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Réforme des monnaies et spéculation dans le sultanat mamlouk au début du IX e/XV e siècle : al-Maqrīzī et la question de la responsabilité de l’élite mamlouk dans l’instabilité monétaire

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The terrible famine that struck Egypt at the beginning of the 9th/15th century led to al-Maqrīzī’s (d. 845/1442) critique of the Mamluk government’s misadministration. Al-Maqrīzī identified the monetary reform as the main reason behind the crisis. Among the multiple causes of this reform were the opposing interests of the Mamluk elite and the sultanic household regarding the value of gold and copper coins. In all likelihood, the former speculated on a rise in the value of gold whereas the latter wanted to limit the depreciation of the copper coins. This rivalry most likely contributed to the worsening of the monetary crisis.La terrible famine que connut l’Égypte au début du IX e/XV e siècle fut l’occasion d’une analyse d’al-Maqrīzī (m. 845/1442) sur la mauvaise administration du gouvernement. L’historien tenait la réforme monétaire pour responsable de la crise. Outre les causes multiples de cette réforme, il semble qu’un conflit d’intérêt autour de la valeur des monnaies d’or et de cuivre opposait l’élite mamlouke à la maison sultanienne. La première spéculait à la hausse sur la valeur de l’or alors que la seconde cherchait à limiter la dépréciation des monnaies de cuivre. Cette rivalité a vraisemblablement contribué à l’aggravation de la crise monétaire.This article is in French.

Affiliations: 1: Université de Paris 8


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