FN0* I would like to thank Sheryl Reiss and Thomas Cohen for reading a rough draft of this essay and for giving me their insightful advice.
FN11 Anonymous, Diario delle funzioni fatte dentro e fuori del conclave (Florence, 1655), 1.
FN22 The classic works on the politics of the conclave are those of the Catholic Ludwig von Pastor, The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, 40 vols. (London, 1898-1953) and Protestant Leopold von Ranke, The History of the Popes: Their Church and State and Especially their Conflicts with Protestantism in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, vols. II and III (London, 1847-48). More recent and less confessional works on the politics of the conclave include: Frederic J. Baumgartner, Behind Locked Doors: A History of the Papal Elections (New York, 2003), Alberto Melloni, Il conclave: Storia di una istituzione (Bologna, 2001), and Agostino Paravicini Bagliani, The Pope’s Body, trans. David S. Peterson (Chicago, 1999), and several articles in Court and Politics in Papal Rome, 1492-1700, ed. Gianvittorio Signorotto and Maria Antonietta Visceglia (Cambridge, 2002). Until the beginning of the sixteenth century the conclave was often held in locations outside the Vatican and, at times, even outside Rome.
FN33 For the politicized spaces of Rome, see Laurie Nussdorfer, “The Politics of Space in Early Modern Rome,” Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome 42 (1997): 161-86.
FN44 On the avvisi, see Salvatore Bongi, “Le prime gazette in Italia,” Nuova antologia 11 (1896): 31-46; Mario Infelise, “Roman Avvisi: Information and Politics in the Seventeenth Century,” in Court and Politics in Papal Rome, 212-28; Cesare D’Onofrio, “Gli ‘Avvisi’ di Roma dal 1554 al 1605,” Studi Romani 10 (1962): 529-48; Brendan Dooley, The Social History of Skepticism: Experience and Doubt in Early Modern Culture (Baltimore, 1999): 9-44 and “De bonne main: les pourvoyeurs de nouvelles à Rome au XVIIe siècle,” Annales: Histoire, Sciences sociales 6 (1999): 1317-44; and Filippo de Vivo, Information and Communication in Venice: Rethinking Early Modern Politics (Cambridge, 2007), 80-85. On rumor as means of communication, see Jean-Nöel Kapferer, Rumors: Uses, Interpretations and Images, trans. Bruce Fink (New Brunswick, 1990 ), 82-84; Adam Fox, “Rumor, News and Popular Public Opinion in Elizabeth and Early Stuart England,” The Historical Journal 40 (1997): 592-620; and Fama: The Politics of Talk and Reputation in Medieval Europe, ed. Thelma Fenster and Daniel Lord Smail (Ithaca, 2003).
FN55 Infelise, “Roman Avvisi,” 214.
FN77 Biblioteca Apsotolica Vaticana (BAV), Urbinati latini (Urb.lat) 1055, avviso of November 14, 1587, fol. 478v.
FN88 See Laurie Nussdorfer, Civic Politics in the Rome of Urban VIII (Princeton, 1992), 228-53 and “The Vacant See: Ritual and Protest in Early Modern Rome,” Sixteenth Century Journal 18 (1987): 173-89. Also see John M. Hunt, “Violence and Disorder in the Sede Vacante of Early Modern Rome, 1559-1655” (Ph.D. diss., Ohio State University, 2009), especially chapters six and seven.
FN99 On popular expectations of papal elections, see Carlo Ginzburg, “Ritual Pillages: A Preface to Research in Progress,” in Microhistory and the Lost Peoples of Europe, ed. Edward Muir and Guido Ruggiero (Baltimore, 1991): 20-41.
FN1010 Peter Lake and Steven Pincus, “Rethinking the Public Sphere in Early Modern England,” in The Politics of the Public Sphere in Early Modern England, ed. Lake and Pincus (Manchester, 2007), 5-6, 10, and 18-19.
FN1111 Brendan Dooley, “News and Doubt in Early Modern Culture: Or, Are We Having a Public Sphere Yet?” in The Politics of Information in Early Modern Europe, ed. Brendan Dooley and Sabrina A. Baron (London, 2000), 275-90.
FN1212 Venetian governing elites sought to shroud the election of the doge in a similar cloak of silence, but failed as Vivo argues in his Information and Communication in Venice, 40-45. On the ducal election, see Edward Muir, Civic Ritual in Renaissance Venice (Princeton, 1981), 279-81.
FN1313 John M. Hunt, “The Ceremonies of the Conclave and Print Culture in Baroque Rome,” paper presented at Ritual and Ceremony: Late Medieval Europe to Early America, a Summer NEH Institute directed by Claire Sponsler, Folger Institute, 2011. Hyperlink: http://www.folger.edu/folger_institute/ritual_ceremony/themes/conclave/john-hunt/.
FN1414 On the bulls Ubi Periculum and In Eligendis, see Niccolò Del Re, La curia romana: lineamenti storico-guiridi, 4th edition (Vatican City, 1998), 461-94, and Lorenzo Spinelli, La vacanza della Sede apostolic dalle origini al Concilio tridentino (Milan, 1955), and Melloni, Il conclave, 45-47 and 58.
FN1515 On factionalism in the conclave, see Maria Antonietta Visceglia, “Factions in the Sacred College in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries,” in Court Politics in Papal Rome, 103-09 and 114-121. On the squadrone volante, or “flying squadron,” see Gianvittorio Signorotto in the same volume, 177-211.
FN1616 Quoted in Baumgartner, Behind Locked Doors, 104. For the four hundred conclavists, see the dispatch of Matteo Dandolo of January 15, 1550 in Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts Relating to English Affairs in the Archives and Collections of Venice (CSP), vol. IV (1534-54), ed. Rawdon Brown (Nendeln, Liechtenstein, 1970 ), 298.
FN1717 On the bulls and their influence, see Visceglia, “Factions in the Sacred College,” 105-06.
FN1818 On the artisan patrols, see Nussdorfer, Civic Politics, 80-81 and 238, and Hunt, “Violence and Disorder,” 51-55, 63-69 and 98-104.
FN1919 On the ecclesiastical governor of Borgo, see Niccolò Del Re, “Il Governatore di Borgo,” Studi romani 11 (1863): 20.
FN2020 Niccolò Del Re, Il Maresciallo di Santa Romana Chiesa: Custode del Conclave (Rome, 1962), 50-51.
FN2121 Anonymous, A New History of the Roman Conclave (London, 1691), 9.
FN2222 BAV, Urb.lat 1039, avviso of September 23, 1559, fols. 85r-v.
FN2323 Archivio Segreto Vaticano (ASV), Conclavi, “Lettere spedite per la morte di Clemente VIII, Leone XI, Paolo V, e Gregorio XV,” letter of March 19, 1605 from Monsignor Serra to the Capi degli Ordini, fol. 90r. A testament to the openness of the conclave can be seen in an avviso of March 23, 1606, that revealed the incident to a court and city, see BAV, Urb.lat 1073, fol. 141r.
FN2424 Leti, Ceremonies of the Vacant See, trans. J. Davies (London, 1671), 25-26.
FN2525 Dispatch of Matteo Dandolo of February 1, 1550, CSP, 5:306.
FN2626 Del Re, La curia romana, 485-87.
FN2727 Leti, Ceremonies of the Vacant See, 26-27.
FN2828 For the avviso of September 12, 1590, see BAV, Urb.lat 1058, fol. 467r. For the avviso of September 23, 1559, see BAV, Urb.lat 1039, fol. 85r.
FN2929 ASV, Conclavi, “Conclavi da Pio II a Innocenzo X,” fol. 453r. The source is one of many official diaries of conclavists found in the Vatican Secret Archives. These accounts are a great sources of the politicking of the cardinals inside the conclave, but rarely give much insight on the communication and discussion that took place outside the Sistine Chapel.
FN3030 Dispatch of Matteo Dandolo of January 15, 1550, CSP, 5:298.
FN3131 BAV, Urb.lat 1040, avviso of January 15, 1566, fol. 161v.
FN3232 For both episodes, see Giacinto Gigli, Diario di Roma, ed. Manlio Barberito (Rome, 1994), 2:427 and 737.
FN3333 BAV, Urb.lat 1058,avviso of November 24, 1590, fol. 610v.
FN3434 ASV, Segretario, Avvisi, t. 9, avviso of July 23, 1623, fol. 205r.
FN3535 Thomas James Dandelet, Spanish Rome, 1500-1700 (New Haven, 2001), 35-36, 58-60, 65-67, 72 and 87. For a contrasting view of Spanish power in Rome, see Michael J. Levin, Agents of Empire: Spanish Ambassadors in Sixteenth-Century Italy (Ithaca, 2005), 63-64, 69-72, 78-79, 115-16, and 124-26.
FN3636 BAV, Chigiani R II, t. 67, fols. 15v-17r, letter from the Viceroy of Naples to Giulio Savelli, November 22, 1664.
FN3737 Dispatch of Matteo Dandolo of December 7, 1549, CSP, 5:281.
FN3838 Baumgartner, Behind Locked Doors, 118.
FN3939 ASV, Segretario, Avvisi, t. 96, avviso of September 3, 1644, fol. 235r.
FN4040 Archivio di Stato di Roma (ASR), Tribunale Criminale di Governatore (TCG), Costituti, vol. 411, testimony of Gaspar Sellaro Romano, October 23, 1590, fol. 74r. For other commoners arrested for gambling see the testimonies of Marco Floridio d’Andria, a hatmaker; Salvatore Filippi Senese, a tailor’s apprentice; and Gian Antonio Peraccha Milanese, a mason, of October and November of 1590, in ASR, TCG, Costituti, vol. 407, fols. 99r-v, 123v-24r, and 127v-28r, as well as those of Girolamo Lanni da Montepulciano, a goldbeater; Pietro Tornaroli Romano, a shopkeeper’s apprentice; and Fracesco da Tolentino, a tailor, of December 1590 in ASR, TCG, Costituti, vol. 409, fols. 198v-99r and 209r-v.
FN4141 For Ceuli, see the dispatch of Matteo Dandolo of February 12, 1550, CSP, 5:310. For the bankruptcies in Florentine merchants, see BAV, Urb.lat 1058, avviso of December 22, 1590, fol. 668v. For the brokers who organized the wagers in sixteenth-century Rome, see Francesco Colzi, “‘Per maggiore felicità del commercio’: I sensali e la mediazione mercantile e finanziaria a Roma nei secoli XVI-XIX, Roma moderna e contemporanea 6 (1998): 404. Cardinal Santa Severina was Giulio Antonio Santori; he was the archbishop of that Calabrian town.
FN4242 For Dandolo’s dispatch of January 15, 1550, see CSP, 5:298. For the cardinals placing bets at the Banchi, see Archivio di Stato di Venezia (ASVz), Dispacci, Roma, filza 26, dispatch of November 29, 1590, fol. 139r. During the same vacant see, a servant of Sixtus V’s sister, Camilla Peretti, was arrested by papal police for placing a bet of five hundred scudi in her name with the brokers; see ASR, TCG, vol. 411, testimony of Giovan Battista Baldessaro Veneziano, October 23, 1590, fol. 76v.
FN4343 The Medici Archive Project, Medicio del Principato, Carteggio dei Segretari, vol. 1234a, parte 2, letter of Piero de’ Medici to Piero Usimbardi, April 13, 1585, unpaginated. De’ Medici wrote that he wanted “to pass the time making some wagers as is usually done during the vacant see.” Wagering took place in other large cities in Tuscany. At the end of the vacant see of Urban VII, the granducal criminal tribunal, the Otto, sequestered the property and wagering tickets of Pisan and Florentine merchants, see BAV, Urb.lat 1058, avviso of December 22, 1590, fol. 668v.
FN4444 Dispatch of Matteo Dandolo of December 5, 1550, CSP, 5:280-81.
FN4646 BAV, Chigiani R II, t. 54, letter of Giovanni Cagarra to the Bishop of Feltre, May 11, 1555, fol. 229r.
FN4747 ASR, TCG, Costituti, vol. 411, testimony of Giovannu Aghilar Spagnolo, October 23, 1590, fols. 72r-v.
FN4848 For Dandolo’s dispatch of November 13, 1590; see CSP, 5:276. The brackets are the addition of the editor Rawdon Brown. For Stangheli’s of November 8, 1559; see Archivio di Stato di Mantova (hereafter ASM), Carteggio, filza 889, dispatch to the Duke Gonzaga of Mantova, fol. 685r.
FN4949 Letter of Giovanni Tommaso Vertua to Count Brunoro de Gambara of September 13, 1559, in Roberto Rezzaghi, “Cronaca di un conclave: L’Elezione di Pio IV (1559),” Salesianum 48 (1986): 537. Cardinal Puteo was the Archbishop of Bari.
FN5050 BAV, Urb.lat 1058 of October 13, 1590, fol. 525v. The Tuscan ambassador Giovanni Niccolini also traced the origin of the rumor to the Banchi, where, he wrote, that Paleotti shot up to fifty and sixty in the wagering and that his coat-of-arms was seen throughout the city with the papal miter. The College of Cardinals ordered the Governor of Rome to punish several brokers and Florentine merchants; see Archivio di Stato di Firenze, Mediceo del Principato, Carteggio Diplomatico, Rome, filza 3301, letter of Giovanni Niccolini to the Grand Duke of October 2, 1590, fol. 208r.
FN5151 Ibid., fols. 525v-26r. The brokers kept “intelligence, traffic, and commerce” with those inside the conclave by making scaffolds from which they could talk to their spies and receive detailed news “of the election.”
FN5252 For other examples, see BAV, Urb.lat 1039, avviso of November 11, 1559, fol. 101v and Urb.lat 1053, avviso of April 17, 1585, fol. 177v.
FN5353 BAV, Chigiani R II, t. 54, letter of Giovanni Cagarra to the Bishop of Feltre, May 11, 1555, fols. 230v-31r.
FN5454 BAV, Urb.lat 1038, avviso of May 4, 1555, fol. 54r.
FN5555 BAV, Urb.lat 1053, avviso of April 20, 1585, fol. 184r.
FN5656 For the bando establishing the thirty brokers, see ASV, Bando Sciolti, ser. I, busta 2, bando of August 10, 1588, 40. Six months earlier, Caetani issued a bando forbidding wagering on feast days because of “scant respect” it carried towards such holy days; see Ibid., bando of February 19, 1588, 64. The Apostolic Chamber imposed a fine of five hundred scudi on brokers and their clients caught making wagers on feast days. This bando also tried to limit the amount people could wager to twenty-five scudi. Unable to stop the wagering at the Banchi, Caetani reissued the same provisions in a bando of July 10, 1589; see ASV, Miscellenea Armadio [Misc. Arm] IV & V, t. 203, 518.
FN5757 ASV, Misc. Arm. IV & V, t. 203, bandi of September 2 and December 28, 1588, 520 and 524.
FN5858 ASC, Misc. Arm. IV & V, t. 203, bando of December 17, 1587, 527. The Apostolic Chamber fined lords and gentlemen five hundred scudi for wagering on the promotion of cardinals; artisans and “people of low condition” were sent to the galleys for five years and lost their wagers. Jews who bought and sold wagering tickets lost their money and were sent to the galleys in perpetuam. Brokers could also be sent to galleys.
FN5959 ASV, Misc. Arm. IV & V, t. 203, bando of December 5, 1989, 526. Just four months earlier, he had imposed regulations on maschio et femina, but had not outlawed it; see ASV, Misc. Arm IV & V, t. 203, bando of July 31, 1589, 589.
FN6060 BAV, Urb.lat 1058, avviso of September 12, 1590, fol. 466r.
FN6161 BAV, Urb.lat 1058, avviso of October 17, 1590, f. 536r.
FN6464 BAV, Urb.lat 1058, avviso of October 27, 1590, fol. 556r. Other brokers and their clients met under the protection of the franchigia of the Florentine ambassador; see ASR, TCG, Costituti, vol. 411, testimony of Giovanni Aghilar Spagnolo, October 23, 1590, fol. 73r. For the testimonies of the many brokers, merchants and artisans arrested at the Sforza franchigia, see ASR, TCG, Costituti, vol. 407, fols. 95r-130r and vol. 9, fols. 199r-209v.
FN6565 Yale University, Beinecke Library, no. 254, “Bolla della Santità di N. S. Gregorio PP contra chi fa scommesse sopra la vita & morte ò sopra la futura elettione del Pontefice Romano ò sopra le promotioni dei Cardinali della Santa Chiesa Romana,” March 21, 1591.
FN6767 BAV, Urb.lat 1059, pt. II, avviso of November 2, 1591.
FN6868 ASVz, Dispacci, Rome, filza 29, dispatch of January 18, 1592, fol. 334r.
FN6969 ASV, Misc. Arm. IV & V, t. 26, bando of March 5, 1605, 212.
FN7070 On pasquinades, see Massimo Firpo, “Pasquinate romane del Cinquecento,” Rivista storica italiana 96 (1984): 600-21; Renato Silenzi and Fernando Silenzi, Pasquino: Quattro secoli di satira romana (Milan, 1932); and Anne Reynolds, “Cardinal Oliviero Carafa and the Early Cinquecento Feast of Pasquino,” Humanistica Lovaniensia 34A (1985): 178-208. For recent works, see Ottavia Nicoli, Rinascimento anticlericale: Infamia, propaganda e satira in Italia tra Quattro e Cinquecento (Rome-Bari, 2005) and Ex marmore: Pasquini, pasquinisti, pasquinate nell’Europa modera: Atti del colloquio internazionale, Leece-Otranto, 17-19 novembre 2005, ed. Chrysa Damianaki, Paolo Procaccioli, and Angelo Romano (Manziana, 2006).
FN7171 On literacy among early modern Romans, see Armando Petrucci, “Scrittura, alfabetismo ed educazione grafica nella Roma del primo Cinquecento,” Scrittura e Civiltà 2 (1978): 163-207 and idem, Scrittura e popolo nella Roma barocca (Rome, 1982).
FN7272 Biblioteca Casantense (BC), MS, cod. 1832; Teodoro Ameyden, “Diario della città e corte di Roma degli anni 1644-1645 notata da Deone, Temi Dio,” fol. 131; and Gigli, Diario, 2:429.
FN7373 The Getty Research Institute (GRI), MS, “Il diario di Gioseffe Gualdi, 1651-55,” t. II, fols. 19v-20r.
FN7474 Gregorio Leti, Conclavi de’ romani pontefici quale si sono potuti trovare fin à questo giorno (n.p., 1667), 283-84.
FN7575 Gigli, Diario, 2:430.
FN7777 BAV, Urb.lat 1073, avviso of March 5, 1605, fol. 101r.
FN7878 Gigli, Diario, 2:431.
FN7979 See Ginzburg, “Ritual Pillages,” 20-41.
FN8080 BAV, Urb.lat 1060, avviso of January 18, 1592, fol. 36r.
FN8181 GRI, MS, “Diario di Gioseffe Gualdi,” t. II, fol. 26v.
FN8282 Gigli, Diario, 2:735.
FN8383 GRI, MS, “Diario di Gioseffe Gualdi,” t. II, fol. 39r.
FN8484 Jöelle Rollo-Koster, Raiding Saint Peter: Empty Sees, Violence, and the Initiation of the Great Western Schism (1378) (Leiden, 2008). See also Renaud Villard, “ ‘Incarnare una voce’: Il caso della sede vacante (Roma, XVI secolo,” Quarderni storici 101 (2006): 39-68, who argues that the rumors reflect a vox populi. See also Spinelli, La vacanza, ch. 1; Melloni, Il conclave, 19-34; Lucius Lector, Le conclave: Origines-histiore, organisation, legislation ancienne et modern (Paris, 1894), 8-12; and George Boas, Vox Populi: Essays in the History of an Idea (Baltimore, 1969), 8-13. On the efforts to hide factionalism in the early medieval accounts of papal elections, see Philip Daileader, “One Will, One Voice, and Equal Love: Papal Elections and the Liber Pontificalis in the Early Middle Ages,” Archivium Historiae Pontificiae 31 (1993): 11-31.
FN8585 BAV, Chigiani R II, letter to the Bishop of Feltre of May 18, 1555, fols. 233r-34r.
FN8686 Giulio Coggiola, “I Farnesi ed il Conclave di Paolo IV,” Studi storici 11 (1990): 457.
FN8787 BAV, Urb.lat 1038, avviso of May 18, 1555, fol. 62v. The avviso described Rome as “topsy-turvey” at this time and along with Cagarra gave the rankings at the Banchi. The writer of the avviso gave a different account of the rumor’s origin, writing that it was caused by a conclavist who shouted Farnese’s name from the conclave. Either way, the results demonstrate the populace’s desire for Farnese.
FN8888 ASM, Carteggio, Rome, filza 889, dispatch of November 4, 1559, fol. 684r.
FN8989 Bruno Gatto, “Il diario di Lelio Della Valle,” in Archivio della società romana di storia patria 105 (1982): 254.
FN9191 Farnese died in 1589, but in the conclave of the following year, Cardinal Marcantonio Colonna, scion of a venerable Roman family, proved a popular candidate. Rumors fixated on his election and on October 11, 1590, they grew so believable that crowds attempted to sack his family palaces throughout the city. Another popular candidate, Cardinal Serafino Razali, although not a Roman, was the favorite of the streets in the conclave of 1605. An avviso of that year reported that Serafino “would be pope if one went by the gossip of the people which believed he would provide for abundance and would be a good pastor.” For the Colonna, ASVz, Dispacci, Rome, filza 26, dispatch of Alberto Badoer to the Venetian Senate, October 13, 1590, fols. 113r-v. For Serafino, see ASV, Segretario di Stato, Avvisi, t. 1, avviso of May 7, 1605, fol. 9r.
FN9292 For early modern states’ fear of popular figures, see Paul Hammer, “The Smiling Crocodile: The Earl of Essex and Late Elizabethan Popularity,” in Politics of the Public Sphere, 95-115.
FN9393 For example, see ASV, Segretario, Avvisi, t. 1, avviso of May 11, 1605, fol. 15r and BC, MS, cod. 1832, Teodoro Ameyden, “Diario della città e corte” fols. 121, 130, and 134-35.
FN9494 John Florio, News from Rome (London, 1585), unpaginated.
FN9595 See, for example, the conclave of Paul V (1605); Remi Couzard, Une Ambassode à Rome sous Henri IV (Septembre 1601-Jiun 1605) d’apres documents inedits (Paris, 1900), 380-81.
FN9696 BC, MS, cod. 1832, Teodoro Ameyden, “Diario della città e corte,” fols. 114-15.
FN9797 BAV, Urb.lat 1058, avviso of December 22, 1590, f. 161r.
FN9898 For the rumors and joy at his election, see ASV, Segretario, Avvisi, t. 1, avviso of May 18, 1605, f. 266v and Couzard, Une Ambassode, 386.
FN9999 Jürgen Habermas, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society (Cambridge, MA 1989 ).
FN100100 See the testimonies of Marcantonio Luca Romano, Pietro Lorenzo Perotti, and Francesco da Tolentino of December 4, 1590 in ASR, TCG, Costituti, vol. 409, fols. 204v, 208v, and 209v.
FN101101 Habermas defines the public sphere as “a forum in which the private people, come together to form a public, readied themselves to compel public authority to legitimate itself before public opinion.” Quoted Habermas, Structural Transformation, 25-26.
FN102102 Ernst H. Kantorowicz, “Mysteries of State: An Absolutist Concept and Its Late Medieval Origins,” The Harvard Theological Review 48 (1955): 65-91. See also Carlo Ginzburg, “The High and the Low: The Theme of Forbidden Knowledge in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries,” in idem, Clues, Myths and the Historical Method (Baltimore, 1989), 60-76 and James C. Scott, Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts (New Haven, 1990).