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Oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in Parkinson's patients in on-off phenomena

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L-Dopa is considered to be one of the best therapies in treating Parkinson's patients, with a positive outcome at the start of treatment; however, long-term treatment has shown both on and off phenomena and even high doses have shown various clinical symptoms. In this chapter, both on and off PD patients on L-dopa therapy are investigated to determine the role of various neurotransmitters, such as aspartic acid, glutamic acid, homocysteine, catecholamines, vitamin B12 and free radical nitric oxide resulting in neurotoxicity and oxidative stress. All these biochemical changes may constitute vital information in designing multiple antioxidant therapy to avoid neurotoxicity and oxidative stress in PD patients.


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