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Verification of use and disuse theory of Lamarck in vertebrates using biomaterials

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The material foundations moulding the vertebrate are skeletal substances, which are collagen, cartilage and bone. If any of them can be synthesized intact artificially, the causes of chondrification of collagen and ossification of cartilage that occur in the process of evolution, will be clarified. The reason is that in the process of the evolution of this phylum, changes from collagen to cartilage and from cartilage to bone alone are observed in terms of materials. Vertebrates pose three riddles to be solved: the development of evolution, of the immune system, and of bone marrow hemopoiesis. These riddles can be investigated all at once by developing artificial bone marrow chambers made of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA). The development of bone marrow hemopoiesis occurs in the second revolution of evolution. The bone marrow system is the equipment for inducing wandering mesenchymal cells or blood corpuscles, which are responsible for digestion, respiration, metabolism, and remodeling at the cellular level. Thus, the hemopoietic system is the focus of immune capability. Accordingly, the clarification of the mechanism of development of bone marrow hemopoiesis leads to the solution of the three riddles. I have developed an artificial bone marrow using a hybrid method by applying biomechanical stimuli to sintered apatite, which took on the characteristics of bone marrow hemopoiesis peculiar to higher vertebrates after their emergence from water onto land. I have also developed a hybrid-type artificial dental root that took on the characteristics of the gompholic tooth peculiar to mammals. In this way, I have clarified that evolution occurs according to the mechanical functions of the animal in response to gravitation. In order to elucidate the law of evolution, I have developed Trilateral Research that integrates morphology, including embryology and phylogeny, functional study of molecular biology, and molecular genetics concerning remodeling, with biomechanics. I have also devised an Experimental Evolutionary Study method that applies Trilateral Research to work of every phylogenic stage representing phylogeny. From these innovative studies I have tried to reinterpret Wolff's Law, the Use and Disuse Theory, and moreover Haeckel's Biogenetic Law, with the current level of science using biomechanics and molecular biology. Using biomaterials made from synthetic apatite and an artificial bone marrow organ with Ti-electrodes, I moreover verified Lamarck's Use and Disuse Theory using an artificial dental root inducing the cementum by biomechanics.

From these studies, I have clarified the mechanism of the evolution of vertebrates. Furthermore, I have developed a method to induce artificial organs by applying biomechanical loads to biomaterials.


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