Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

The EU-Energy Security and Geopolitical Economy

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

The Persian Gulf, the Caspian Region and China

For more content, see Journal of Asian and African Studies.

Although energy supply security is an important long-term goal of the EU, member states are in control over external supplies and their domestic energy mix, and an overarching institutional structure is lacking. In this paper, we focus on the availability of oil and gas and the risks of supply disruptions for the EU. The last two decades have been marked by a decrease in fossil fuel production and increasing import dependence. Proven oil and gas reserves in the EU are very limited. Especially in the case of oil the outlook of both global and own EU reserves looks bleak. At the same time, global trends show an increasing demand for energy in the coming decades, concentrated mainly in developing countries, specifically in China. The Persian Gulf area and the Caspian Sea region hold some of the world’s largest oil and gas reserves, and these will make them increasingly significant in global markets. These factors create a setting for the EU of demand- and supply-induced and structural scarcity. The persistence of Arab patrimonial rentier states and societies are a domestic and geopolitical source of instability. These states’ Sovereign Wealth Funds are used by ruling elites to divert assets from socioeconomic development towards individual profit. Emerging Asian economies involved in the ME and the CEA, especially China, will influence the regions’ future geopolitical and geo-economic reality. China relies on resources for domestic development and the resource-rich Middle Eastern countries have long been a destination from which to acquire them.

Affiliations: 1: University of Amsterdam, Department of Political Science, and International Institute for Asian Studies, Leiden Universitythe Netherlands m.p.amineh@uva.nl ; 2: Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University w.h.j.graus@uu.nl

10.1163/15692108-12341404
/content/journals/10.1163/15692108-12341404
dcterms_title,pub_keyword,dcterms_description,pub_author
10
5
Loading
Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/15692108-12341404
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Amineh M.P., Eisenstadt S.N. 2017"The Iranian Revolution" Meer N. Islam and Modernity. The Routledge Critical Concepts in Sociology 4 ed. 104 131 The Routledge Critical Concepts in Sociology; No. SE0572 London Routledge
2. Amineh M.P., Guang Y. 2014"‘Geopolitics of Transnationalization of Chinese National Oil Companies.’" Perspectives on Global Development and TechnologyVol 13 5-6 495 535 [Crossref]
3. Amineh M.P., Guaang Y. 2012 Secure Oil and Alternative Energy: The Geopolitics of Energy Paths of China and the European Union. Leiden-Boston Brill. [Crossref]
4. Amineh M.P., Guaang Y. 2012"‘“Introduction: China’s and the European Union’s Energy Security Challenges in the Twenty-First Century" Amineh M.P., Yang G. Secure Oil and Alternative Energy: The Geopolitics of Energy Paths of China and the European Union. Leiden-Boston Brill 1 40 [Crossref]
5. Amineh M.P., Houweliing H. 2010"‘China and Transformation of the post-Cold War Geopolitical Order.’" Amineh M.P. State, Society and International Relations in Asia Amsterdam Amsterdam University Press 215 271 [Crossref]
6. Amineh M.P., Guaang Y. 2010 The Globalization of Energy. China and the European Union. Leiden-Boston Brill [Crossref]
7. Amineh M.P. 2010"‘Authoritarian Persistence and Barriers to Democracy in the Muslim Middle East: Beyond Cultural Essentialism.’" Ben-Rafael E., Sternberg E. World Religions and Multilateralism – A Dialectic Relation. Leiden-Boston Brill 152 192
8. Amineh M.P. 2007 The Greater Middle East in Global Politics: Social Science Perspectives on the Changing Geography of the World Politics Leiden Brill.
9. Amineh M.P. 2007"Introduction: Theoretical and Methodological approaches to the study of the Greater Middle East" Perspectives on Global Development and TechnologyVol 6 1-3 13 53 [Crossref]
10. Amineh M.P., Houweliing H. 2005 Central Eurasia in Global Politics: Conflict, Security, and Development Second Edition. Leiden & Boston Brill Academic Publishers
11. Amineh M.P. 2003 Globalisation, Geopolitics and Energy Security in Central Eurasia and the Caspian Region. Den Haag Clingendael International Energy Programme
12. Amineh M.P., Houweliing H. 2003"‘Central Eurasia in Global Politics: Conflict, Security and Development.’" Journal Perspectives on Global Development and Technology Special Issue 2(3-4)
13. Amineh M.P. 1999a Towards the Control of Oil Resources in the Caspian Region New York Palgrave
14. Amineh M.P. 1999b Die globale kapitalistische Expansion und Iran: Eine Studie der iranischen politischen Ökonomie (1500-1980) Minster-Hambug-Londen LIT Verlag
15. Anderson I. 1981 Aramco, the United States and Saudi Arabia: A Study of the Dynamics of Foreign Oil Policy, 1933-1950. Princeton Princeton University Press.
16. Armstrong K. 2014 "‘Wahhabism to ISIS: How Saudi Arabia exported the main source of global terrorism" World Affairs 27 November
17. Blanchard C. 2012"‘Saudi Arabia: Background and US Relations.’" Congressional Research Service 27 November 2012
18. British Petroleeum 2011 bp Energy Outlook 2011 Retrieved 28 July 2013 from: \www.bp.com\en\global\corporate\about-bp\energy-economics\energy-outlook\energy-outlook-downloads.html
19. British Petroleeum 2012 bp Energy Outlook 2012 Retrieved 28 July 2013 from: www.bp.com\en\global\corporate\about-bp\energy-economics\energy-outlook\energy-outlook-downloads.html
20. British Petroleeum 2013 bp Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 Retrieved 27 July 2013 from: www.bp.com\en\global\corporate\about-bp\energy-economics\statistical-review-of-world-energy-2013.html
21. British Petroleeum 2016 bp Statistical Review of World Energy 2016 Retrieved 2 June 2017 from: http://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/pdf/energy-economics/statistical-review-2016/bp-statistical-review-of-world-energy-2016-full-report.pdf
22. Bromley S. 1991 American Hegemony and World Oil Cambridge Polity Press
23. Bromley S. 2005"‘The United States and the Control of World Oil.’" Government and Opposition Vol 40 225 255 [Crossref]
24. Bromley S. 2007"‘Connecting Central Eurasia to the Middle East in American Foreign Policy towards Afghanistan and Pakistan: 1979-present.’" Perspectives on Global Development and TechnologyVol 6 1 87 108 [Crossref]
25. Byman D. 2012"‘Regime Change in the Middle East: Problems and Prospects.’" Political Science Quarterly Vol 127 25 46 [Crossref]
26. Chen J. 2011 ‘The Emergence of China in the Middle East.’ Strategic Forum, National Defense University
27. Colgan J. 2011"‘Oil and Resource-Backed Aggression.’" Energy Policy Vol 39 1969 1676 [Crossref]
28. Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia ( escwa) 2001 Economic Diversification in the Oil-Producing Countries: The Case of the Gulf Cooperation Council Economies New York United Nations
29. El-Kharouf F., Al-Qudsi S., Obeeid S. 2010"‘The Gulf Corporation Council Sovereign Wealth Funds: Are They Instruments for Economic Diversification or Political Tools?’" Asian Economic Papers Vol 9 1 124 151 [Crossref]
30. European Commissiion 2000"‘Green Paper – Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply. COM (2000)769’" 29 November Brussels European Commissiion
31. European Commissiion 2006"‘Green Paper – A European Strategy for Sustainable, Competitive and Secure Energy. COM (2006)105.’" 8 March Brussels European Commissiion
32. European Commissiion 2008"‘Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – 20 20 by 2020: Europe’s climate change opportunity.’" COM (2008)30 final. 23 January Brussels European Commissiion
33. European Commissiion 2010"‘SET-plan: The European Strategic Energy Technology Plan Towards a Low-carbon future.’" Brussels European Commissiion Retrieved from: http://ec.europa.eu/energy/publications/doc/2010_setplan_brochure.pdf
34. European Commissiion 2013d"‘EU Energy, Transport and GHG Emission Trends to 2050. Reference scenario 2013.’" 16 December Brussels European Commission
35. European Environment Agenncy 2008 Energy and Environment Report 2008 20 November Retrieved from: www.eea.europa.eu\publications\eea_report_2008_6
36. European Union Institute for Security Studiies 2013"‘The Shale Gas “Revolution”: Challenges and Implications for the EU.’" 18 February Brussels EUISS Retrieved from: www.iss.europa.eu\uploads\media\Brief_11.pdf
37. Eurosttat 2015 Statistics Database, European Commission Available from: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/eurostat/home/ Accessed on 19 June 2015
38. Fazilov F., Chen. Xiangming 2013"‘China and Central Asia: A Significant New Energy Nexus.’" The European Financial Review April 38 43
39. Haass R., Inddyk M. 2009"‘Beyond Iraq: A New U.S. Strategy for the Middle East.’" Foreign Affairs 88 41 58 Hairi A.H. 1977 ‘Shi’ism and Constitutionalism in Iran’ Brill Publishers Leiden
40. Harris Jerrry 2009"‘Statist Globalization in China, Russia and the Gulf States.’" Perspectives on Global Development and Technology Vol 8 139 163 [Crossref]
41. Hertog S. 2010 Princes, Borkers, and Bureaucrats: Oil and the State in Saudi Arabia Ithaca, NY Cornell University Press
42. Heritage Foundatiion 2012"‘China’s Global Investment Tracker.’" The Heritage Foundation Retrieved June 2014 from: www.heritage.org\research\projects\china-global-investment-tracker-interactive-map
43. Hvidt M. 2014"‘Economic Diversification in GCC Countries: Past Record and Future Trends.’" Kuwait Program on Development, Governance and Globalisation in the Gulf States Retrieved 5 May 2014 from: www.lse.ac.uk\IDEAS\programmes\kuwait\documents\Economic-diversification-in-the-GCC-countries.pdf
44. International Energy Agenncy 2012"‘IEA World Energy Outlook 2012.’" Paris International Energy Agency
45. International Energy Agenncy 2013"‘Energy Balances of OECD and Non-OECD countries.’" Paris International Energy Agenncy
46. International Energy Agenncy 2013b World Energy Outlook (weo) 2013 Paris International Energy Agency
47. International Energy Agency 2016"‘Extended Energy Balances. World Energy Balances 2016 edition.’" Paris International Energy Agency
48. Karshenas M., Hakimiian H. 2005"‘Oil, Economic Diversification and the Democratic Process in Iran.’" Iranian Studies Vol 38 67 90 [Crossref]
49. Keddie N.R. 1968"‘Pan-Islam as Proto-Nationalism.’" Oxford University Press London
50. Kedourie E. 1992"‘Democracy and Arab Political Culture.’" Frank Cass & Co. Ltd London
51. Klare M.T. 2001 Resource Wars. The New Landscape of Global Conflict New York Metropolitan/Owl Book
52. Klare M.T. 2002"‘Global petro-politics: The foreign policy implications of the Bush administration’s energy plan.’" Current History March Issue 99 104
53. Lesch D., Haas M. 2011 The Middle East and the United States: History, Politics, and Ideologies. Westview Press 5th edition
54. Looney R.E. 1994 Industrial Development and Diversification of the Arabian Gulf Economies. Greenwich CT JAI Press
55. Mahdavy H. 1970"‘The Patterns and Problems of Economic Development in Rentier States: The Case of Iran.’" Studies in Economic History of the Middle East Oxford University Press.
56. Market Observatory for Enerrgy 2011"‘Key Figures.’" Brussels European Commission Retrieved from: http://ec.europa.eu/energy/observatory/countries/doc/key_figures.pdf
57. Meissner H. 2010"‘The Resource Curse and Rentier States in the Caspian Region: A Need for Context Analysis.’" giga Research Programme: Violence and Security. Working Paper: 133. Retrieved from: www.giga-hamburg.de\en\system\files\publications\wp133_meissner.pdf
58. Mercille J. 2008"‘The Radical Geopolitics of US Foreign Policy: Geopolitical and Geo-economics Logics of Power,’" Political Geography Vol 27 570 586 [Crossref]
59. Michaels J. 2011"‘Dysfunctional Doctrines? Eisenhower, Cater and US Military Intervention in the Middle East.’" Political Science Quarterly Vol 126 465 492 [Crossref]
60. Nayyar D. 1998"‘Globalization: The Past in our Present,’" TWN Trade & Development Series Penang Third World Network Retrieved from: www.twnside.org.sg\title2\t&d\tnd06.pdf
61. Rashid A. 2000 Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil and Fundamentalism in the Central Asia. Yale Nota Bene Books
62. Ratner M., Belkin P., Nichol J., Woehrrel S. 2013"‘Europe’s Energy Security: Options and Challenges to Natural Gas Supply Diversification.’" 20 August. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from: www.fas.org\sgp\crs\row\R42405.pdf
63. Ross M. 2001"‘Does Oil Hinder Democracy.’" World PoliticsVol 53 325 361 [Crossref]
64. Ross M. 2011"‘Will Oil Drown the Arab Spring: Democracy and the Resource Curse.’" Foreign Affairs, September/October 2011 issue. Retrieved from: www.foreignaffairs.com\issues\2011\90\5
65. Roy O. 2009 The Politics of Chaos in the Middle East Columbia University Press New York
66. Roy O. 2011"‘The Crisis in Syria is Leading the Middle East into Uncharted Territory.’" New Statesman. Retrieved 24 August from: www.newstatesman.com\middle-east\2011\08\syria-iran-turkey-regime-assad
67. Saberi M. 2014"‘Dubai Rolls Out Medical Tourism Strategy.’" Gulf News (Dubai) Retrieved 12 April 2014 http://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/uae/health/dubai-rolls-out-medical-tourism-strategy-1.1308139
68. Salloukh Bassel F. 2013"‘The Arab Uprisings and the Geopolitics of the Middle East.’" The International Spectator Vol 48 32 46 [Crossref]
69. Schwartz Hermman 2012"‘Political Capitalism and the Rise of Sovereign Wealth Funds.’" Globalizations Vol 9 517 530 [Crossref]
70. Schwartz R. 2008"‘The Political Economy of State formation in the Arab Middle East: Rentier States, Economic Reform and Democratization.’" Review of International Political Economy Vol 15 599 621 [Crossref]
71. Senghaas D. 2002 The Clash within Civilizations: Coming to Terms with Cultural Conflicts London and New York Routledge
72. Shochat S. 2008"‘The Gulf Cooperation Council Economies. Diversification and Reform: An Introduction.’" London London School of Economics, Kuwait Programme on Development, Governance and Globalisation in the Gulf States
73. Sovereign Wealth Fund Instituute 2014"‘Source on Sovereign Wealth Funds, Public Pensions, Central Banks and Public Funds.’" Retrieved 10 April 2014 from: www.swfinstitute.org\fund-rankings\
74. Stokes D., Raphaael S. 2010 Global Energy Security and American Hegemony Baltimore The John Hopkins University Press
75. Umbach F. 2010"‘Global Energy Security and the Implications for the eu.’" Energy Policy Vol 38 3 1229 1240 [Crossref]
76. United Nations Development Programmme 2004 World Energy Assessment: Overview, 2004 Update.
77. United Nations Development Programmme 2011"‘Arab Development Challenges Report 2011: Towards the Developmental State in the Arab region.’" United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved from: www.undp.org\content\dam\undp\library\corporate\HDR\UNDP-ADCR_En-2012.pdf .
78. United Nations Development Programmme 2016"‘Arab Human Development Report 2016. Youth and the Prospect for Human Development in a Changing Reality’" United Nations Development Programme
79. us Energy Information Administration 2012 EIA Annual Energy Outlook 2012 – With Projections to 2035 (EIA-AEO 2012) eia, Washington, us. Available from: www.eia.gov\forecasts\aeo\pdf\0383(2012).pdf Last accessed 27 July 2013
80. us Energy Information Agency 2013a Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources: An Assessment of 137 Shale Formations in 41 Countries Outside the United States. eia, Washington, us. Available from: www.eia.gov/analysis/studies/worldshalegas/pdf/overview.pdf?zscb=56492525
81. us Energy Information Agency 2013b How much Shale Gas is Produced in the United States? eia, Washington, us. Retrieved from: www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.cfm?id=907&t=8
82. us Energy Information Agency 2013c EIA Country Analysis Brief: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Russia, United Arab Emirates, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, North Africa, Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia. eia, Washington, us
83. us Energy Information Agency 2013d International Energy Outlook. Table A5 and A6, eia, Washington, us 184 185
84. us Energy Information Agency 2013f The Annual Energy Outlook 2013 (AEO2013) us-Energy Information Administration, Washington, us. May 2014. Retrieved from: www.eia.gov\forecasts\aeo\pdf\0383(2013).pdf
85. us Energy Information Agency 2014 Annual Energy Outlook 2014 Early Release Overview. eia, Washington, us. Retrieved from: www.eia.gov\forecasts\aeo\er\pdf\0383er(2014).pdf
86. Van der Linde C., Amineh M. P., Correlje A. , et al 2004 ‘Study on Energy Supply Security and Geopolitics EU-Tender
87. Victor D.G., Hults D.R., Thurbber M.C. 2012 Oil and Governance State-Owned Enterprises and the World Energy Supply. Cambridge Cambridge University Press
88. Walsh Decllan 2014"‘WikiLeaks Cable Portray Saudi Arabia as a Cash Machine for Terrorists.’" The Guardian (London) Retrieved 11 April 2014 from: www.theguardian.com\world\2010\dec\05\wikileaks-cables-saudi-terrorist-funding
89. Weber M. 1946"‘Bureaucracy.’" New York University Press Oxford
90. Weber Max 1968 Economy and Society Roth Guenther, Wittich Claus 3 vols New York Bedminster Press
91. World Baank 2013 World Development Indicators database Available from: http://databank.worldbank.org/data/download/GNIPC.pdf last accessed on 26 July 2013
92. World Baank 2014"‘GDP Per Capita (Current US$).’" Retrieved 23 April 2014 from: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.CD
93. Wood Mackenzzie 2014"‘China to Surpass US Crude Oil Imports by 2020.’" Retrieved from: http://public.woodmac.com/public/industry-views/content/11719066
94. Yergin D. 1991 The Prize. The Epic Quest for Oil, Money and Power. New York, London, Toronto, Sydney Free Press
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/15692108-12341404
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/15692108-12341404
2018-02-27
2018-06-19

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    African and Asian Studies — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation