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Urban Defenses at Bīr-koṭ-ghwaṇḍai, Swat (Pakistan)

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New Data from the 2014 Excavation Campaign

image of Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia

This article reports on the latest data provided by the 2014 excavation campaign at the Early Historic urban site of Bīr-koṭ-ghwaṇḍai, Swat. The campaign, which followed an intensive 3-year excavation carried out inside the SW quarter of the ancient town, focused on the SW external area, and revealed a complex sequence of constructions, collapses and abandonment of the external defenses of the site. The new data are compared with others from previous excavation campaigns in the same site.

Affiliations: 1: University of Bologna “Alma Mater Studiorum”


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1. Callieri P. Srinivasan D.M."Barikot, An Indo-Greek Urban Center in Gandhāra" On the Cusp of an Era. Art in the Pre-Kuśāṇa World 2007 Leiden, Boston 133 164 [Crossref]
2. Callieri P., Filigenzi A, Stacul G."Bir-Kot-Ghwandai, Swat: 1987 Excavation Campaign" Pakistan Archaeology 1990Vol 25 183 192
3. Callieri P., Brocato P., Filigenzi A., Olivieri L.M., Nascari M."Bīr-koṭ-ghwaṇḍai 1990-1992" Annali dell’Istituto Orientale di Napoli 1992Vol 52 4 Suppl. 73 A Preliminary Report on the Excavations of the Italian Archaeological Mission, IsMEO
4. Colliva L. Ghani-ur-Rahman, Olivieri L.M."The Excavation of the Archaeological Site of Barikot (Bīr-koṭ-ghwaṇḍai) and its Chronological Sequence" Italian Archaeology and Anthropology in Northern Pakistan (1955-2011). Journal of Asian Civilizations 2011Vol 34 1 157 191 Special Issue
5. MacDowall D.W., Callieri P."A Catalogue of Coins from the Excavations at Bīr-koṭ-ghwaṇḍai 1984-1992" Bīr-koṭ-ghwaṇḍai Interim Reports 2004Vol II Rome 27 90 (IsIAO Reports and Memoirs. New Series iii)
6. Olivieri L.M. The Survey of the Bir-kot Hill. Architectural Comparisons and Photographic Documentation. Bīr-koṭ-ghwaṇḍai Interim Reports 2003Vol I Rome (IsIAO Reports and Memoirs. Series Minor iv)
7. Olivieri L.M."When and why the ancient town of Barikot was abandoned? A preliminary note based on the last archaeological data" Pakistan Heritage 2012Vol 4 109 120
8. Olivieri L.M. The Last Phases of the Urban site of Bir-kot-ghwandai (Barikot) 2014 Lahore (with Afridi, A., Batool, A., Butt, A., Durrani, B.B., Colliva, L., Cupitò, M., Genchi, F., Ibrahim, M., Marati, I., Martore, F., Micheli, R., Misbah Ullah, Nawaz-ud-Din, Niaz Ali Shah, S., Qayyum, I., Quarta, G., Vidale, M. & Zahir, M.) (act Reports and Memoirs 2)
9. Stacul G. Prehistoric and Protohistoric Swat, Pakistan (c. 3000-1400 bc) 1987 Rome (IsMEO Reports and Memoirs xx)

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