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Magie et politique : événements historiques et pensée politique dans le Šams al-maʿārif attribué à al-Būnī (mort en 622/1225)

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À la fin de l’époque médiévale, les cercles du pouvoir se sont beaucoup intéressés aux sciences occultes. Que l’on étudie les civilisations chrétienne ou islamique, on constate que des gouverneurs, leurs conseillers ou leurs agents faisaient la promotion de l’astrologie, de l’alchimie, de la magie, etc. À titre d’exemple, nous trouvons des copies de l’ouvrage de magie le plus important de l’Islam médiéval, le Šams al-maʿārif wa-laṭāʾif al-ʿawārif, avec des dédicaces pour des personnalités de premier plan. Les origines de ce traité demeurent obscures, d’où la paucité des recherches sur son contexte historique. Attribué à Abū l-ʿAbbās al-Būnī, un soufi maghrébin que l’on suppose mort en 622/1225, il pourrait plutôt avoir été écrit à la fin du VII e/XIII e siècle ou dans la première moitié du VIII e/XIV e siècle, à l’époque mamelouke. La tombe d’al-Būnī était l’objet de visites en tant que lieu de pèlerinage soufi et le Šams al-maʿārif est réputé contenir les secrets de ce šayḫ, connu comme étant « celui dont les prières sont exaucées » (muǧāb al-daʿawāt). Notre propos ici est d’analyser ces éléments du Šams al-maʿārif qui contiennent une dimension historique ou politique afin de mettre en évidence des perspectives politiques et l’influence de la pensée politique sur cet ouvrage. Certains éléments peuvent nous informer sur le contexte historique de l’écriture de ce livre.During the late medieval period, the circles of power were very much invested in the occult sciences. Whether we study Christendom or Islamic civilization, rulers, their advisers or their agents promoted astrology, alchemy, magic, etc. As an outstanding example, we find manuscripts of the seminal magical manual Šams al-maʿārif wa-laṭāʾif al-ʿawārif dedicated to prominent individuals. The origins of this treatise remain quite obscure, hence the paucity of research into its historical context. Attributed to Abū l-ʿAbbās al-Būnī, a Maghribi Sufi master supposed to have died in 622/1225, it may rather have been written at the end of the 7th/13th century or in the middle of the 8th/14th, under Mamluk rule. And just as al-Būnī’s tomb was visited as a Sufi shrine, the Šams al-maʿārif is supposed to contain the secrets of this shaykh, famed as “one whose prayers are granted” (muǧāb al-daʿawāt). Our purpose here is to analyse those elements of the Šams al-maʿārif which contain a historical or political dimension in order to draw out some political perspectives and the influence of political thought on this work. Such elements, in turn, may inform us about the historical background of the writing of this book.This article is in French.

Affiliations: 1: IRHT-CNRS jean-charles.coulon@irht.cnrs.fr

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/content/journals/10.1163/15700585-12341463
2017-09-13
2017-10-23

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