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Italian Intrigue in the Baltic: Myth, Faith, and Politics in the Age of Baroque*

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Abstract This article examines the role of myth in Italian cultural politics in the Baltic region during the Baroque era. A special focus for this analysis is the legend about a “kinship” between the Florentine Pazzi family and the Lithuanian noble family of the Pacas (Polish: Pac), known in the sources of the seventeenth century as “the Pazzi in Lithuania.” This legend prevailed particularly in the second half of the Baroque period, having developed under the influence of different political, religious, and social aspects of Baroque culture. It played an important part in the Papacy’s interests in Poland-Lithuania during the Counter-Reformation and in the commercial activity of Italian merchants in the Baltic, which coincided with the expansion of the monastic orders in this region and the cult of St. Mary Magdalene de’ Pazzi, to whom the Pacas family expressed their devotion.

1. FN0* The Research Fellowship of the Herder Institut in Marburg (2011) contributed in the preparation of this article—especially the research supervisor Dr. Dietmar Popp. My thanks to the Rich Institute’s library and Image Archive, as well as professional work of librarians and archivists who helped me to examine this topic more carefully. The Robert Bosch Foundation Fellowship and the research at the Deutsches Historisches Institut Warschau/ Niemiecki Instytut Historyczny w Warszawie (2010) and the research supervisor Prof. Jerzy Kowalczyk, provided me with the opportunity to study archival documents and manuscripts in Polish libraries. I would also like to thank Prof. Gerhard Jaritz (Central European University, the Department of Medieval Studies, Budapest) for his continuous support in this research work, as well as my colleague Assoc. Prof. Dr. Giedrė Mickūnaitė, Professor of Vilnius Art Academy. For an attentive English text revision and advice my thanks go to Mr. Malcolm Stewart.
2. FN11 Piero Bugiani, “From Innocent III to Today—Italian Interest in the Baltic,” Journal of Baltic Studies 38, no. 2 (June 2007): 255-62; idem, Enrico di Lettonia. Chronicon Livoniae: la crociata del Nord (1184-1227), prefazione Pietro U. Dini (Livorno, 2005). Riccardo Salmeri, “Aspetti dell’emigrazione italiana in Polonia nel Medioevo (sec. XI-XV),” Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego: Prace historyczne [Scientific publications of Jagiellonian University, Historical works] (henceforth: ZNUJ PH), 86 (1987): 5-13; Rasa J. Mažeika and Stephen C. Rowell, “Zelatores Maximi: Pope John XXII, Archbishop Frederick of Riga and the Baltic Mission, 1305-1340,” Archivum Historiae Pontificiae (henceforth: AHP) 31 (1993): 32-68; Gaetano Platania, “Il Baltico attraverso gli inediti ‘Avvisi di Polonia’ conservati in Vaticano (1700-1704),” in La via dell’ambra: dal Baltico all’Alma Mater, Atti del Convegno italo-baltico svoltosi all’Università di Bologna dal 18 al 20 settembre 1991, ed. Riccardo Casimiro Lewanski (Bologna, 1994), 254-7; Paulius Rabikauskas, “Italia-Lituania nei secoli XV-XVI: l’incontro con la Chiesa occidentale, ” ibid., 297-8; Zenonas Ivinskis, “Lietuvos ir Apaštalų Sosto santykiai amžių bėgyje (iki XVIII amžiaus galo),” [The relations between Lithuania and the Apostolic See through the centuries (until the end of the eighteenth century)] Lietuvių katalikų mokslo akadaemijos suvažiavimo darbai [Proceedings of the Lithuanian Catholic Academy of Science in Rome], vol. 4 (Rome, 1961), 121-8; Jan Ptaśnik, Kultura włoska wieków średnich w Polsce [Italian culture in Medieval Poland] (Warsaw, 1959), 9-44.
3. FN22 Companion to Neo-Latin Studies, part 1, History and Diffusion of Neo-Latin Literature, 2nd. ed., ed. Jozef Ijsewijn (Leuven, 1990), 239-53.
4. FN33 Roberto Bizzocchi, Genealogie incredibili: Scritti di storia nell’Europa moderna, Annali dell’Istituto storico italo-germanico in Trento, Monografie 52, 2nd rev. ed. (Bologna, 2009).
5. FN44 Lithuanian: Pacas, plural: Pacai; Polish: Pac, plural: Pacowie (henceforth: the Pacas family or the Pacai). Rimvydas Petrauskas, Lietuvos diduomenė XIV a. Pabaigoje—XV a.: sudėtis-struktūra-valdžia [The Lithuanian nobility at the end of the fourteenth century—in the fifteenth century: composition-structure-power] (Vilnius, 2003), 71. For more detailed information about the Pacas family origin, see Józef Wolff, Pacowie: Materyjały historyczno-genealogiczne [The Pacas family: Historical-genealogical materials] (Petersburg, 1885), 1-9.
6. FN55 For a bibliographical list, see Aušra Baniulytė, “The Pazzi Family in Lithuania: Myth and Politics in the European Court Society of the Early Modern Age,” Medium Aevum Quotidianum 58 (2009): 41-2, notes 2-6; idem, “Gli italiani alla corte dei ‘Pazzi’ in Lituania: mito e politica nel Seicento barocco,” Archivio Storico Italiano 168, no. 624 / 2 (2010): 325-6, notes 1-4.
7. FN66 Christoph Hartnock, De republica Polonica, libri 2 (Francofurti et Lipsiae, 1687); idem, Alt und neues Preussen der Preussischer Historien, Zwei Theile (Franckfurt, 1784). For a more detailed explanation about the Pacas family’s political relations with the Duke of Prussia, see Anna Kamińska, Brandenburg-Prussia and Poland 1662-1672 (Marburg an der Lahn, 1983); Andrzej Kamieński, Polska a Brandenburgia-Prusy w drugiej połowie XVII wieku: dzieje polityczne [Poland and Brandenburg-Prussia in the second half of the seventeenth century] (Poznań, 2002), 25-122, 130-384. For a more detailed analysis about the Pacas family’s activity in the Commonwealth’s diplomacy with Muscovy, see Zbigniew Wójcik, Rzeczpospolita wobec Turcji i Rosji 1674-1679: studium z dziejów Polskiej polityki zagranicznej [The Commonwealth against Turkey and Russia in 1674-1679] (Wrocław-Warsaw, 1976), 25-228; idem, “Dyplomacja Polska w okresie wojen drugiej połowy XVII w. (1648-1699),” [Polish diplomacy during the period of war in the second half of the seventeenth century (1648-1699)] in Historia dyplomacji polskiej [The History of Polish diplomacy], t. II, 1572-1795, ed. Zbigniew Wójcik (Warsaw, 1982), 163-330.
8. FN77 For Polish and Lithuanian bibliography, see Baniulytė, “The Pazzi Family in Lithuania,” 42-3; for Baroque art development in Latvia, see Boris Vipers, Baroque Art in Latvia (Riga, 1939), 117-19.
9. FN88 Wojciech Tygielski, Włosi w Polsce XVI-XVII wieku: utracona szansa na modernizację [Italians in Poland in the sixteenth-seventeenth century: a lost chance for modernization] (Warsaw, 2005), 515-7; Mieczysław Brahmer, Powinowactwa polsko-włoskie: z dziejów wzajemnych stosunków kulturalnych [The Polish-Italian affinity: from the history of mutual relations] (Warsaw, 1980), 118-21; Janusz Tazbir, Rzeczpospolita i świat: studia z dziejów kultury XVII wieku [The Commonwealth and the world: studies in the cultural history of the seventeenth century] (Wrocław-Warsaw, 1971), 110.
10. FN99 Mathias Niendorf, Das Großfürstentum Litauen: Studien zur Nationsbildung in der Frühen Neuzeit (1569-1795), Veröffentlichungen des Nordost-Instituts, vol. 3, 2nd rev. ed. (Wiesbaden, 2010), 63.
11. FN1010 Elżbieta Kulicka, “Legenda o rzymskim pochodzeniu Litwinów i jej stosunek do mitu sarmackiego,” [Legend about the Roman descent of Lithuanians and its relation with the Sarmatian story] Przegląd historyczny [Historical review] 71, no. 1 (1980): 1-21; Antoni Mączak, “The Structure in the Commonwealth of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries,” in A Republic of Nobles: Studies in Polish History to 1864, ed. Jan Krzysztof Fedorowicz (Cambridge, 1982), 129.
12. FN1111 Sebastiano Ciampi, Bibliografia critica delle antiche reciproche corrispondenze politiche, ecclesiastiche scientifiche, letterarie, artistiche dell’Italia colla Russia, colla Polonia ed altri parti settentrionali, tomo 1 (Firenze, 1834), 197.
13. FN1212 Aušra Baniulytė, “I Pazzi di Lituania nella corrispondenza italiana del XVII secolo: storia e onomastica,” Res Balticae: miscellanea italiana di studi baltistici 11 (2007): 131-2. For a more detailed explanation about the writing of the Pacas family surname in the sources of the seventeenth century, see ibid., 127-44; idem, “The Pazzi Family,” 48; idem, Lietuvos didikų Pacų itališkųjų ryšių kultūriniai kontekstai XVII a. antroje pusėje [The cultural context of the Italian relations of the Lithuanian nobles Pacai in the second half of the seventeenth century], Ph.D. diss. (Kaunas: Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas, 2006), 53-112; idem, “Pacai ar Pazzi? Nauja Palemono legendos versija LDK raštijoje,” [The Pacai or Pazzi? New interpretation of the Palemon legend in the historical literature of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania] in Senoji Lietuvos literatūra [Ancient Lithuanian literature], vol. 18 (2004), Istorijos rašymo horizontai [The horizons of the writing history], ed. Aušra Jurgutienė (Vilnius, 2005), 158-9.
14. FN1313 “Quoique l’on croye qu’ il n’y a aucun parenté entre ces deux Maisons, mais seulement une conformité dans les noms . . .” François Paulin Dalairac, Les anecdotes de Pologne ou memoires secretes du regne de Jean III du nom, 2 vols. (Amsterdam, 1699), 2:319. Dalairac (1626-1689, also spelled Dalerac, Dallerac, Daleyrac, D’Allayrac) was the courtier of the Poland-Lithuanian Queen Maria Casimira (1674-1696), see Rūstis Kamuntavičius, “Memoirs of French Travellers: A Source of Lithuanian History in the Second Half of the Seventeenth Century,” Lithuanian Historical Studies 3 (1998): 37-38; idem, “À l’extrémité du monde occidental: l’image de la culture lituanienne dans les literatures italienne et française du XVIIe siècle,” XVIIe siècle: La frontière entre chrétienté grecque et chrétienté latine au XVIIe siècle: de la Lituanie à l’Ukraine subcarpathique 220 (2003): 416-19.
15. FN1414 Lauro Martines, April Blood: Florence and the Plot against the Medici, 2nd ed. (London, 2004), 72-82; 111-137.
16. FN1515 Ibid., 169-173.
17. FN1616 For a more detailed analysis about the contacts between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Constantinople, see Stephen Christopher Rowell, Lithuania Ascending: A Pagan Empire within East-Central Europe, 1295-1345, 3rd. ed. (Cambridge, 1997), 1-304; Giuseppe Ragone, “Membrana Maxima: Cristoforo dei Buondelmonti, Vytautas of Lithuania and the First Modern Map of Constantinople,” in Lietuva ir jos kaimynai. Nuo normanų iki Napoleono [Lithuania and its neigbours: from the Normans till Napoleon], ed. Irena Valikonytė, Elmantas Meilus, Artūras Mickevičius (Vilnius, 2000), 150-188; Giedrė Mickūnaitė, Vytautas Didysis Valdovo įvaizdis [Vytautas the Great: the Ruler’s Image] (Vilnius, 2008), 64-365.
18. FN1717 “Paców [. . .], którzy mając tę informacyją, że przodkowie ich kiedyś w te kraje litewskie (ustępując przed domowymi mieszaninami) . . .,” see Stefan Pac, Obraz dworów Europejskich na początku XVII wieku przedstawiony w dzienniku podróży królewicza Władysława syna Zygmunta do Niemiec, Austryi, Belgii, Szwajcaryi i Włoch w roku 1624-1625, skreślony przez Stefana Paca [The image of the European Courts at the beginning of the seventeenth century represented in the diary of the travels of Prince Ladislaus, son of Sigismund, to Germany, Austria, Belgium, Switzerland, and Italy during the years 1624-1625, written by Steponas Pacas], ed. Józef Kazimierz Plebański (Wrocław, 1854), 143. Another edition of this diary, Podróż królewicza Władysława Wazy do krajów Europy Zachodniej w latach 1624-1625 w świetle ówczesnych relacji [The travels of Prince Ladislaus Vasa to the Western European countries during the years 1624-1625 in the light of the reports of that time], ed. Adam Przyboś (Cracow, 1977), 348.
19. FN1818 Elementa ad fontium editiones (henceforth: EFE), vol. 1, Polonica ex libris “Obligationum et solutionum” Camerae Apostolicae ab a. 1373, ed. Joannes Lisowski (Rome, 1960), 457, lns. 180-1; 476, lns. 189-90; 481, lns. 191-2. For a more detailed explanation about the banking activity of the Pazzi family, see Martines, April Blood, 63-82.
20. FN1919 Eugenio Gamurrini, Istoria genealogica delle famiglie nobili Toscane et Umbre, t. 3 (Florence, 1673; repr.: Bologna, 1972), 133; Giuliani Demostene Tiribilli, Sommario storico delle famiglie celebri toscane, t. 3 (Florence, 1872), 30-3; Giovanni Battista di Crollalanza, Dizionario storico-blasonico delle famiglie nobili et notabili italiane estinte e fiorenti, vol. 2 (Pisa, 1886), 299; Florido Zamponi, Per le nozze del signor Pazzino dei Pazzi colla signora Elena Forini, scritta il dì 24 Aprile 1873, 32, n. 25, in Archivio di Stato di Firenze (henceforth: ASF), f. Raccolta Sebregondi (henceforth: RS), filza 4097, ins. Pazzi (de’) (famiglia guelfa dichiarata dei grandi 1292); Notices sur les familles illustres et titreés de la Pologne: suvies de trois planches coloriées contenant les armes des familles mentionées dans ces notices (Paris, 1862), 136-7; Louis Fournier, Les Florentins a Lyon—les Florentins en Pologne (Lyon, 1894), 244; François Foucault du Daugnon, Gli italiani in Polonia dal IX secolo al XVIII, note storiche con brevi cenni genealogici araldici e biografici, t. 1 (Crema, 1905), 224.
21. FN2020 Pol. Ludwik Pac (1780-1835), see Wolff, Pacowie, 308-9; Stefan Kieniewicz, “Pac Ludwik Michał,” [Liudvikas Pacas] Polski słownik biograficzny [Polish biographical dictionary] (henceforth: PSB), 24, no. 4 (1979): 718-21.
22. FN2121 Ciampi, Bibliografia critica, 194. For a more detailed explanation about Sebastiano Ciampi in Poland, see Vittore Branca, Sebastiano Ciampi e la biblioteca Czartoryski, Accademia Polacca delle Scienze, Biblioteca e Centro di Studi a Roma, fasc. 43 (Wrocław, 1970); Cristina Sossella, “Sebastiano Ciampi da Pistoia il fondatore della ricerca bibliografica sui rapporti fra l’Italia e la Polonia,” ZNUJ PH 82 (1987): 79-96.
23. FN2222 “. . . io non escludo affatto la possibilità che qualcuno della famiglia Pazzi di Firenze in talune molte politiche traversie sofferte da essa si trapiantasse in quelle remote regioni,” see Ciampi, Bibliografia critica, 201.
24. FN2323 Stanisław Małachowski, Wspomnienie o generale Ludwiku Hr. Pacu [Memorial of the general count Liudvikas Pacas] (Poznań, 1878).
25. FN2424 Ibid., 6.
26. FN2525 Steponas Pacas (1587-1640), Pol. Stefan Pac; It. Stefano Pazzi; Stefano Pazi, see Władysław Czapliński, “Pac Stefan,” [Steponas Pacas] PSB 24, no. 4 (1979): 748-9; Wolff, Pacowie, 80-88.
27. FN2626 “. . . mnie, kiedym mu nogę całował rzekł, że się cieszył z tego, żem ja był z familii włoskiej, floreńskiej panów Paców, jego Pacezanów, jako on rozumiał, a jam też nie zaprzeczał.” See Pac, Obraz dworów, 138.
28. FN2727 For more exhaustive information about the Italian avvisi from Poland-Lithuania, see Francesca De Caprio Motta, Brevi riflessioni sulla storia polacca (sec. XVI-XVII). In appendice alcuni documenti conservati nelle biblioteche e archivi romani (Viterbo, 2003); Paulius Rabikauskas, Krikščioniškoji Lietuva: istorija, hagiografija, šaltyniotyra [Christian Lithuania: history, hagiography, primary source investigation], ed. Liudas Jovaiša (Vilnius, 2002), 242-44; Stanisław Cynarski, “Avvisi z Polski z lat 1554-1590,” [Reports from Poland from the years 1554-1590] Odrodzenie i Reformacja w Polsce [Renaissance and Reformation in Poland] (henceforth: ORP), 33 (1988): 81-89.
29. FN2828 Sebastiano Cefali, Relazione dello stato politico e militare della Polonia, 1664, ff. 330 r, Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze (henceforth: BNCF), Manuscript Department: f. Biblioteca Magliabecchiana (henceforth: BM), cl. XXIV, codice 53. This manuscript was also published in: De Caprio Motta, Brevi riflessioni, 48. Relazione anonima sulle principali famiglie della Polonia, con elenchi di dignitari dello stato, sec. XVII, ff. 2 v, ASF, f. Miscellanea Medicea, filza 101, Notizie di diverse corti di Europa, no. 16. For more detailed information, see Baniulytė, “I Pazzi di Lituania,” 135-36.
30. FN2929 Ibid., 135-39.
31. FN3030 Acta Nuntiaturae Polonae (henceforth: ANP), vol. 25, Marius Filonardi (1635-1643), vol. 1, 12 II 1635-29 X 1636, ed. Teresa Chynczewska-Hennel (Cracow, 2003), no. 176, 233-37; no. 200, 261-64. Mario Filonardi (d. 1644), archbishop of Avignon (1622-1644), papal nuncio in Poland from 1636-1643, see ANP, vol. 1, De fontibus eorumque investigatione et editionibus instructio ad editionem nuntiorum series chronologica, ed. Henrico Damiano Wojtyska (Roma, 1990), 257; Teresa Chynczewska-Hennel, “Le relazioni dei nunzi apostolici sulla Polonia nell’età moderna: Introduzione alla problematica,” in Nel mondo degli slavi: Incontri i dialoghi tra culture, Studi in onore di Giovanna Brogi Bercoff, vol. 1, ed. Maria di Salvo, Giovanna Moracci, and Giovanna Siedina (Firenze, 2008), 85-91.
32. FN3131 Lit. Radvila, plural Radvilos; Pol. Radziwiłł, plural Radziwiłłowie; Lat. Radziwil; It. Radziwill. Kristupas II Radvila (1585-1640), Pol. Krzysztof Radziwiłł II, Lat. Christophorus II Radziwill. Jonušas Radvila (1612-1655), Pol. Janusz Radziwiłł, Lat. Janussio Duce Radivilio. Robert I. Frost, “Obsequious Disrespect: the Problem of Royal Power in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth under the Vasas, 1587-1668,” in The Polish-Lithuanian Monarchy in European Context, c. 1500-1795, ed. Richard Butterwick (Basingstoke, NY, 2001), 164. For a more detailed analysis about the political activity of the Pacas family in the Commonwealth during the reign of John II Casimir, see idem, After the Deluge: Poland-Lithuania and the Second Northern War 1655-1660 (Cambridge, 1993), 50-172; Vincas Trumpa, “Paskutiniai V. Gosiauskio metai,” [The last years of V. Gosievskis] in Vincas Trumpa: Apie žmones ir laiką [About people and time], ed. Gediminas Rudis (Vilnius, 2001), 17-50; Wiktor Czermak, Ostatnie lata Jana Kazimierza [The last years of John Casimir], ed. Adam Kersten (Warsaw, 1972), 100-429; Aleksander Codello, “Wydarzenia wojenne na Żmudzi w Kurlandii 1656-1660,” [The events of 1656-1660 in Samogitia and Courland] Przegląd historyczny [Historical review] 57, no. 1 (1966): 49.
33. FN3232 Albrycht Stanisław Radziwiłł (Lat. Albertus Stanislaus Radziwil or Radziwill), Memoriale rerum gestarum in Polonia, 1632-1656, ed. Adam Przyboś and Roman Żelewski (Wrocław, 1968-1975). For another edition of this diary, see Pamiętnik o dziejach w Polsce [Diary of the events in Poland], 3 vols., trans. and ed. Adam Przyboś and Roman Żelewski (Warsaw, 1980). See Radziwiłł, Pamiętnik, vol. 2: 131, 133, 389, 491.
34. FN3333 Ibid., vol. 1, 120. For more detailed analysis, see Aušra Baniulytė, “Lietuvos diduomenė Abiejų Tautų Respublikos santykiuose su Šventuoju Sostu Baroko epochoje: Nutylėtoji istorijos pusė” [The Lithuanian Nobility in the Relations Between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Apostolic See in the Baroque: The Concealed Side of the History] Lietuvos istorijos metraštis / The Year-Book of Lithuanian History (henceforth: LIM) 2008, no. 2 (2009): 39-40.
35. FN3434 . . . perché le med[esi]me cariche non si confissero ad eretici . . . Lettere di Mons. Nunzio di Polonia, Mon. Vidoni, 1654, Archiwum Jezuitów w Warszawie: Papieski Instytut Studiów Kościelnych / Punkt Konsultacyjny [The Jesuit Archives in Warsaw: Papal Institute of Religious Studies / Consultative Centre], f. Nunziatura di Polonia (henceforth: NP), no. 62, microfilm: n 2 C 7.1. Orig.: Archivio Segreto Vaticano (henceforth: ASV), f. NP, vol. 62, f. 54 r. For more detailed information about Pietro Vidoni (or Vendoni), papal nuncio in Poland from 1652-1660, cardinal from 1660, see ANP, vol. 1, 261-2; Gaetano Patania, Venimus, vidimus et Deus vicit. Dai Sobieski ai Wettin: la diplomazia pontificia nella Polonia di fine Seicento (Cosenza, 1992), 266.
36. FN3535 Cifre dal Nunzio P. Vidoni di Polonia, anno 1656, f. 5-6, Biblioteka Narodowa w Warszawie [National Library in Warsaw] (henceforth: BNW), f. Teki rzymskie [Roman material] (henceforth: TR), t. 79, microfilm: nr. 6782, Rps PAN Kr. 8419. Orig.: ASV, f. Nunziatura di Germania (henceforth: NG), t. 158. For more detailed analysis about the personality of Boguslavas Radvila (1620-1669) (Pol. Bogusław Radziwiłł, Lat. Boguslao Radziwill), see Tadeusz Wasilewski, “Rdziwiłł Bogusław,” PSB 30, no. 1/124 (1987), 161-172.
37. FN3636 Lettere di Mons. Nunzio di Polonia, ff. 323v-324r. For more detailed information about Kristupas Zigmantas Pacas (Pol. Krzysztof Zygmund Pac; Lat. Christophorus Sigismundus Pac, Christofor Pax; It. Christoforo Pazzi or Cristoforo Pazzi, Christoforo Paz), see Tadeusz Wasilewski, “Pac Krzysztof Zygmund Pac,” PSB 24, no. 4: 711-749; Wolff, Pacowie, 88.
38. FN3737 “. . . che reale origine [era] da quella di Fiorenza.” Lettere di Mons. Nunzio di Polonia, ff. 323v-324r.
39. FN3838 Relacye nuncyuszów apostolskich i innych osób o Polsce od roku 1548 do 1690 [The reports of papal nuncios and the other persons in Poland from the year 1548 to 1690], vol. 2, ed. Erazm Rykaszewski (Berlin-Poznań, 1864), 366. Fore more detailed information about Marescotti’s nunciatura in Poland-Lithuania (1668-1670), see ANP, vol. 1, 267-8; Rajnold Przezdziecki, Diplomatie et protocole a la cour de Pologne, vol. 1 (Paris, 1934), 50-9.
40. FN3939 Wasilewski, “Pac Krzysztof Zygmunt,” 711; Wolff, Pacowie, 156.
41. FN4040 Herbarz litewski Wojciecha Kojałowicza z roku 1658 [Lithuanian armorial of Albert Wiiuk Kojalowicz], BNW, f. Biblioteka Czartoryskich w Krakowie, rpis 1352, microfilm no 16253, ff. 239 r-241 r. For more detailed explanation about Albert Wiiuk Kojalowicz (Lit. Albertas Vijūkas Kojalavičius; Pol. Wojciech Wijuk Kojałowicz; Lat. Albertus Wiiuk Kojalowicz), see Włodzimierz Dworzaczek, “Kojałowicz Wijuk Wojciech,” PSB 13, no. 1/56 (1967): 270-2.
42. FN4141 Baniulytė, “Pacai ar Pazzi?,”140-68; Baniulytė, “The Pazzi Family, ” 52.
43. FN4242 Fore more detailed analysis about the theory of the Lithuanian origin from the ancient Romans, which was related to the Renaissance humanists and Latinization of Lithuanian culture, see Pietro U. Dini, Aliletoescur: linguistica baltica delle origini (Livorno, 2010), 50-2; 145-52; 192-9; 202-7; idem, Baltų kalbos: lyginamoji istorija [Baltic languages: comparative history], trans. Henrikas Zabulis (Vilnius, 2000), 308-314, originally published as Le lingue baltiche (Firenze, 1997); idem, “Der Paläokomparativismus und das Baltische. Bericht über di Erforschung der früheren baltischen Linguistik,” Florilegium Linguisticum, Festschrift für Wolfgang P. Schmid zum 70, Geburtstag, ed. Eckhard Eggers, Joachim Becker et al. (Frankfurt am Main, 1999), 69-72; idem, “The Dispute among Vilnius Humanists Regarding Latin, Lithuanian, and Ruthenian,” Historiographia Linguistica 26, no. 1/2 (1999): 23-27; idem, “Latino e lituano nel rinascimento: Sull’importanza del momento linguistico nel mito dell’origine romana dei lituani,” in Italia ed Europa nella linguistica del rinascimento: confronti e relazioni, ed. Mirko Tavoni et al. (Modena, 1996), 363-71; Mečislovas Jučas, “Théorie d’après laquelle la Lituanie et les nobles lituaniens sont originaires des Romains,” in La via dell’ambra, 245-52; Endre Bojtár, Foreword to the Past: A Cultural History of the Baltic People (Budapest, 1999), 136.
44. FN4343 Rowell, Lithuania Ascending, 32-33; idem, “Lietuva-krikščonybės pylimas?: vienos XV amžiaus ideologijos pasisavinimas,” [Lithuania, bulwark of Christendom?: The appropriation of a fifteenth-century ideology] in Europos idėja Lietuvoje: istorija ir dabartis [The idea of Europe in Lithuania: history and the present], ed. Darius Staliūnas (Vilnius, 2002), 26; Mickūnaitė, Vytautas Didysis, 295-296; Juozas Tumelis, “Pilypo Kalimacho žinios apie lietuvių kilmę,” [The knowledge of Philip Callimach about the Lithuanian origin] LIM 1985 (1986): 94-100.
45. FN4444 Kulicka, “Legenda o rzymskim pochodzeniu Litwinów,”16-17; Jučas, “Théorie,” 247-248.
46. FN4545 “Cosmus Paccius Pontifex Maximus,” Herbarz litewski, f. 239 r.
47. FN4646 Wojciech Wiiuk Kojałowicz, Herbarz rycerstwa W. X. Litewskiego tak zwany compendium czyli o klejnotach albo herbach których familie stanu rycerskiego w prowincyach Wielkiego Xsięstwa Litewskiego zażywają [An armorial of the knighthood of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, named Compendium, in which the coats of arms or heraldry of the noble families of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania are explored] (Cracow, 1897), 54-5.
48. FN4747 For more detailed explanation about the manuscript edition of Kojalowicz, see Dworzaczek, “Kojałowicz,” 270-2; Jonas Totoraitis, “Albertas Vijūkas Kojalavičius,” Tiesos kelias [The way of truth] 1 (1928): 17; Baniulytė, Lietuvos didikų Pacų, 66-7.
49. FN4848 Nomenclator familiarum et stemmatum Magni Ducatus Lithuaniae et provinciarum ad eum pertinentium, for more information about this manuscript of Kojalowicz, see Dworzaczek, “Kojałowicz,” 272; Totoraitis, “Albertas,” 17.
50. FN4949 Frost, After the Deluge, 112, 122, 162-164, 169, 172; Daniel Stone, The Polish-Lithuanian State, 1386-1795, A History of East Central Europe, vol. 4 (Washington, DC, 2001), 239; Aleksander Codello, “Hegemonia Paców na Litwie i ich wpływy w Rzeczypospolitej 1669-1674,” [The hegemony of the Pacas family in Lithuania and its influence on the Commonwealth during years, 1669-1674] Studia historyczne [Historical studies] 13, no. 1/48 (1970): 25-56. For a more detailed analysis about the political aspect of the Italian origin of the Pacas family, see Kulicka, “Legenda,” 16-17; Antoni Mączak, “The Structure of Power,” 128-129; Baniulytė, Lietuvos didikų Pacų, 100-112; idem, “The Pazzi Family,” 53-4.
51. FN5050 Darius Kuolys, Asmuo, tauta, valstybė Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės istorinėje literatūroje: Renesansas, Barokas [Man, nation and state in the historic literature of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: Renaissance, Baroque] (Vilnius, 1992), 180-1; Moreno Bonda, “Albert Wijuk Koialowicz as a Jesuit Historian,” Darbai ir dienos [Works and days] (henceforth: DD) 49 (2008): 45-68.
52. FN5151 Herbarz litewski, f. 239 r. This fragment of Kojalowicz manuscript can be found in Ciampi, Bibliografia critica, 194; Kaspar Niesiecki, Herbarz polski [Polish armorial], vol. 7 (Leipzig, 1841), 219.
53. FN5252 Dworzaczek, “Kojałowicz,” 55; Totoraitis, “Albertas,” 16.
54. FN5353 Imola was the ancient city Forum Cornelii, which was founded about 82 B.C. by Lucius Cornelius Sulla in the territory of the ancient Etruscans. The name “Imola” was first used in the seventh century by the Lombards, see the article “Imola,” in The New Encyclopedia Britannica, vol. 6, 15th ed., ed. Jacob E. Safra et al. (Chicago, 1998), 270; see the article “Cornelius,” in Lexikon der Antike, ed. Johannes Irmscher et al. (Leipzig, 1971), 120; The Oxford History of the Classical World, 3rd ed., ed. John Boardman et al. (Oxford, 1988), 413-63.
55. FN5454 Norman Davies, God’s Playground: a History of Poland, vol. 1, The origins to 1795 (Oxford, 1981), 399, 450, 463; Frost, After the Deluge, 37; Stone, The Polish-Lithuanian State, 154-60.
56. FN5555 Jean Duvergier de Hauranne (1581-1643), was commendatory Abbot of Saint-Cyran from 1620, who was one of the authors of Jansenism. From 1623 he was associated with the Arnauld family, see Gaetano Platania, “Rzeczpospolita,” Europa e Santa Sede tra intese ed ostilità (Saggi sulla Polonia del Seicento) (Viterbo, 2000), 43-7; Jozef Lenzenweger [et al.], Katalikų bažnyčios istorija [History of the Catholic Church], vol. 2, trans. Dalia Čekatauskienė (Vilnius, 1997), 102-3, originally published as Geschichte der katolischen Kirche (Leipzig, 1989).
57. FN5656 Hermann Reuchlin, Geschichte von Port-Royal: der Kampf des reformirten und des jesuitischen Katholicismus unter Louis XIII und XIV, erster Band, Bis zum Tode der Angelica Arnauld 1661 (Hamburg-Gotha, 1839), 301-78; Wilhelm Deinhardt, Der Jansenismus in deutschen Landen: Ein Beitrag zur Kirchengeschichte des 18. Jahrhunderts, Münchener Studien zur historischen Theologie 18 (Hildesheim, 1976), 1-2.
58. FN5757 The translation of the work of Arnauld was approved by the Bishop of Vilnius Abraomas Vaina (Pol. Abraham Woyna, Wojna) (1569-1649) and Maciej Łubieński (1572-1652), Archbishop of Gniezno, see Platania, “Rzeczpospolita,” Europa e Santa Sede, 44; Alexander Sedgwick, The Travails of Conscience: The Arnauld Family and the Ancien Régime (Cambridge, MA, 1998), 131. For detailed explanation about the Pacas family link to the Jansenism, see Baniulytė, “Lietuvos diduomenė,” 49-62.
59. FN5858 Ibid., 49-50.
60. FN5959 Platania, “Rzeczpospolita,” Europa e Santa Sede, 42-62. My thanks go to Prof. Rita Mazzei, University of Florence, Department of Historical and Geographical Studies (Università degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Studi Storici e Geografici) for the reference to Prof. Gaetano Platania.
61. FN6060 EFE, t. 14, Collectanea e rebus Polonicis Archivi Orsini in Archivo Capitolino Romae I pars, ed. Wanda Wychowska de Andreis (Rome, 1965), N. 18, 24-5.
62. FN6161 Ibid., 25. For a more detailed analysis about the spread of Jansenist literature, see Fabienne Henryot, “Le jansénisme dans le bibliothèques bénédictine de l’espace mosan (fin XVIIe-XVIIIe siècles),” in Le jansénisme et l’Europe, Actes du colloque international organisé à l’Université du Luxembourg les 8, 9 et 10 novembre 2007, Biblio 17, vol. 188, ed. Raymond Baustert (Tübingen, 2010), 79-94; in Poland-Lithuania, see Karol Górski, Zarys dziejów duchowości w Polsce [The study of spirituality in Poland] (Cracow, 1986), 177-268.
63. FN6262 Nissona in Italian, Neisse in Silesia (Pol. Nysa). Listy i avizy P. Vidoniego, 1658 [Letters and reports of P. Vidoni], ff. 63-64, BNW, f. Teki rzymskie, t. 81, microfilm nr. 69309, Rps PAN Kr. 8421, Org.: ASV, f. NG, v. 164, Cifre da mons. P. Vidoni, 1658. For more detailed explanation about the attitude of the Roman Curia towards the Jansenism in Poland-Lithuania, see Platania, “Rzeczpospolita,” Europa e Santa Sede, 60;
64. FN6363 Ibid., 54.
65. FN6464 Radziwiłł, Pamitiętnik o dziejach w Polsce, vol. 2, 458.
66. FN6565 Platania, “Rzeczpospolita,” Europa e Santa Sede, 48-51, 57-62;
67. FN6666 Ibid., 54. For more detailed analysis about political-religious situation in the mid-seventeenth century Poland-Lithuania, see Frost, After the deluge, 1-25, 43-5.
68. FN6767 Responsio R. D. Andreae Jurgewic, canonici Vilnensis, ad famosum Andreae Volani contra summum Pontificem libellum, quem Apologiam contra calumnias Jesuitarum falso inscripsit. Summa Apologiae Volani, 1-39. For more detailed explanation, see Marcelinas Ročka, “Andrius Volanas. Gyvenimas ir raštai” [Andreas Volanus. Life and works], in Andrius Volanas. Rinktiniai raštai [Andreas Volanus. Selected Works], ed. Marcelinas Ročka and Ingė Lukšaitė (Vilnius, 1996), 6-26.
69. FN6868 Frost, After the deluge, 1-25, 43-5. A recent study on the Swedish-Lithuanian union, see Andrej Kotljarchuk, In the Shadows of Poland and Russia: The Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Sweden in the European Crisis of the mid-17th Century (Södertörn Doctoral Dissertations 4, Huddinge, 2006).
70. FN6969 Benvenuto Matteucci, “Giansenio (Jansens), Cornelio e Giansenismo,” in Enciclopedia Cattolica, vol. 6 (Città del Vaticano) (Firenze, 1952), 353. More detailed information about the Jansenism in France and in the Netherlands in Ludwig von Pastor, Geschichte der Päpste im Zeitalter des fürstlichen Absolutismus von der Wahl Innozenz’ X. bis zum Tode Innozenz’ XII. (1644-1700), erste Abteillung, Innozenz X., Alexander VII., Klemens IX. und X. (1644-1676) (Freiburg-Rom, 1960), 161-256.
71. FN7070 Mykolas Kazimieras Pacas (1624-1682) (Pol. Michał Kazimierz Pac; Lat. Michael Pazz; Michael Pax; It. Michele Pazzi), see Adam Przyboś, “Pac Michał Kazimierz,” PSB 24, 4, 721-728. For more detailed information about the Church of Saint Peter and Paul in Vilnius, see Stasys Samalavičius, Almantas Samalavičius, Vilniaus Šv. Petro ir Povilo bažnyčia [The Church of Saint Peter and Paul in Vilnius] (Vilnius, 1998), 68.
72. FN7171 John Bourke, Baroque Churches of Central Europe, (London, 1958), 22, 27-68; Heinrich Gerhard Franz, Dientzenhofer—Hausstätter: Kirchenbaumeister in Bayern und Böhmen (München, 1985), 11-124; Die Kunst des Barock in Österreich, ed. Günter Brucher, Michael Krapf et al. (Salzburg-Wien, 1994), 12-25; Ehrenfried Kluckert, “Baroque Architecture in Germany, Switzerland, Austria, and Eastern Europe,” in Baroque: Architecture-Sculpture-Painting, ed. Rolf Toman (Cologne, 1998), 184-246; Andrzej J. Baranowski, “The Baroque Geography of the Polish Commonwealth Centres and Peripheries,” in Borders in Art: The Proceedings of the Fourth Joint Conference of Polish and English Art Historians, ed. Katarzyna Murawska-Muthesiu (Warsaw, 2000), 77-85.
73. FN7272 Mykolo Kazimiero Paco, LDK etmono, Antakalnio bažnyčios fundatoriaus testamentas, sudarytas 1675 07 04 dviem egemplioriais baltarusių ir lenkų kalbomis [Testament of Mykolas Kazimieras Pacas, Lithuanian grand hetman, Founder of the church in Antakalnis, made in Belorussian and in Polish], Lietuvos mokslų akademijos Vrublevskių biblioteka [The Wroblewski Library of the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences] (henceforth: LMA VB), f. 273-2426, used the version, translated into Lithuanian, f. 4.
74. FN7373 The works of Antoine Arnauld are preserved in LMA VB and Rare Book Department of the Vilnius University Library. The influence of the Jansenist theories on the Pacas family religious perception is noted by Stasys Yla in his monograph Šiluva žemaičių istorijoje [Šiluva in the history of Samogitians] (Kaunas, 2007), 148-50; first edition under the title: Reformation and Restoration, Putnam, in 1970. Jerzy Orda stressed a particular piety of the Lithuanian grand hetman Mykolas Kazimieras Pacas to Saint Augustine and his heart mysticism, see Jerzy Orda, “Symbolika rzeźb kościoła św. Piotra i Pawła w Wilnie,” [Symbolism of the reliefs in the church of Saint Peter and Paul in Vilnius] Alma Mater Vilnensis 11 (1933): 17-32; Stasys Samalavičius ir Almantas Samalavičius, Vilniaus Šv. Petro ir Povilo bažnčia [The Church of Saint Peter and Paul in Vilnius] (Vilnius, 1998), 96-101. For the analysis about the influence of Jansenism in Polish art, see Juliusz Antoni Chrościcki, “Asceza jansenizmu w konfrontacji ze sztuką dworską. Francja i Polska w drugiej połowie XVII wieku,” in Barok polski wobec Europy kierunki dialogu, Materiały międzynarodowej konferencji naukowej w Radziejowicach 13-15 maja 2002 roku [Polish Baroque in the face of Europe: the direction of dialogue. The materials of international conference in Radziejowice May 13-15, 2002], ed. Ewa Bem-Wiśniewska (Warsaw, 2003), 58-62.
75. FN7474 For a more detailed explanation about the iconographic program of the Church of the Apostles Saint Peter and Saint Paul in Vilnius, see Orda, “Symbolika rzeźb kościoła św. Piotra i Pawła,” 17-32; Samalavičius, Vilniaus Šv. Petro ir Povilo bažnyčia, 64-172; idem, “Antakalnio bažnyčios mįslė,” [The mystery of the Antakalnis church] Kultūros barai [The fields of culture], 2 (1991): 68-71; Sigita Samuolienė, “Vilniaus Šv. Petro ir Povilo bažnyčios ikonografija” [The iconography of the church of Saint Peter and Paul in Vilnius] in Acta Academiae Artium Vilnensis (henceforth: AAAV), vol. 21, Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės barokas: formos, įtakos, kryptys [The baroque of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: forms, influences, trends] ed. Rasa Butvilaitė (Vilnius, 2001), 35-42.
76. FN7575 Ibid., 36; Irena Vaišvilaitė, “Vilniaus Šventųjų apaštalų Petro ir Povilo bažnyčios dekoro programa,” in AAAV, vol. 21, 28-32.
77. FN7676 Halina Kairiūkštytė-Jacinienė, Pažaislis, ein Barockkloster in Litauen, Abhandlung zur Erlangung der Doktorwürde der philosophischen Fakultät Zürich, Tauta ir žodis [Nation and the word] 6 (1930): 18-21, trans. into Lithuanian as Pažaislis baroko vienuolynas Lietuvoje [Pažaislis, the Baroque cloister in Lithuania], trans. Nijolė Žvirgždienė et al. (Vilnius, 2001), 25-31.
78. FN7777 Samuolienė, “Vilniaus Šv. Petro ir Povilo bažnyčios ikonografija,” 36.
79. FN7878 Ibid.; Baniulytė, “Lietuvos diduomenė,” 56-7.
80. FN7979 Dizionario biografico degli italiani (henceforth: DBI), vol. 45 (Roma, 1995), 479. Wiktor Gramatowski SJ, “Cracoviana w Archiwum Papieskiego Uniwersytetu Gregoriańskiego w Rzymie,” Jezuicka ars historica (2001): 179-183. For more detailed information about the correspondence between papal secretary Agostino Favoriti and the Pacas family, see Baniulytė, Lietuvos didikų Pacų, 154-5; idem, “Lietuvos diduomenė,” 57-8.
81. FN8080 DBI, 479. For a more detailed analysis, see Pastor, Geschichte der Päpste, 303-610; Pierre Blet SJ, “Louis XIV et les papes aux prises avec le Jansénisme,” AHP 31 (1993): 109-92; idem, “Louis XIV et les papes aux prises avec le Jansénisme,” AHP 32 (1994): 65-148; Gianvittorio Signorotto, “The squadrone volante: Independent Cardinals and European Politics in the Second Half of the Seventeenth Century,” in Court and Politics in Papal Rome, 1492-1700, ed. Gianvittorio Signorotto and Maria Antonietta Visceglia (Cambridge, 2002), 177-211.
82. FN8181 Registro di lettere latine e volgari di Mons.r Favoriti p[er] la Seg.ria di Stato di Clemente X dal 1670 al 1677, f. 219 r., ASV, f. Favoriti-Casoni, no. 6. For the possibility of reading the letters of Agostino Favoriti, written to the Pacas family, I would like to thank Jesuit Father Wiktor Gramatowski, who kindly presented their copies. For more detailed analysis about contacts between the Pacas family and the papal secretary Agostino Favoriti and their political meaning, see Baniulytė, Lietuvos didikų Pacų, 54-5; idem, “Lietuvos diduomenė,” 56-60; about the image of Milles Christianus in the seventeenth century culture of the GDL, see idem, “Itališkieji Pacų ryšiai XVII a. antroje pusėje ir LDK miestų dailė,” [Italian relations of the Pacai family in the late 17th century and the urban art in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania] in Dailės istorijos studijos [Studies of art history] no. 2, Dailė LDK miestuose: poreikiai ir užsakymai [Art in the Towns of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: Demands and Art Commissions] (Vilnius, 2006), 94-8.
83. FN8282 DBI, 478, 481. Ferdynand von Fürstenberg (1626-1683), Prince-archbishop of Paderborn (1661-1683), Coadjutor Bishop (1667-1678) and the Prince-Archbishop of Münster (1678-1683), see Gramatowski, “Cracoviana w Archiwum Papieskiego Uniwersytetu,” 181, note 10.
84. FN8383 About the political and military activity of the Lithuanian grand hetman M. K. Pacas, see Aleksander Codello, “Litwa wobec wojny z Turcją 1672-1676 r.,” [Lithuania in the war with Turkey in 1672-1676] Studia i materiały do historii wojskowości [Studies and material for military history] 14, no. 1 (1968): 136-159; Konrad Bobiatyński, Michał Kazimierz Pac wojewoda wileński, hetman wielki litewski [Mykolas Kazimieras Pacas, palatine of Vilnius, Lithuanian grand hetman] (Warsaw, 2008).
85. FN8484 Ibid., Michał Kazimierz Pac, 298-349; Kamieński, Polska a Brandenburgia, 68-122.
86. FN8585 (Pol. Mikołaj Andrzej Pac), see PSB, 24/4, 716; Wolff, Pacowie, 167-9, 246. Felicite von Trautmannsdorf died in 1676 during a child’s birth and was buried in the crypt of the Pacas family in the Church of the Visitation of the Holy Virgin Mary in Pažaislis, ibid.; Kariūkštytė-Jacinienė, Pažaislis, ein Barockkloster in Litauen, 39. For more detailed information about the crypt of the Pacas family in Pažaislis, see Irena Rolska-Boruch, “Kościół i mausoleum Paców w Pożajściu w świetle nieznanych archiwaliów (1675-1709),” [The church and mausoleum of the Pacas family in the light of unknown archives] Barok [Baroque] 15, no. 1 (2008): 139-48.
87. FN8686 Carl Eduard Vehse, Memoirs of the Court, Aristocracy, and Diplomacy of Austria, vol. 1 (London, 1856), 436-7.
88. FN8787 Harold Acton, Gli ultimi Medici, 2nd ed. (Torino, 1987), 102.
89. FN8888 For more detailed explanation about the organization of Italian legations, see Catherine Fletcher and Jennifer Mara De Silva, “Italian Ambassadorial Networks in Early Modern Europe—An Introduction,” Journal of Early Modern History 14 (2010): 505-512. For more detailed analysis about the Italians in Poland-Lithuania, see Rita Mazzei, Traffici e uomini d’affari italiani in Polonia nel Seicento (Milano, 1983), 7-161; Andrzej Pośpiech, “W służbie króla czy Rzeczypospolitej? (Włosy sekretarze Jana III Sobieskiego),” [Are they in the service of the king or the Commonwealth? (The Italian secretaries of John III Sobieski)] in Władza i społeczeństwo w XVI i XVII w. [Power and society in the XVI and XVII century], ed. Marcin Kamler et al. (Warsaw, 1989), 151-66; Tessa Capponi-Borawska, “Un fiorentino a confronto con la politica polacca: Niccolò Siri a Cracovia e Varsavia (1642-1647),” ORP 39 (1995): 147-54; Baniulytė, “Gli italiani alla corte dei ‘Pazzi’ in Lituania,” 325-348; idem, Lietuvos didikų Pacų, 113-59; Tygielski, Włosi w Polsce XVI-XVII wieku, 319-323, 413-82.
90. FN8989 Baniulytė, Lietuvos didikų Pacų, 113-14; idem, “Lietuvos didikų Pacų ryšiai su Medičiais XVII a. antrojoje pusėje,” [Relations of the Nobles Pacai of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the Medici Court in the second half of the XVII century] LIM 2002, no. 2 (2004): 47-5.
91. FN9090 For the faithful military service, L. D. de’ Pazzi had received even the title of the Count, doubtless with the help of the Pacas family, see ibid., 47-9.
92. FN9191 The correspondence of L. D. de’ Pazzi with Cosimo III de’Medici is preserved in ASF, f. Mediceo del Principato: 1529-1753 (henceforth: MP), filze: 4489; 4490; 4491; 4492; 4493; 4494. For more exhaustive analysis about the correspondence of Lorenzo Domenico de’ Pazzi, see Baniulytė, Lietuvos didikų Pacų, 18-20; 114; idem, “Lietuvos didikų ryšiai su Medičiais,” 47-58; idem, “I Pazzi di Lituania,” 136-7.
93. FN9292 Ludovica Tettfein in the historiography found as Ludwika Joanna Tödwin, see Wolff, Pacowie, 3.
94. FN9393 ASF, f. MP, filza 4493, ins.: Co Pazzi, ff. 455 r/v, 456 r. The fragment of this letter published, in Ciampi, Bibliografia critica, 197.
95. FN9494 For more detailed explanation about the Italians at the Imperial court, see Vehse, Memoirs of the Court, 240-248; about the Italian merchant community in Central Europe, see Louis M. Fournier, Les Florentins a Lyon—Les Florentins en Pologne (Lyon, 1894), 244-5; Kurt Weissen, “I mercanti italiani e le fiere in Europa centrale alla fine del medioevo e agli inizi dell’età moderna,” in La pratica dello scambio: Sistemi di fiere, mercanti e città in Europa (1400-1700), ed. Paola Lanaro (Venezia, 2003), 161-76; Mazzei, Traffici e uomini d’affari italiani, 97-161; idem, Itinera mercatorum: Circolazione di uomini e beni nell’Europa centro-orientale 1550-1650 (Lucca, 1999).
96. FN9595 ASF, f. MP, filza 4493, ins.: Co Pazzi, f. 416; Baniulytė, Lietuvos didikų Pacų, 121-2.
97. FN9696 Davies, God’s Playground, 466; Frost, “Obsequious Disrespect,” 164-8; Stone, The Polish-Lithuanian State, 175-7. For more detailed analysis about the Pacas family relations with John II Casmir, see Czermak, Ostatnie lata Jana Kazimierza, 100-429; Codello, “Wydarzenia wojenne na Żmudzi,” 49.
98. FN9797 Antonio Panella, “Candidati italiani al trono polacco. I Medici,” Rassegna Nazionale 16 Aprile (1917): 269-79; Mazzei, Traffici e uomini d’affari italiani, 115-6; idem, Itinera mercatorum, 348; for more detailed explanation about the Medici aspirations to the crown of Poland-Lithuania, see Ciampi, Bibliografia critica, 122-3; Danuta Quirini-Popławska, “La corte di Toscana e la terza elezione in Polonia,” ZNUJ PH 71 (1982): 49-66; idem, “Dwór medycejski i Habsburgowie a trecia elecja w Polsce,” [The court of Medici and the Habsburgs in the third election in Poland] ORP, 42 (1998): 121-32.
99. FN9898 L. D. de’ Pazzi to Cosimo III, 21 September 1669, Warsaw, ASF, f. MP, filza 4489, ins.: Co Pazzi, ff. 346r-v.
100. FN9999 ASF, f. RS, filza 4097, ins.: Pazzi (de’) (famiglia guelfa dichiarata dei grandi 1292), tabella genealogica, tav. 42.
101. FN100100 L’albero genealogico dela famiglia Strozzi, see Aleksandras Liudvikas Radvila (1594-1654) (Pol. Aleksander Ludwik Radziwiłł; Lat. Alexander Ludovicus Radziwil; It. Alessandro Lodovico Radziwill), see Jan Jaroszuk, “Radziwiłł Aleksander Ludwik,” PSB 30, no. 1/124 (1987): 153.
102. FN101101 For more detailed analysis about the relations between the Radvila’s family and the Pacai in the sixteenth and seventeenth century, see Wolff, Pacowie, p. 21-35; Kuolys, Asmuo, tauta, valstybė, p. 76; Jūratė Kiaupienė, “Mes, Lietuva.” Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės bajorija XVI a.: viešasis ir privatus gyvenimas [‘We are Lithuania.’ The nobility of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 16th century: public and private life] (Vilnius, 2003), 131; Baniulytė, “Lietuvos diduomenė,” 33-49.
103. FN102102 About the role of family in the Italian commercial and political activity, see Rita Mazzei, “Ai margini di un mondo in movimento: donne e minori in viaggio fra Italia e Polonia nella prima età moderna,” in Da Est ad Ovest, da Ovest ad Est: viaggiatori per le strade del mondo, ed. Gaetano Platania (Viterbo, 2006), 158-77; Christopher F. Black, Early Modern Italy: A Social History (London, 2001), 107-28; Adam Manikowski, Toskańskie przedsiębiorstwo arystokratyczne w XVII wieku [The Tuscan enterprise in the seventeenth century] (Warsaw, 1991), 135-59.
104. FN103103 Mazzei, Traffici e uomini, 115-6; idem, Itinera mercatorum, 348; Capponi-Borawska, “Un fiorentino a confronto,” 151-152; Tito Livio Burattini scienziato agordino del’600, ed. Gianfranco Cisilino et al. (Verona, 1983), 14-15; Frost, After the Deluge, 63-64.
105. FN104104 ASF, f. MP, filza 4489, ins.: Co Pazzi, ff. 332v, 333r, 337v, 338, 344r.
106. FN105105 Torquato Montauto, the envoy of the Medici in Rome, to Cosimo III, 23 December 1673, Rome, ASF, f. MP, filza 3395, ins.: Montauto; Panella, “Candidati italiani,” 274-5.
107. FN106106 P. Vidoni nunzio (1652-1655), BNW, f. TR, t. 78, ff. 23, 29-30, 31-32, 34, 57; P. Vidoni nunzio (1656), ibid., t. 79, ff. 29-30, 36, 49-50, 56-57, 66; Cifre dal nunzio Mons. P. Vidoni (1659-1660), ibid., t. 82, ff. 19-20. For more detailed information about Mattias de’Medici candidacy, see Frost, After te Deluge, 63-5, 68, 76, 124, 165-7.
108. FN107107 Cifre dal nunzio Mons. P. Vidoni, BNW, f. t. 82, ff. 19-21; Frost, After the Deluge, 166; Pisma polityczne z czasów panowania Jana Kazimierza Wazy 1648-1668 [Political correspondence of the reign of John Casimir Vasa, 1648-1668], vol. 3, 1665-1668, ed. Stefania Ochmann-Staniszewska (Wrocław-Warsaw, 1991), 273, no. 156. L. D. de’Pazzi to Cosimo III, 31 September 1669, Warsaw, ASF, f. MP, filza 4489, ins.: Co Pazzi, f. 344 r. Panella, “Candidati italiani,” 273; Ciampi, Bibliografia critica, 122; Panella, “Candidati italiani,” 271-274; Platania, Venimus, vidimus, 33-60; idem, “Włoska dyplomacja i nieudany “interes” Rinalda d’Este, księcia Modeny, kandydata do tronu polskiego (1674)” [Italian diplomacy and unsuccessful “interest” of Rinaldo d’Este, Duke of Modena, the candidate to the Polish throne], Śląski kwartalnik historyczny “Sobótka” [Silesian Historical Quartely “Sobótka”] 47, no. 1/2 (1992): 99-115.
109. FN108108 Ibid., 43; Paolo Minucci, Relazione del negoziato fatto nella corte di Polonia da Paolo Minucci in proposito della successione che si trattava per il serenissim principe Mattias di Toscana a quella Corona l’anno 1659, BNCF, f. BM, cl. XXIV, cod. 53, f. 423 v.
110. FN109109 For more detailed information, see Francesco Buonvisi, Nunziatura a Varsavia, vol. 1, ed. Furio Diaz e Nicola Carranza (Rome, 1965), 499, no. 562; Platania, “Rzeczpospolita”, 134; Stone, The Polish-Lithuanian State, 239; Codello, “Hegemonia Pacòw,” 25-56;
111. FN110110 Relacye nuncyuszów, 366.
112. FN111111 Salmeri, “Aspetti dell’migrazione,” 11.
113. FN112112 Ludwik Zarewicz, Zakon Kamedułów jego fundacye i dziejowe wspomnienia w Polsce i Litwie [The Camaldolese Order, its foundation and the historical reminiscence in Poland and in Lithuania] (Cracow, 1871), 7-49.
114. FN113113 Giovanni Benedetto Mittarelli and Anselmo Costadoni, Annales Camaldulenses ordinis Sancti Benedicti quibus plura interseruntur tum ceteras Italico-monasticas res, tum historiam ecclesiasticam remque diplomaticam illustrantia, t. 8, complectens res gestas ab anno Christi 1515 ad annum 1744 (Venice, 1764), 373.
115. FN114114 Ibid., 373.
116. FN115115 This document published in Kairiūkštytė-Jacinienė, Pažaislis, ein Barockkloster in Litauen, 82-3; idem, Pažaislis baroko vienuolynas Lietuvoje, 119-20.
117. FN116116 The Lithuanian grand hetman Mykolas Kazimieras Pacas died in 1682, Kristupas Zigmantas Pacas, Lithuanian grand chancellor, in 1684, and his younger brother the bishop of Vilnius Mikalojus Steponas Pacas died in 1684. See Wolff, Pacowie, 136; 169; 183. P. Vidoni died in 1681 and was buried in the Church di Santa Maria della Vittoria in Rome, see Platania, Venimus, vidimus et Deus vicit, 266. A. Favoriti died on November 13, 1982; buried in the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. See DBI, 479-80. For more detailed explanation about L. D. de’ Pazzi, see Baniulytė, “Gli italiani alla corte dei ‘Pazzi’,” 347-8.
118. FN117117 See Niesiecki, Herbarz polski, 219; Teodor Żychliński, Złota księga szlachty polskiej [The golden book of the Polish nobility], t. 5 (Poznań, 1883), 202; Wolff, Pacowie, 5.
119. FN118118 Sante Graciotti, “L’antemurale polacco in Italia tra Cincuecento e Seicento: il barocchizzarsi di un mito,” in Barocco fra Italia e Polonia, ed. Jan Ślaski (Warsaw, 1977), 303-323; Angelo Tamborra, “Unione delle Chiese e ‘crociata’ contro il Turco alla fine del Seicento: le missioni del gesuita Carlo Maurizio Vota in Moscovia e Polonia,” in ibid., 381-6.
120. FN119119 The correspondence between Grand Duke Cosimo III of Tuscany and the Pacas family continued from 1674-1682, ASF, f. MP, filza 4491, ins.: Diversi, ff. 531r-725r; ibid., filza 4492, ins.: Diversi a S.A.S., ff. 838-890; ibid, filza 4493, ins.: Diversi a S.A.S., ff. 601-693; ibid. filza 4494, ins.: Diversi a S.A.S., ff. 724-755. For a full list of these letters and their content see Baniulytė, Lietuvos didikų Pacų, Appendix II, 219-26.
121. FN120120 The devotion to St. Mary Magdalene de’ Pazzi in the court of Medici, see Marcello Fantoni, “Il bigottismo di Cosimo III: da leggenda storiografica ad oggetto storico,” in La Toscana nell’età di Cosimo III. Atti del Convegno: Pisa-S. Domenico di Fiesole, 4-5 giugno 1990, ed. Franco Angiolini, Vieri Becagli, Marcello Verga (Firenze, 1993), 396, 398, 399; for the role of saints in the sixteenth-century Italian court society, see Simon Ditchfield, Liturgy, Sanctity and History in Tridentine Italy: Pietro Maria Campi and the Preservation of the Particular (Cambridge, 1995), 148-80.
122. FN121121 The devotion of the Pacas family to St. Mary Magdalene de’ Pazzi shows encomium-occasional literature as well as genealogies, see Niesiecki, Herbarz polski, 219; Żychliński, Złota księga, 202; Wolff, Pacowie, 5; Baniulytė, Lietuvos didikų Pacų, 88-90; idem, “Šv. Marijos Magdalenos de’Pazzi kultas Lietuvos Baroko kultūroje: atvaizdai ir istorinė tikrovė,” [The cult of Saint Mary Magdalene de’Pazzi in the Baroque culture of Lithuania: images and historical reality] DD 53 (2010): 249-51.
123. FN122122 Un dente con alcuni cappelli. Cosimo III to Bishop Mikalojus Steponas Pacas (Pol. Mikołaj Stefan Pac; It. Niccolò Stefano de’Pazzi), 29 August 1681, ASF, MP, filza 4494, ins. Diversi a S.A.S., f. 731 r. For more detailed information, see Baniulytė, Lietuvos didikų Pacų, 141-2; idem, “Šv. Marijos Magdalenos de’Pazzi kutas,” 227-37; Claudio Carpini, Storia della Lituania: identità europea e cristiana di un popolo (Rome, 2007), 98.
124. FN123123 For more detailed information, see Kairiūkštytė-Jacinienė, Pažaislis, Baroko vienuolynas, 29-30; 44; 198-99.
125. FN124124 Giovanni Matteo Guidetti, “Additional Information about the Sources of Michele Arcangelo Palloni’s Artistic Language,” in AAAV, vol. 51, LDK sakralinė dailė: atodangos ir naujieji kontekstai / Sacre Art of Grand Duchy of Lithuania: Discoveries and New Contexts, ed. Rūta Janonienė (Vilnius, 2008), 81-87; idem, “Novità e precisioni sulla formazione artistica di Michele Arcangelo Palloni,” in Artyści włoscy w Polsce XV-XVIII wiek [Italian artists in Poland in the XV-XVIII century], ed. Renata Sulewska, Michał Wardzyński (Warsaw, 2004), 271-8.
126. FN125125 Borgo Pinti, 58. For a more detailed analysis of the iconography of St. Mary Magdalene de’ Pazzi in Florence, see Piero Pacini,“Firenze 1669: un “teatro sacro” per Santa Maria Maddalena de’Pazzi,” Mitteilungen des Kunsthistorischen Institutes in Florenz 36, no. 1/2 (1992): 129-202; about the Chapel of St. Mary Magdalene de’ Pazzi in Pažaislis, see Kairiūkštytė-Jacinienė, Pažaislis, baroko vienuolynas Lietuvoje, 198-199; Baniulytė, “Šv. Marijos Magdalenos de’Pazzi kultas,” 238-40.
127. FN126126 Acta Sanctorum, Maii, collecta, digesta, illustrate a Godefrido Henschenio et Daniele Paperbrochio e Societatis Jesu, t. 6: quo continentur dies XXV, XXVI, XXVII, XXVIII operam et studium conferentibus Francisco Baertio et Conrado Ianningo eiusdem Societatis, edition novissima curante Joanne Cardanet (Paris, 1866), 341.
128. FN127127 About the cult of St. Mary Magdalene de’ Pazzi in Poland-Lithuania, see Małecki, “Kult św. Magdaleny de Pazzi,” 177-84; Baniulytė, “The Pazzi Family,” 54-55; idem, “Gli italiani alla corte dei ‘Pazzi’,” 345-348; idem, “Šv. Marijos Magdalenos de’Pazzi kultas,” 225-58. About the Italian culture in Eastern Europe during the Renaissance, see Olha Kozubska, “Renaissance Architecture in Lviv: An Example of Mediterranean Cultural Import,” International Journal of Euro-Mediterranian Studies 1, no. 2 (2008): 193-213; Marina Dmitrieva, Italien in Sarmatien: Studien zum Kulturtransfer im östlichen Europa in der Zeit der Renaissance. Forschungen zur Geschichte und Kultur des östlichen Mitteleuropa, vol. 32, ed. Winfried Eberhard, Adam Labuda et al. (Stuttgart, 2008); Rita Mazzei, “I mercanti italiani a Cracovia agli inizi del seicento,” ZNUJ PH 71 (1982): 39-47; about the Italian in Central Europe, see idem, Traffici e uomini d’affari; idem, Itinera mercatorum.
129. FN128128 Baniulytė, “Šv. Marijos Magdalenos de’Pazzi kultas,” 243-7, 252-4.

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