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The Early Modern City as a Resonating Box: Media, Public Opinion, and the Urban Space of the Holy Roman Empire, Cologne, and Hamburg ca. 1700*

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Abstract The article analyzes the media logic of urban acts of communication in early modern German cities. As is demonstrated by Cologne and Hamburg in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, the growing use of print (particularly pamphlets) moved local conflict away from face-to-face confrontation into progressively more multifaceted modes of communication, increasingly expressed in both manuscript and print. In highlighting the mediality of early modern urban culture, the changing relationship between the urban community, public opinion, and forms of communication is addressed. The resulting effect from the interplay and complementation of oral, written, and printed means of communication is described as echoes that formed an urban resonating box—a constant polyphonic state including both the literate and illiterate.

1. FN0*This article is a synthesis of my recent work, and draws mainly on my book Flugpublizistik und Öffentlichkeit um 1700. Dynamiken, Akteure und Strukturen im urbanen Raum des Alten Reiches (Stuttgart, 2011). I would also like to thank the anonymous readers for their comments and feedback on this article.
2. FN11 For initial orientations see the overviews by Christopher R. Friedrichs, The Early Modern City, 1450-1750 (London, 1995); Alexander F. Cowan, Urban Europe, 1500-1700 (London, 1998). The current state of interdisciplinary research on the early modern city is discussed by Albrecht Classen, “Urban Space in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Age. Historical, Mental, Cultural, and Social-Economic Investigations,” in Urban Space in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Age, ed. Albrecht Classen (Berlin, 2009), 1-145; Christian Hochmuth and Susanne Rau, “Stadt—Macht—Räume,” in Machträume der frühneuzeitlichen Stadt, ed. ibid. (Constance, 2006), 13-40.
3. FN22 See for a brief overview Political Space in Pre-industrial Europe, ed. Beat Kümin (Farnham, 2009) and Christopher R. Friedrichs, Urban Politics in Early Modern Europe (New York, 2000). See for the conceptual state of reflection on a “new political history” Susan Pedersen, “What is Political History Now,” in What is History Now? ed. David Cannadine (Basingstoke, 2002), 36-56. For the intense conceptual debate in German speaking Europe see Politik und Kommunikation. Zur Geschichte des Politischen in der Vormoderne, ed. Neithard Bulst (Cologne, 2009).
4. FN33 See for the best overview of the “concept of circulation” to urban studies: Circulation and the City: Essays on Urban Culture, ed. Alexandra Boutros and Will Straw (Montreal, 2010).
5. FN44 Rudolf Schlögl, “Vergesellschaftung unter Anwesenden: Zur kommunikativen Form des Politischen in der vormodernen Stadt,” in Interaktion und Herrschaft, Die Politik der frühneuzeitlichen Stadt, ed. ibid. (Constance, 2004), 9-60; ibid., “Politik beobachten. Öffentlichkeit und Medien in der Frühen Neuzeit,” Zeitschrift für Historische Forschung 35 (2008): 581-616.
6. FN55 As Brendan Dooley has pointed out, the level of political observation by all people living in an early modern city could be defined as follows: “whatever may be thought or said about events connected with the government of states and with cities and their people.” See Brendan Dooley and Sabrina A. Baron, “Introduction,” in The Politics of Information in Early Modern Europe, ed. ibid. (London, 2001), 1.
7. FN66 Urban Elections and Decision-Making in Early Modern Europe, 1500-1800, ed. Rudolf Schlögl (Newcastle upon Tyne, 2009).
8. FN77 See for the concept of “cognitive geography” and the further development of it Kevin Lynch, The Image of the City (Cambridge, MA, 1960); The City and the Sign: An Introduction to Urban Semiotics, ed. Mark Gottdiener and Alexandros Lagopoulos (New York, 1986); Steve Pile, The Body and the City: Psychoanalysis, Space, and Subjectivity (London, 1996).
9. FN88 See for example in German historiography Hochmuth and Rau, Machträume der frühneuzeitlichen Stadt. For the impact of David Harvey’s approach see David Harvey: A Critical Reader, ed. Noel Castree and Derek Gregory (Malden, MA, 2006).
10. FN99 See for this point for instance The World Of The Tavern: Public Houses in Early Modern Europe, ed. Beat Kümin and B. Ann Tlusty (Aldershot, 2002); Beat Kümin, Drinking Matters: Public Houses and Social Exchange in Early Modern Central Europe (Houndsmills, 2007).
11. FN1010 Robert Darnton, The Literary Underground of the Old Regime (Cambridge, 1982); Arlette Farge, Dire et mal dire: l’opinion publique au XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1992); Dagmar Freist, Governed by Opinion: Politics, Religion and the Dynamics of Communication in Stuart London 1637-1645 (London, 1997); Filippo de Vivo, Information and Communication in Venice: Rethinking Early Modern Politics (Oxford, 2007); Andreas Würgler, “Conspiracy and Denunciation: A Local Affair and its European Publics,” in Cultures of Communication from Reformation to Enlightenment: Constructing Publics in the Early Modern German Lands, ed. James van Horn Melton (Aldershot, 2002), 119-131; Bellingradt, Flugpublizistik und Öffentlichkeit.
12. FN1111 See for the state of research on the development of the press from the beginning of the seventeenth century in German speaking Europe: Johannes Weber, “Strassburg, 1605: The origin of the newspaper in Europe,” German History 24, no. 3 (2006), 387-412; Wolfgang Behringer, Im Zeichen des Merkur: Reichspost und Kommunikationsrevolution in der Frühen Neuzeit (Göttingen, 2003); 400 Jahre Zeitung: Die Entwicklung der Tagespresse im internationalen Kontext, ed. Martin Welke and Jürgen Wilke (Bremen, 2008).
13. FN1212 Jürgen Habermas, Strukturwandel der Öffentlichkeit: Untersuchungen zu einer Kategorie der bürgerlichen Gesellschaft (Neuwied, 1962); ibid., The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society, trans. Thomas Burger and Frederick Lawrence (Cambridge, MA, 1989). For the state of research and positioning for and against Habermas’ ideal-typical thoughts on the process of formation of Öffentlichkeit see Andreas Gestrich, “The Public Sphere and the Habermas Debate,” German History 24, no. 3 (2006), 413-430; Farewell Habermas? Deux décennies 30 d’études sur l’espace public, ed. Stéphane van Damme (2009, online:
14. FN1313 The term “resonating box” has been used before by Filippo de Vivo in describing the specific media networks and transmissions of Venice around 1600. See de Vivo, Information and Communication, 6.
15. FN1414 See now for the starting debate in German historiography on the logic of communication and media in medieval and early modern European urban culture Stadt und Öffentlichkeit in der Frühen Neuzeit, ed. Gerd Schwerhoff (Cologne, 2011); Mark Mersiowsky, “Wege zur Öffentlichkeit. Kommunikation und Medieneinsatz in der spätmittelalterlichen Stadt,” in Stadtgestalt und Öffentlichkeit: Die Entstehung politischer Räume in der Stadt der Vormoderne, ed. Stephan Albrecht (Cologne, 2010), 13-58.
16. FN1515 The main research on Cologne’s publishing and printing industry in early modern times is still to be done. See for the recent state of research Köln als Kommunikationszentrum: Studien zur frühneuzeitlichen Stadtgeschichte, ed. Georg Mölich and Gerd Schwerhoff (Cologne, 2000).
17. FN1616 For the best overview of the printing world of early modern Hamburg, see Holger Böning, Welteroberung durch ein neues Publikum. Die deutsche Presse und der Weg zur Aufklärung, Hamburg und Altona als Beispiel (Bremen, 2002); ibid., Periodische Presse. Kommunikation und Aufklärung. Hamburg und Altona als Beispiel (Bremen, 2002).
18. FN1717 Schlögl, Urban Elections.
19. FN1818 In 1396, Cologne was made an Imperial Free City after fighting against the Archbishop’s army. The Archbishopric of Cologne was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire and consisted of the temporal possessions of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese Cologne. The Archbishop was also one of the Prince-Electors of the Empire, therefore the Archbishopric is sometimes referred to as the Electorate of Cologne. Cologne was ruled by a City Council since 1396, when it was fixed that, in an ongoing process of co-optation, an elected City Council of 49 members, including two ruling mayors, should run the city. Only the members of the Bürgerschaft (the burghers) of Cologne were allowed to vote, consisting of roughly one-fifth to one quarter of the population.
20. FN1919 See the printed report of the priest election of April 29, 1667 by the Abbess Amelia Regina Elisabeth Cratz in the Historical Archive of the City of Cologne (HACC) 40/Carton24/unfol.
21. FN2020 The decision making process of the priest elections in Cologne are widely uninvestigated. What can be stated is that the parishioners nominated, the Abbess chose and publicly announced a nominee, afterwards presented the name to the Archdeacon, who officially inaugurated the priest. For the developments of parish-participation in the Middle Ages see Tobias Wulf, Die Pfarrgemeinden der Stadt Köln: Entwicklung und Bedeutung vom Mittelalter bis in die Frühe Neuzeit (Cologne, 2012). For the regulations and the legal position of 1667 see HACC 38/Carton 22/412, fol. 1-8, Remonstration vnd Erweisung Dero per Copias authenticas auß den Originalibus extrahirten Priuilegien / Indulten vnnd rechten so die sämpliche Pfargenossen in Erwehlung eines zeitlichen Pfarherrn der Kirchen S. Peter in Cöllen vom Jahr 1226. biß daher hatt, 1670.
22. FN2121 See the untitled manuscript in the Archive of the Archdiocese of Cologne (AAC), Pfarrei St.Peter Köln/B 34/unpag.
23. FN2222 See with examples from London, Paris, Venice, Cologne, Hamburg, and Leipzig Farge, Dire et mal dire; Freist, Governed by Opinion; de Vivo, Information and Communication; Bellingradt, Flugpublizistik und Öffentlichkeit.
24. FN2323 HACC 40/Carton 24/unpag. The so-called “Bürgers-Parthei,” named after the parish’s favorite candidate for the priesthood, Wilhelm Bürgers, included influential members of the political arena of Cologne: six former and actual mayors, and many more members of the City Council.
25. FN2424 See for the manuscript of the letter to the Abbess, the Archdeacon and the head of the Officialate AAC, Pfarrei St. Peter Köln, B34, unpag.; the letter to Rome can be found in AAC, Pfarrei St. Peter Köln, B 32.
26. FN2525 Letter of the Archbishop to Offizial Thomas Quentel dated 23 May 1667 (HACC 38/Carton 22/409, fol. 3).
27. FN2626 HACC 40/Carton 24/unpag.
28. FN2727 Report of the election by the Abbess (HACC 40/Carton 24/unfol.).
29. FN2828 AAC, Sammlung Roth, St. Peter 28,3.
30. FN2929 This event is reported in a (undated) letter of protest from the Archbishop addressing the City Council of Cologne from October 1667 (HACC 56/200/fol. 36-47).
31. FN3030 The validity of legal decision in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Europe was highly bound to the act of publication. See for this point the examples of Venice in de Vivo, Information and Communication, 164-167.
32. FN3131 The “ahnschlag auff den galgen” is mentioned in an account of the interrogation by the City Council regarding the events of 1667 (HACC 38/Carton 23/434, fol. 35-96, especially 43). The details of the interrogation were later documented in Prothocollum Inquisitionis: Uber die bey entstandener Pastoral streitigkeit im Kirßpel S: Petri alhie vorgelauffene Exceßen und Insolentien (HACC 40/Carton 24/unfol.).
33. FN3232 See for this aspect of modern cities Louis Wirth, “Urbanism as a Way of Life,” in Classic Essays on the Culture of Cities, ed. Richard Sennett (New York, 1969), 143-164.
34. FN3333 Francesca Canadé Sautman, La religion du quotidien: Rites et croyances populaires de la fin du Moyen Age (Florence, 1995), 2-3. For more on the the perception of signs in urban space see Michael Camille, “Signs of the City: Place, Power and Public Fantasy in Medieval Paris,” in Medieval Practices of Space, ed. Barbara Hanawalt and Michael Kobialka (London, 2000), 1-36.
35. FN3434 For strategies of urban libeling in early modern Europe see Karin Sennefelt, “Citizenship and the political landscape of libelling in Stockholm, c. 1720-70,” Social History 33, no. 2 (2008): 145-163; Matthias Lentz, Konflikt, Ehre, Ordnung. Untersuchungen zu den Schmähbriefen und Schandbildern des späten Mittelalters und der Frühen Neuzeit (ca. 1350 bis 1600) (Hanover, 2004).
36. FN3535 The print was mentioned several times in the account of the interrogation by the City Council regarding the events of 1667, but could not yet be found by the author.
37. FN3636 Next to the general aspect of early modern tavern sociability by Kümin and Tlusty, The World Of The Tavern and Kümin, Drinking Matters, for a detailed analysis of the situation in the taverns of Cologne see: Gerd Schwerhoff, “Das Gelage: Institutionelle Ordnungsarrangements und Machtkämpfe im frühneuzeitlichen Wirtshaus,” in Das Sichtbare und das Unsichtbare der Macht. Institutionelle Prozesse in Antike, Mittelalter und Neuzeit, ed. Gert Melville (Cologne, 2005), 159-176.
38. FN3737 Account of the interrogation by the City Council regarding the events of 1667, fol. 80-84.
39. FN3838 Account of the interrogation by the City Council regarding the events of 1667, fol. 38, 64, 67, 72. More details were listed in the protesting edict by the Archbishop, that was printed on 5 June 1668 (HACC 56/200/fol. 69).
40. FN3939 See the protesting edict by the Archbishop from 5 June 1668, and a letter by the Archbishop addressing the City Council from winter 1667 (HACC 56/200/fol. 36-47).
41. FN4040 See Daniel Bellingradt, “Organizing public opinion in a resonating box: The Gülich rebellion in early modern Cologne, 1680-1686,” Urban History 39, no. 3 (2012).
42. FN4141 The conflict between Stadtköln and Kurköln lasted more than 700 years. The rich stock of documents pertaining to this conflict in the HACC comprises more than 20 meters of archived documents.
43. FN4242 The Archbishop paid a number of legal advisers to articulate and publish his claims. In 1653, the Manifest was published, followed by the Apologia des Ertzstiffts Cöllen wider Bürgermeister und Rhats dessen Haupt Statt Cölln (1659). A third claim was published in 1687.
44. FN4343 Letter by the Archbishop addressing the City Council from winter 1667, fol. 38.
45. FN4444 The public burning took place during an uncertain day of August or September 1667 at Melaten, a place situated outside of the city and not yet inside of the territory of Kurköln. For an account of the burning, where several copies of the “protestationes” were set on fire, see the supplication of the parish of St. Peter to the Reichskammergericht (Imperial Chamber Court) dated 29 September 1668 (HACC 38/Carton 21/392, fol. 1-20).
46. FN4545 The Imperial Chamber Court reacted in the short-term and published an edict condemning the economic blockade by Kurköln on 24 November 1668 (HACC 56/200, fol. 70-73).
47. FN4646 Gegenbericht Bürgermeisteren und Rhatt der Kayserlicher und des Heyl. Reichs freyer Statt Cölln / Auff das An Seithen Ihrer Churfürstl. Durchl: von Cölln am 5. Junij 1668. anmäßlich außgelassenes Edict. (HACC 38/Carton22/412, fol. 106-109).
48. FN4747 See for example the dozens of supplications of the Sultzer brothers to the City Council (HACC 38/Carton 22/412, fol. 180-187), and to the Emperor in Vienna (HACC 38/Carton 22/405, fol. 7). The edict duel included, among others, the following titles by the Archbishopric Abtruck Churfürstl. Gnädiger Commission an die darin benante Herren Deputierte wie solche den 25. Februarij deß 1670. Jahrs Bürgermeister und Rhatt der Statt Cölln Deputierten mündtlich vorgehalten und demnechst schrifftlich communiciert worden (HACC 38/Carton 22/412, fol. 110-111) and by the city of Cologne Folgt antwort und erklehrung was Deputati von Herren Bürgermeisteren und Rhatt darauff am 14. Martij denen Churfürstl. Herren Deputierten gleicher weiß mündtlich vorgetragen / und schrifflich zugestelt haben (HACC 38/Carton 22/412, 111-112). The eight page document of the regulations of the priest election of the parish (Remonstration vnd Erweisung) resulted from research on the election by attendee, church master Franz Brassart.
49. FN4848 See the account of the City Council’s interrogation from 28 May 1670 concerning the later print Folget die antwört uber einige aus den getruckten artikulij genohmen Interrogatoria (HACC 38/Carton 22/408, fol. 86-96); the account of the interrogation of Adolph Sultzer from 24 May 1670 (HACC 38/Carton 22/404, fol. 1-25); and Kundschafft der gebrueder Sultzer from 23 May 1670 (HACC 38/Carton 22/404, fol. 11-25).
50. FN4949 See the account of the interrogation of Adolph Sultzer from 24 May 1670, fol. 20.
51. FN5050 Andreas Würgler, “Revolts in Print: Media and Communication in Early Modern Urban Conflicts,” in Schlögl, Urban Elections and Decision-Making, 270.
52. FN5151 Account of the interrogation of Hesselmann from 28 May 1670 (HACC 38/Carton 22/408, fol. 85).
53. FN5252 Hesselmann had planned to present fifty-two copies of the print to influential members of the City Council, ninety-seven copies to selected envoys at the Imperial Diet in Regensburg, other copies to unmentioned further authorities like the Emperor in Vienna or the Elector of Brandenburg-Prussia in Berlin, and finally to hand out nearly one-hundred copies to the local elites of Cologne. See Kundschafft der gebrueder Sultzer, 18-19.
54. FN5353 This expression is used in Kundschafft der gebrueder Sultzer, 19.
55. FN5454 HACC 56/418.
56. FN5555 In the so-called Kendenicher Vergleich of 1672 (named after the site of the negotiation, castle Kendenich in the south of Cologne) the Archbishopric and the Free Imperial City of Cologne settled that they would not attack each other in the upcoming Franco-Dutch-War. A special paragraph stated that the troubled situation resulting out of the priest election in the parish of St. Peter was beset by “allerhand Difficultäten” (lots of difficulties). Nonetheless, the Imperial Chamber Court was ordered to investigate and to call a final verdict within four months. It appears that no verdict was ever reached at all, which was the normal strategy of the Imperial Chamber Court in such groundbreaking questions. See Unrechtmäßiger Untersuchung und Bestrafung des Klägers wegen eines famosi libelli, bezüglich auf den Streit zwischen der Abtissin zu S. Cäcilien und den Kirchmeistern zu S. Peters Kirchen (German Federal Archive Koblenz, H 1177/3671).
57. FN5656 Mary Lindemann, Patriots and Paupers: Hamburg 1712-1830 (Oxford, 1990), 33-47.
58. FN5757 Böning, Welteroberung durch ein neues Publikum; ibid., Periodische Presse. Kommunikation und Aufklärung. For the general aspect of (printed) news dissemination in early modern Europe see The dissemination of News and the Emergence of Contemporaneity in Early Modern Europe, ed. Brendan Dooley (Farnham, 2010); Consuming News: Newspapers and Print Culture in Early Modern Europe (1500-1800), ed. Gerhild Scholz Williams and William Layher (Amsterdam, 2008). The levels of interdependency of textual aspects and wider media transmission of early modern times are discussed in Die Entstehung des Zeitungswesens im 17. Jahrhundert. Ein neues Medium und seine Folgen für das Kommunikationssystem der Frühen Neuzeit, ed. Volker Bauer and Holger Böning (Bremen, 2011).
59. FN5858 These commissions were mostly led by members of the Imperial Chamber Court (Reichskammergericht), the Imperial Aulic Council (Reichshofrat) and were usually supported by military troops. See Ralf Peter Fuchs, “The Supreme Court of the Holy Roman Empire: The State of Research and the Outlook,” Sixteenth Century Journal 34 (2003), 9-27.
60. FN5959 Since 1529 Hamburg was ruled by a City Council that was called the Senate. This Senate was continuously elected by the sworn-in holders of full citizenship, the so-called Erbgesessene Bürgerschaft (all holders of citizenship with property in the city). Laws could only be put into action after a conjoint convention (“Konvent”) of the Senate and the Bürgerschaft. Struggles over the power-arrangement led to three internal recesses (1650, 1657, and 1663) and to three intervening external imperial settlements (1667, 1674 and 1712). The main point of tension was the growing number of people with the status of the lower citizenship (i.e. without property in the city). In several attempts this group tried to force its way into the law-making conventions within the senate. An overview over the many troubling political sidelines is offered by Hermann Rückleben, Die Niederwerfung der hamburgischen Ratsgewalt. Kirchliche Bewegungen und bürgerliche Unruhen im ausgehenden 17. Jahrhundert (Hamburg, 1970).
61. FN6060 See for full details and further analysis on Hamburg as the city of pamphlets Bellingradt, Flugpublizistik und Öffentlichkeit, 131-257.
62. FN6161 Zwey wichtige Send=Schreiben / Zwischen zwey vertrauten Freunden / Darinnen Ein Rechtgläubig und dabey Gottseeliger Theologus Aus GOttes Wort kräftig erweist: Daß der Beruf eines Evangel. Predigers allerdings renoviret werden könne (State Archive of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (SAH), Collected volume 33, unpag.), 1702.
63. FN6262 Schreiben E. Hoch=Ehrwürdigen MINISTERII der Stadt Hamburg / An Ihre Hoch=Ehrwürden Herren D. Johann Friedr. Mayer [. . .] Betreffend die Ersetzung der verledigten PASTORAT-Stelle der Kirchen zu St. Jacob in Hamburg (SAH, Collected volume A638/8, unpag.), 1702; Etliche Send=Schreiben Welche zwischen E.Ehrw. MINISTERIO in Hamburg und Tit. Herrn D. JOHANN FRIEDERICH MAYERN, General Superintendenten in Vor=Pommern / etc. Von Wegen des vacirenden Pastorats zu St. Jacobi gewechselt (SAH, Collected volume 33, unpag.), 1702; Johann Wincklers PASTORIS zu St. MICHAELIS, und R. MINISTERII SeNIORIS, Höchst=gemüßigte und freymühtige Darlegung Seiner Unschuld und Ursachen / Die Ihn bewogen In Tit. Herr Johann Friederich Mayers / General-Superintendenten in Vor=Pommern / & c. Vocationis-Werck / Das Pastorat zu St. Jacobi betreffend worden (SAH, Collected volume 33, unpag.), 1702.
64. FN6363 C.B. Rettung Ihres Ehrlichen Nahmens wider Hn. M. Johann Wincklers / Seniors in Hamburg / Ehrenrührende Anzüglichkeiten (SAH, Collected volume 33, unpag.), 1702.
65. FN6464 ACTA Hamburgensia, Oder Verzeichniß Der gesamten gewechselten Hamburgischen Streit=Schrifften / so succesivè über der von einseitiger jacobitischen Gemeine bißhero gesuchten und gestrittenen VOCATIONSRENOVATION bis ult. Febr. publiciret worden (SAH, Collected volume A638/8, unpag.), 1703. All printed titles are fully listed in Bellingradt, Flugpublizistik und Öffentlichkeit, 409-444. Until the beginning of March 1703 more than thirty pamphlets had been published.
66. FN6565 Acta Hamburgensia &c. Continuata d. 27, April, 1703 (SAH, Collected volume A638/8, unpag.), 1703.
67. FN6666 See for example from March 1703 M. Johannis Vake, Archi-Diaconi, und Predigers der Gemeine zu S.S. Petri und Pauli Unpartheyisches Ruf=Achten / Von der bißher gestrittenen Beruffs=Erneurung / Seinen Hertz=vielgeliebten Zuhörern [. . .] zur gründlichen Unterweisung mitgetheilet (SAH, Collected volume 33, unpag.), 1703; JOHANN Wincklers Pastoris zu S. Michaelis und R. Ministerii Senioris Kurtze Antwort Auff Herrn Balthasar Stielckens, &c. Grobe Beschuldigung (SAH, Collected volume 80, unpag.), 1703. The reactions from Carsten Thode followed anonymous as Geziemender Bescheid Auff das Guth=Achten (und insonderheit auff die darin abgelassene 5. Fragen / Des Wohl=Ehrwürdigen und Wohlgelahrten HERRN M. Johannis Vake (SAH, Collected volume 33, unpag.), 1703; Wiederholter Bescheid auf einige und zwar allermeist im P.S. der Antwort wegen des Unpartheiischen Guth=Achten 34 enthaltener Puncten Ihrer Wohl=Ehrwürden Herrn M. Johannis Vake, ergangen von dem Autore des Gesprächs (SAH, Collected volume 33, unpag.), 1703.
68. FN6767 SEBASTIANI EDZARDI PROF. PUBL. Abgenöthigte Wiederlegung Desjenigen / Welches von dem Herrn Auctore der so genannten Dancksagung / wieder ihn angeführet worden (SAH, Collected volume 33, unpag.), 1703.
69. FN6868 Unvorgreifliches Bedencken über des Tit. Herrn SEBASTIANI EDZARDI PROF. PUBL. So genannte Abgenöthigte Widerlegung etc. Gestellet von einem Beyden Partheyen Wol=wollenden (SAH, Collected volume 33, unpag.), 1703.
70. FN6969 PROSPERS von Liegenicht Send=Schreiben An den Königlichen General-Superintendenten in Vor=Pommern Herrn D. Joh. Frid. Mayer (SAH, Collected volume 160, unpag.), 1703.
71. FN7070 See “herr Doctor, nehmt ihr eure cantzel in acht / und bekümmert euch nicht um unser Rahthauß”—(“Doctor [Krumbholtz] take care of your pulpit, but leave our city hall alone”)—in Baltzer Stielckens / Des Ehrbahren Schnürmacher=handwercks in Hamburg / Meisters / Abgenöhtigte Ehren=Rettung / Zu Bezeugung seiner Unschuld Auf Anlaß eines Briefes / die Jacobitische Unruhe betreffend (SAH, Collected volume 33, unpag.), 1703.
72. FN7171 Many contemporary reports mention frays at the conventions between members of the Senate and attacking factions of the citizens. See for this point Rückleben, Die Niederwerfung, 351; Hans-Dieter Loose, “Das Zeitalter der Bürgerunruhen und der großen europäischen Kriege 1618-1712,” in Hamburg: Geschichte der Stadt und ihrer Bewohner, vol. 1, ed. Hans-Dieter Loose and Werner Jochmann (Hamburg, 1982), 259-350.
73. FN7272 BELLUM VOCATIONIS Oder Der Nichts=würdige Krieg und Sieg Uber der sogenannten RENOVATION [. . .] Zum Druck befodert durch Philipp. Antenor (SAH, Collected volume 33, unpag.), 1703. Barthold Feind’s role within the situation in Hamburg aroused several case-studies by Gordon W. Marigold that did not reflect the media logic and print run of the pamphlets. See for example Gordon W. Marigold, “Politics and Literature: Some Aspects of the Works of Barthold Feind,” The Scholarly Community 3 (1979): 17-26; ibid., “Die politischen Schriften Barthold Feinds,” Daphnis 13,3 (1984): 477-523.
74. FN7373 Der Calumnieuse Seil=Tantzer / Welcher sich auf den Hamburgischen GAVOT Allen Ehr=Liebenden Bemühtern zum Spectacul und Scheusahl / In einer Schand=losen und Ehr=vergessenen Schmäh=Charteque Dargestellet / Wird zur wohl=verdienten Ahndung mit gleicher Müntze bezahlet / Durch Philomatem (SAH, Collected volume 124, unpag.), 1703; Der entlarvete Nicolaus Mayer / J.U.L. Oder die demselben ubel defendirte Ehre Des PHILALETHIS, Dargestellet von CHRISTIANO MOTHES, Bonarum literarum amatore (SAH, Collected volume 33, unpag.), 1703.
75. FN7474 Kurtzer Entwurff / Aus des Sich also nennenden PHILOMATHIS Bilder=Historie; Aufs schleunigste entworffen und abgefertiget Von CRISPINO Ungelenck (SAH, Collected volume 33, unpag.), 1703.
76. FN7575 Der Schulfüchsische Gauckler PHILOMATHES [. . .] Wird unpartheyisch und ohne Anzüglichkeiten zur Raison gebracht (SAH, Collected volume 33, unpag.), 1703.
77. FN7676 Flagellum Honoris, Oder Eilfertige Ehren=Rettung / Gegen der schandlosen abermahligen Schmäh=CHARTEQUE Des unverschämten und verlogenen Autors, Des Schul=füchsischen Gaucklers [. . .] Von Philomate (SAH, Collected volume 80, unpag.), 1703.
78. FN7777 D. Joh. Fried. Mayers, / Ihrer Königl. Maj. von Schweden Ober=Kirchen=Rahts und General-Superintendentens in Pommern und Rügen Schreiben An E.E. und Hochw. Raht Der Stadt Hamburg / Die Ersetzung des Pastorats zu St. Jacobi allda betreffend (SAH, Collected volume 33, unpag.), 1703.
79. FN7878 Das verwirrte Haus Jacob / Oder Das gesicht der bestrafften REBELLION an Stilcke und Lütze. Schau-Spiel (SAH, Collected volume 80, unpag.), 1703. A facsimile reproduction of the comedy is available: Barthold Feind. Das verwirrte Haus Jacob. Faksimiledruck der Ausgabe von 1703, ed. Gordon W. Marigold (Bern, 1983).
80. FN7979 Krumbholtz admitted this strategy in the later interrogation of the Imperial Commission. See PROTOCOLLUM & ACTA In Peinlicher Sachen Fiscalis in Criminalibus Ex Officio Inquirentis und Anklägers Contra CHRISTIAN Krumbholtz, interrogation of 8 September 1708, 7-29 (SAH, Collected volume 83, Hamburgische Miscellanea), 1711.
81. FN8080 See the edicts of the Senate from 7 April 1704 (Pasquill so durch den Fron Verlesen und Verbrandt), 26 June 1704 (Specification derer hochärgerl. Pasquillen, so vermöge Rath= und Bürgersschlusses dem 26. Juni zu verbrennen) and 20 August 1704 (Pasquillen durch den Fron verlesen und Verbrandt). All edicts are listed in Alphabetische und chronologische Register [. . .] hamburgischer Mandate und Verordnungen (SAH, 111-1 Senat, Cl.VII Lit. La No. 3 Vol. 8 c 3, unpag.).
82. FN8181 The protocols of the conventions from 1703 onwards are full of comments on the threatening behaviour and illegal actions of Stielcke’s men. See Acta CONVENTUM SENATUS et CIVIUM de ANNO 1703. Die 25, Januar: usque ad ANNUM 1706, die p, Decbr: (SAH, 111-1 Senat, Cl.VII Lit. La No. 1 Vol. 5,9).
83. FN8282 CONTINUATIO des Registers derer bey dem RENOVATIONS-Streit herausgekommenen Schrifften, 1704; Register Der unärgerlichen RENOVATIONS-Streit=Schrifften, 1704; CATALOGUS Oder: Völliges / Richtiges und ordentliches Verzeichniß aller das Jacobitische Pastorat betreffenden Vocation-Renovations Streit=Schrifften, 1704 (all in SAH, Collected volume A638/8, unpag.).
84. FN8383 Edict of the Senate from 24 August 1703 (Mandat, daß niemand bey Gelegenheit der Renovations=Sache einer Prediger=Vocation anzügliche Schriften zu divulgiren sich unterstehen solle). Krumbholtz’ quotation is from the later process against him, documented in print 1711 in PROTOCOLLUM & ACTA In Peinlicher Sachen Fiscalis in Criminalibus Ex Officio Inquirentis und Anklägers Contra CHRISTIAN Krumbholtz, 680.
85. FN8484 Des heiligen Petri, Erwählten Zwölf=Boten / und Ober=Thor=Schliessers des Himmelreichs / Ernstliche Warnung / An Seinen gottlosen / und schalckhafften haushalter / D. Christian Krumbholtz (SAH, Collected volume 124, unpag.), 1706.
86. FN8585 Next to the pressured edict of the senate from 7 April 1706, a burning of the print—in front of the city hall—took place. The slightly varied print, that published the edict again, was titled COPIA E. Hoch=Edlen Raths der Stadt Hamburg DECRETI, Welches Bey Verbrennung Der Schmäh=und Schand=Schrifft / So am 7. Aprilis 1706. herausgekommen / verlesen (SAH, Collected volume 124, unpag.), 1706.
87. FN8686 Theatrum Europaeum, Achtzehender Theil (Frankfurt, 1720), 110.
88. FN8787 Protocol of the meeting of the Geistliches Ministerium from 8 April 1706 (SAH, 511-1, II 5, Protokolle Senior Volckmar, 46).
89. FN8888 The literate and regularly reading public of Hamburg around 1700 was estimated at every fifth inhabitant, i.e. 15,000 persons. See Böning, Welteroberung durch ein neues Publikum, 130. For a detailed interpretation of the listening and reading public sphere in Hamburg see Bellingradt, Flugpublizstik und Öffentlichkeit, 246-250. While for London around 1700 the rate between a copy of a flying print and the listening and reading public was estimated as being 1:40, I am arguing for Hamburg with the rate of 1:30. See for London Karl Tilman Winkler, Wörterkrieg. Politische Debattenkultur in England 1689-1750 (Stuttgart, 1998), 811.
90. FN8989 For the origins of the revolution of 1647 see Rosario Villari, The Revolt of Naples (Cambridge, 1993).
91. FN9090 MASAGNIELLO FURIOSO / Oder: Die Neapolitanische Fischer-Empörung. Musicalisches Schau-Spiel / im Junio 1706. praesentiret. The opera was never staged, but at least three different editions of it, all from June 1706, are verifiable. See for further details Gerhard Dünnhaupt, “Barthold Feind d.J.,” in Personalbibliographien zu den Drucken des Barock, ed. ibid. (Stuttgart, 1991), vol. 2, 1437-1456, esp. 1443.
92. FN9191 “Ich bleib bey meinem Meinungs=Saltz / Und räum sonst nicht des Kampfes=Platz / Es ist fürwahr absurdes Wesen / Daß Vak mein Schrifften nicht will lesen / Und will zu schreiben fahren fort / Zu haben nur das letzte Wort.” Quotation from following anonymous print: Wieder den Ungerechten / Unzeitigen Ban=Donner Seiner Ehrw. Tit. Herrn M. Johannis Vaken (SAH, Collected volume 161, unpag.), 1706.
93. FN9292 The list was titled Designatio, der verbrannten Pasquille, handed-in at the convention of 31 March 1707, and included twenty-four titles of printed pamphlets, that were either against the renewal of appointment, the political demands of Stielcke’s men, against Krumbholtz or one of the several pseudonyms of Carsten Thode. A varied list was handed-in on 4 August 1707. See the protocol of the convention from 31 March and 4 August 1707 Acta CONVENTUM SENATUS et CIVIUM de ANNO 1707, Die 13, Januarii usque ad: ANNUM 1710, Die 24, Novembris (SAH, 111-1 Senat, Cl. VII Lit. La No. 1 Vol. 5,10, 69-70 and 123).
94. FN9393 Rückleben, Die Niederwerfung, 356.
95. FN9494 Bartholdi Feindii. Jur. Ut. Lic. Abgenöhtigte Sanfftmühtige Züchtigung / Zur Warnung und Besserung des Predigers zu St. Peter in Hamburg / Christian Krumbholtzen [. . .] Allen Unwissenden zur Information, denen Verführten zur Besserung / und denen Unpassionirten zur vernünfftigen Beurteilung and Licht gegeben (SAH, Collected volume 124, unpag.), 1707.
96. FN9595 See the report of the sermon held in the Church of St. Petri on 29 January 1708 in Theatrum Europaeum, Achtzehender Theil (Frankfurt, 1720), 111.
97. FN9696 About fifty titles of these mainly diplomatic prints from April and May 1708 can be found in SAH, Collected volume 7.
98. FN9797 The actions taken by the imperial commission from 1708 onwards are summed up in Gerd Augner, Die kaiserliche Kommission der Jahre 1708-1712. Hamburgs Beziehungen zu Kaiser und Reich zu Anfang des 18. Jahrhunderts (Hamburg, 1983).
99. FN9898 See for example Der sich selbst zum Tode verurtheilende Doctor Christian Krumbholtz. Zur Rettung seiner Ehre und Leumuths / Wider Die gräuliche Lästerungen (SAH, Collected volume 215, Num. LIV), 1708; Derer Beyden Gefährden SEMPRONII und TITII Reise=Discurses Erste CONTINUATION über die Von L. Barthold Feinden Wider Herrn D. Christian Krumbholtzen im nächst=verflossenen Monat Junio abermahls ausgespyene Lügen und Lästerungen (SAH, Collected volume 215, Num. LXIX), 1708; Des gefangenen DOCTOR N. Selbst=Streit In einem Schrifft= mäßigen Morgen=Lied: Nach der Melodie: O Ewigkeit / du Donner=Wort / etc. zum Andencken (SAH, Collected volume 215, Num. LXXVIII), 1708. Further see the many editcs of the Imperial Commission of 1710 against “Schmäh=und Lügen=Schriften”, “Pasquillanten und Pasquillen”, and “injurieuse Schrifften” (Anzeige und Warnung, daß die Autores der Schmäh= und Lügen=Schriften wider die Kaiserl. Commission, wenn sie entdeckt werden, als Pasquillanten, ja Stöhrer der innerlichen Ruhe, alles Ernstes gestrafet werden sollen, from 2 January 1710; Mandat die Pasquillanten und Pasquillen betr., from 9 January 1710; Mandat wider die pasquillanten: injurieuse Charteques und Pasquillen auf frembde hohe Puissancen, from April 11 1710; etc.). A full list of the contemporary edicts is listed in Bellingradt, Flugpublizistik und Öffentlichkeit, 454-457.
100. FN9999 On 13 February 1711 Krumbholtz was found guilty of being the “Dictatus summus” (general dictator) of the events in Hamburg. Stielcke was characterized as “Haupt- und Rädelsführer” (ringleader) and “dictator perpetuus in Republica” (the dictator of the ground troops in the conventions). See the full verdicts: PROTOCOLLUM & ACTA In Peinlicher Sachen Fiscalis in Criminalibus Ex Officio Inquirentis und Anklägers Contra CHRISTIAN Krumbholtz and PROTOCOLLUM ET ACTA In peinlicher Sachen Fiscalis in Criminalibus Ex Officio Inquirentis und Anklägers Contra Baltzer Stielcken (SAH, Collected volume 83, Hamburgische Miscellanea), 1711. In the following year, 1712, the Imperial Commission ended its work in Hamburg with the Great Recess of 1712, and handed the control of the city back to the Senate and the Bürgerschaft. This time the enforced arrangements held until 1840. See Lindemann, Patriots and Paupers.
101. FN100100 A full list of the seventy-seven pseudonyms and of all 259 titles can be found in Bellingradt, Flugpublizistik und Öffentlichkeit, 409-450.
102. FN101101 Vernunfft-mäßiger Staats=DISCURS, über Gegenwärtigen Zustand Der Welt=berühmten Stadt Hamburg / Gehalten Auf der Börse / Zwischen Einem unpartheyischen Frembden Und Einem Vernunfft-liebenden Hambürger (SAH, Collected volume 215, Num. LXXXIX), 1708. It is worth mentioning that “Staats-Discurs” is not to be translated as “state debate,” because the Imperial Free City of Hamburg was not a state (neither separately or within the Holy Roman Empire).
103. FN102102 I am only following the phrase created by M. McLuhan, The Gutenberg Galaxy(London, 1962) to refer to the contemporary increased use of printed media from the fifteenth century onwards.
104. FN103103 The path of interpretation that the phenomenon of a relevant public sphere as a principle can firstly be seen between mid and late seventeenth century in England (and that development on the European continent was delayed by 100 to 150 years) was prominently supported for a long time. See for recent examples David Zaret, Origins of democratic Culture. Printing, Petitions, and the Public Sphere in Early Modern England (Princeton, 2000); H. Barker, Newspapers, Politics, and English Society 1695-1855 (London, 2000). Nevertheless, critic on this interpretative path has been put forward by Peter Lake and Steven Pincus, “Rethinking the Public Sphere in Early Modern England,” The Journal of British Studies 45 (2006): 270-92; The Public Sphere in Early Modern England, ed. Peter Lake and Steven Pincus (Manchester, 2008).
105. FN104104 Elizabeth Eisenstein, The Printing Press as an Agent of Change: Communications and Cultural Transformations in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge, 1979).
106. FN105105 Due to censorship, licensing procedures and the fear of governmental bans and fines, the contents of printed periodicals of early modern Europe were almost neutral. See for this point Sonja Schultheiß-Heinz, Politik in der europäischen Publizistik. Eine historische Inhaltsangabe von Zeitungen des 17. Jahrhunderts (Stuttgart, 2004).
107. FN106106 Continuatio Secunda & Ultima Elenchi Scriptorum polemicorum Hamburgensinm circa Renovationis controversiam, oder Zweyte und vielleicht letzte Eröffnung der RENOVATIONS-Streit=Schrifften=Classen (SAH, Collected volume A638/8, unpag.), 1703.
108. FN107107 See for the state of research on this complex in German speaking Europe: Die Medien der Geschichte. Historizität und Medialität in interdisziplinärer Perspektive, eds. Fabio Crivellari, Kay Kirchmann, Marcus Sandl and Rudolf Schlögl (Constance, 2004).

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Affiliations: 1: University of Erfurt


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