ (HEC). The second section analyzes the formation of the East Central Eurasian HEC by examining Chinese energy investment in Kazakhstan and Russia since 1991, using the ‘emergent coherence’ framework as explained. The third section examines the geo-economics of Sino-Russian competition for energy resources in Central Asia, specifically in Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, over the same timeframe. The fourth section presents conclusions about changes over time in the behavior of Chinese NOCs regarding investment in Kazakhstan and Russia and cooperation with them in the energy sector. The fifth section, the conclusion, summarizes the findings, gives them geopolitical perspective, and concludes on the criteria determining the delimitation of the distinct chronological periods emerging from application of the ‘emergent coherence’ framework.

Affiliations: 1: Centre of European, Russian and Eurasian Studies, Carleton University


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Amineh Mehdi P., Yang Guang 2014 "‘Introduction.’" Perspectives on Global Development and Technology Vol 13 5-6 495 535 [Crossref]
2. Baumgartner Daniel, Godehardt Nadine 2012 "‘Chinas Energiepolitik und die Strategien der Nationalen Ölkonzerne.’" GIGA Focus Vol No. 3 Retrieved July 27, 2016 Hamburg German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Institut für Asien-Studien
3. Breiger Ronald L. 1991 Explorations in Structural Analysis: Dual and Multiple Networks of Social Structure New York Garland Press
4. Burke Christopher, Jansson Johanna, Jiang Wenran 2009 "‘Formulation of Energy Policy in China: Key Actors and Recent Developments.’" Retrieved July 27, 2016 Stellenbosch University of Stellenbosch, Centre for Chinese Studies January
5. Buzan Barry, Waever Ole 2003 Regions and Powers: The Structure of International Security Cambridge Cambridge University Press [Crossref]
6. Cheng Gong 2012 "‘Mapping Out and Sequencing the “Going Out” Strategy.’" 7 9 Facing the Risks of the ‘Going Out’ Strategy China Analysis [unnumbered] London European Council on Foreign Relations
7. Christoffersen Gaye 2012 "‘Multiple levels of Sino-Russian energy relations.’" 135 156 Eurasia’s Ascent in Energy and Geopolitics: Rivalry or Partnership for China, Russia and Central Asia? Bedeski Robert E., Swanström Niklas London Routledge
8. Cutler Robert M. 1995 "‘Bringing the National Interest Back In: Lessons for Neorealism from the Former Soviet Area.’" Cosmos: The Hellenic Yearbook of International Relations Vol 1 61 89
9. Cutler Robert M. 2004a"‘Emerging Triangles: Russia-Kazakhstan-China.’" Retrieved July 27, 2016 Asia Times January 15
10. Cutler Robert M. 2004b "‘The Complexity of Central Eurasia.’" Central Eurasian Studies Review Vol 3 1 2 3
11. Cutler Robert M. 2007 "‘The Paradox of Intentional Emergent Coherence: Organization and Decision in a Complex World.’" Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences Vol 91 4 9 27
12. Cutler Robert M. 2010"‘Russia’s Emerging Place in the Eurasian Hydrocarbon Energy Complex.’" 71 100 The Globalization of Energy: China and the European Union Amineh M.P., Guang Y. Leiden Brill [Crossref]
13. Cutler Robert M. 2012a Kazakhstan’s ‘Resource Nationalism’: Its Source and Motives Central Asia Economic Paper 2. Retrieved July 27, 2016 Washington George Washington University, Central Asia Program September
14. Cutler Robert M. 2012b "‘The Central Eurasian Hydrocarbon Energy Complex: From Central Asia to Central Europe.’" 41 74 Secure Oil and Alternative Energy: The Geopolitics of Energy Paths of China and the European Union Amineh M. Parvizi, Yang Cheng Leiden Brill
15. Domjan Paul, Stoone Matt 2010"‘A Comparative Study of Resource Nationalism in Russia and Kazakhstan, 2004-2008.’" Europe-Asia Studies Vol 62 1 35 62 [Crossref]
16. Fine Ben, Rustomjee Zavareh 1996 The Political Economy of South Africa: From Minerals-Energy Complex to Industrialization. Boulder, Colo. Westview Press
17. iippe [International Initiative for Promoting Political Economy] 2016"‘Minerals Energy Complex and Comparative Industrialisation Working Group.’" Retrieved July 27, 2016
18. Kamerling David S. 1982"‘The Role of Territorial Production Complexes in Soviet Economic Policy.’" 242 266 u.s. Congress, Joint Economic Committee, Soviet Economy in the 1980s: Problems and Prospects Washington, D.C. Government Printing Office
19. Kolosovskiy N. N. 1974"‘The Territorial-Production Combination (Complex) in Soviet Economic Geography.’" 105 138 Geographical Perspectives in the Soviet Union Demko George J., Fuchs Roland J. Columbus, Ohio Ohio State University Press 1974 Translation from the Russian of the founding 1947 article.
20. Leung Guy C. K. 2011"‘China’s Energy Security: Perception and Reality.’" Energy Policy Vol 39 1330 1337 [Crossref]
21. Lonsdale Richard E. 1965"‘The Soviet Concept of the Territorial-Production Complex.’" Slavic Review Vol 24 4 466 478 [Crossref]
22. Lorot Pascal 1997"‘De la géopolitique à la géoéeconomie.’" Revue française de Géoéconomie Vol 1 23 35
23. Luttwak Edward N. 1990"‘From Geopolitics to Geo-Economics: Logic of Conflict, Grammar of Commerce.’" The National Interest no. 20 Summer 17 23
24. Pattison Phillippa E. Algebraic Models for Social Networks Cambridge Cambridge University Press
25. Rosen Daniel H., Hanemann Thilo 2009"‘China’s Changing Outbound Foreign Direct Investment Profile.’" Policy Brief PB09-14. Retrieved July 27, 2016 Washington Institute for International Economics June
26. Sarsenbayev Kuanysh 2011"‘Kazakhstan Petroleum Industry, 2008-2010: Trends of Resource Nationalism Policy?’" Journal of World Energy Law and Business Vol 4 4 369 379 [Crossref]
27. Xia Yishan 2000"‘China-Russia Energy Cooperation: Impetuses, Prospects and Impact.’" Retrieved July 27, 2016 Houston Rice University, James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy May
28. Yu Au Loong, Li Kevin 2011"‘Preliminary Report on China’s going Global Strategy: A Labour, Environment and Hong Kong Perspective.’" Capital Mobility Research Paper No. 3. Retrieved July 27, 2016 Hong Kong Asia Monitor Resource Centre
29. Zhang Jian 2011"‘China’s Energy Security: Prospects, Challenges, and Opportunities.’" Retrieved July 27, 2016 Washington, D.C. Brookings Institution, Center for Northeast Asian Policy Studies July

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    African and Asian Studies — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation