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Full Access Vanquish the Haughty and Spare the Subjected: A Study of Bernard of Clairvaux’s Position on Muslims and Jews

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Vanquish the Haughty and Spare the Subjected: A Study of Bernard of Clairvaux’s Position on Muslims and Jews

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Abstract The Jews and the Muslims drew the attention of the twelfth Century Cistercian abbot Bernard of Clairvaux, and his words and actions had consequences for both communities. Despite his many demeaning comments about Jews and Judaism, he defended Jews from Crusader attacks, and he believed that Jews would convert to Christianity prior to the end of the world. On the other hand, he promoted the Second Crusade for the purpose of defending Jerusalem from Muslim invasion. He had no interest in converting Muslims to Christianity, only killing them if they continued their threat on the Holy Land. A close examination of Bernard’s writings reveals that his position on Jews and Muslims was not merely a reflection of church policy, but a means to advance his personal spiritual desire of union with God.

1. FN11 The letter to the French and Bavarians is Epistola 363, found in Sancti Bernardi Opera (hereafter referred to as SBO), eds Jean Leclercq and Henri Rochais (Rome: Editiones Cisternes, 1957-1977), VIII:311-317. The letter to the people of England is Letter 391, found in an English translation in Bernard of Clairvaux, The Letters of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, trans. Bruno Scott James (Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1998), 460-463. The two letters are similar with a few minor differences in wording.
2. FN22 Est autem christianae pietatis, ut debellare superbos, sic parcere subiectis. Epistola 363, SBO VIII:317; Letter 391, The Letters of St. Bernard, 463.
3. FN33 See James Kritzek, Peter the Venerable and Islam (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1964).
4. FN44 See Rebecca Moore, Jews and Christians in the Life and Thought of Hugh of St. Victor (Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1998).
5. FN55 Richard Storrs makes the case that Bernard’s example and words in the protection of the German Jews at the start of the Second Crusade “distinctly affected the attitude toward the Jews from that time on, and were always a defense for persecuted people.” See Richard S. Storrs, Bernard of Clairvaux—The Times, The Man, and His Work (New York, NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1907), 180-181. Edward H. Flannery lauds Bernard’s courage in protecting the Jews saying that Bernard was of a different mind from Peter the Venerable, who wrote an angry letter to King Louis VII of France urging that the Jews be punished. See Edward H. Flannery, The Anguish of the Jews—Twenty-three Centuries of Antisemiticism (New York, NY: Paulist Press, 1985), 94-95. J. A. Watt writes that Bernard “constructed a theological defence of Jews which he propagated widely.” See J. A. Watt, “The Crusades and the Persecution of the Jews,” in The Medieval World, ed. Peter Linehan and Janet L. Nelson (London: Routledge, 2001), 154. On the other hand, Robert Chazan notes that even though Bernard denounced crusader attacks on Jews, he did not challenge the imagery of Jews as historic enemies of Christianity. See Robert Chazan, The Jews of Medieval Western Christendom: 1000-1500 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 68. Lester Little writes that Bernard fostered the mentality that led to Christian violence against the Jews. See Lester K. Little, “The Jews in Christian Europe,” in Essential Papers on Judaism and Christianity in Conflict—From Late Antiquity to the Reformation, ed. Jeremy Cohen (New York, NY: New York University Press, 1991), 283-284. Christopher Tyerman adds that Bernard’s general message of intolerance spilled over into anti-Jewish violence in the Rhineland at the beginning of the Second Crusade. See Christopher Tyerman, Fighting for Christianity—Holy War and the Crusades (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), 48.
6. FN66 David Berger, “The Attitude of St. Bernard of Clairvaux toward the Jews,” American Academy for Jewish Research XL (1972):104. One example given by Berger is found in a letter written by Bernard to Alphonsus, Count of St. Gilles, concerning a heretic named Henry. Among Henry’s heresies were the denial of infant baptism, the denial that the body and blood of Christ are really offered at the altar, and the assertion that prayers for the dead are ridiculous. Bernard described Henry as closing his eyes to the truth with “more than Jewish blindness” (prorsus Iudaica caecitate). See Letter 241, SBO VIII:126; Letter 317, The Letters of St. Bernard, 387-388.
7. FN77 Berger, 107.
8. FN88 Gavin Langmuir writes that by the year 400, divine punishment of the Jews for killing Christ was one of the basic elements of the doctrine about the Jews and Judaism developed by individual churchmen that would endure almost until the present, although it was not set down in an official document. See Gavin I. Langmuir, “Faith of Christians and Hostility to Jews,” in Christianity and Judaism, ed. Diana Wood (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1992), 81.
9. FN99 Verbum asperum fuit, quod protulit domus exasperans, populus Iudaeorum: Tolle, tolle, crucifige eum! Quam horribile verbum, quam asperum, quam crudele! Vere dentes eorum arma et sagittae, et lingua eorum gladius acutus. Sermo 3, In Psalmum, “Qui Habitat,” SBO IV:394; Bernard of Clairvaux, Sermons on Conversion, trans. Marie-Bernard Saïd (Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1981), 131.
10. FN1010 Hoc verbum asperum tu sustinuisti, Domine. Cur, nisi ut nos liberares a verbo aspero? Sermo 3, In Psalmum, “Qui Habitat,” SBO IV:394; Sermons on Conversion, 131.
11. FN1111 Fodiendas expone Iudaeo manus tuas et pedes, ut procedat qui in eis latet thesaurus salutis et copiosa redemptio. Sermo 2, In Navitate, SBO IV:255; Bernard of Clairvaux, Sermons for Advent and the Christmas Season, trans. Irene Edmonds, Wendy Mary Beckett, Conrad Greenia (Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 2007), 111.
12. FN1212 Si omnis caro fenum, ergo carnalis ille populus Iudaeorum fenum fuit. Annon fenum aruit, dum idem populus ab omni spiritus pinguedine vacuus, siccae litterae adhaesit? Annon etiam flos decidit, quando gloriatio quam habebant in lege, remansit? Si flos non decidit, ubi ergo regnum, ubi sacerdotium, ubi Prophetae, ubi templum, ubi denique magnalia illa, de quibus gloriari solebant et dicere: “Quanta audivimus et cognovimus ea, et patres nostri narraverunt nobis,” et iterum: “Quanta mandavit patribus nostris nota facere ea filiis suis?” Homilia I, In Laudibus Virginis Matris, SBO IV:17; Bernard of Clairvaux, Homilies In Praise of the Blessed Virgin Mary, trans. Marie-Bernard Saïd (Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1993), 8-9.
13. FN1313 Sermo 1, Dominica Prima Post Octavam Epiphaniae, SBO IV:315-316; Bernard of Clairvaux, “On the Chant: O Judah and Jerusalem,” in Sermons for Advent and the Christmas Season, trans. Irene Edmonds, Wendy Marie Beckett and Conrad Greenia (Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 2007), 50.
14. FN1414 Et haec dicta sint pro distinctione partis Ecclesiae partisque Synagogae, quo et caecitas huius ex illius prudentia manifestior fiat, et felicitas illius ex huius miseranda fatuitate praeemineat. Sermo 73, Super Cantica, SBO II:234; Bernard of Clairvaux, On the Song of Songs IV, trans. Irene Edmonds, intro. Jean Leclercq (Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1980), 77.
15. FN1515 Sermo 60, Super Cantica, SBO II:142-145; Bernard of Clairvaux, On the Song of Songs III, trans. Kilian Walsh and Irene Edmonds (Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1979), 130-134. Bernard’s allegorical interpretation of the unripe figs is characteristic of a typology developed in the second to fourth centuries by the Church Fathers as an anti-Jewish polemic. See Jean Daniélou, From Shadows to Reality: Studies in the Biblical Typology of the Fathers (London: Burms and Oates, 1960), 1.
16. FN1616 Quod in ea est, de Spiritus Sancto est, ac per hoc subtile totum et suave. Sermo 60, Super Cantica, SBO II:143; On the Song of Songs III:132.
17. FN1717 Nam actus in bellis, affectus in lucris totus erat, intellectus in crassitudine litterae, cultus in sanguine pecudum et armentorum . . . Cum Christum occidit, tunc completa est malatia eius. Sermo 60, Super Cantica, SBO II:143-144; On the Song of Songs III, 132.
18. FN1818 O grossum vipereumque affectum, odire hominem qui hominum et corpora sanat, et salvat animas! Sermo 60, Super Cantica, SBO II:144; On the Song of Songs III, 133.
19. FN1919 Nimium me fortasse queratur in sui suggillatione Iudaeus, qui intellectum illius dico bovinum. Sed legat in Isaia, et plus quam bovinum audiet: “Cognovit bos, inquit, possessorem suum, et asinus praesepe domine sui. Israel non cognovit me, populus meus non intellexit.” Sermo 60, Super Cantica, SBO II:144; On the Song of Songs III, 133. Augustine used this same reference from Isaiah 1:3 to describe Jewish rejection of Christianity. See Paula Fredriksen, Augustine and the Jews (New York, NY: Doubleday, 2008), 283.
20. FN2020 Vides me, Iudaee, mitiorem tibi Propheta tuo. Ego comparavi te iumentis, ille subicit. Sermo 60, Super Cantica, SBO II:144; On the Song of Songs III, 133.
21. FN2121 Et si mihi, inquit, non creditis, operibuscredite; et si non facio opera Patris mei, nolite credere. Sermo 60, Super Cantica, SBO II:144; On the Song of Songs III:133-134. The reference is from John 10:37-38.
22. FN2222 Non fuga daemonum, non oboedientia elementorum, non vita mortuorum, bestialem hanc, et plus quam bestialem, hebetudinem ab eis depellere quivit; de qua non minus mirabili quam miserabili caecitate factum est, ut in illud tam horrendum tamque enormitur grossum facinus proruerent, Domino maiestatis inicientes manus sacrilegas. Sermo 60, Super Cantica, SBO II:144; On the Song of Songs III, 134.
23. FN2323 Ex tunc itaque dici potuit, quia ficus protulit grossos suos, cum iam videlicet legitima illius populi esse coeperunt quasi in exitu super summum, ut novis, iuxta veterem prophetiam, supervenientibus, vetera proicerentur: non aliter sane, quam quomodo grossi cadunt et cedunt suborientibus ficubus bonis. Sermo 60, Super Cantica, SBO II:144; On the Song of Songs III, 134. Bernard did say that replacing the laws of the Jewish people was a gradual process. For example, he noted that circumcision and the sacrifices were not immediately invalidated as a remedy for original sin when the Lord instituted baptism. They only gradually lost their saving power until the remedy of baptism became common knowledge. See Epistola 77, Ad Magistrum Hugonem de Sancto Victore, SBO VII:188-189; Bernard of Clairvaux, On Baptism and the Office of Bishops, trans. Pauline Matarasso (Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 2004), 156-157.
24. FN2424 Propter hoc et in omnes dispersi sunt regiones, ut dum iustus tanti facinoris poenas luunt ubique, testes sint nostrae redemptionis. Epistola 363, SBO VIII:316; Letter 391, The Letters of St. Bernard, 462.
25. FN2525 . . . duram sustinent captivitatem sub principibus christianis. Epistola 363, SBO VIII: 316; Letter 391, The Letters of St. Bernard, 462.
26. FN2626 Denique, cum introierit gentium plenitudo, tunc omnis Israel salvus erit. Epistola 363, SBO VIII:316; Letter 391, The Letters of St. Bernard, 462. Fredriksen asserts that Augustine did not interpret Romans 11:25-26 to mean that all the Jews were predestined to be saved, but only those chosen by God. See Fredriksen, 328-329.
27. FN2727 Quid faciet iustus et misericors Dominus, altera gloriante in lege et applaudente iustitiam sibi, nec indigente misercordia, sed despiciente ipsam quae indiget. Sermo 14, Super Cantica, SBO I:75-76; Bernard of Clairvaux, On the Song of Songs I, trans. Kilian Walsh (Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1981), 97-98.
28. FN2828 Sed Synagoga fortis est, non curat onus leve, nec iugum suave. Sana est, non est ei opus medicus, nec unctio Spiritus. Confidit in lege: liberet eam, si potest. Non autem data est lex quae possit vivificare; insuper et occidit: Littera enim occident. Sermo 14, Super Cantica, SBO I:76; On the Song of Songs I, 98.
29. FN2929 Errori tuo caeca et contentiosa desereris, donec plenitudo gentium, quas superba spernis et invida repellis, introeat, et agnoscat etiam ipsa ipsum qui notus est in Iudaea Deus, quodque in Israel est magnum nomen eius. Sermo 14, Super Cantica, SBO I:76; On the Song of Songs I, 98.
30. FN3030 Iterum enim suscipiet Israel puerum suum, et recordabitur misericordiae suae, ut ne ibi quidem iudicium deserat comes misercordia, ubi nullum ipsa reperit locum. Alioquin si pro meritis recepisset, iudicium profecto sine misericordia ei qui non facit misericordiam. Sermo 14, Super Cantica, SBO I:76-77; On the Song of Songs I, 98-99.
31. FN3131 Gratia, redit me mihi iustificatum gratis, et sic liberatum a servitute peccati. Sermo 67, Super Cantica, SBO II:195; On the Song of Songs IV, 14.
32. FN3232 O fatuam sponsam Synagogam, quae contemnens Dei iustitiam, id est gratiam sponsi sui, et suam volens constituere, iustitiae Dei non est subiecta. Sermo 67, Super Cantica, SBO: II 195; On the Song of Songs IV, 14.
33. FN3333 Ob hoc misera repudiata est, et iam non est sponsa, sed Ecclesia, cui dicitur: Desponsavi te mihi in fide; desponsavi te mihi in iudicio et iustitia; desponsavi te mihi in misericordia et miserationibus. Sermo 67, Super Cantica, SBO II:195; On the Song of Songs IV, 14. Bernard quoted Hosea 3:19.
34. FN3434 Quae vere sponsa est, agnoscit ista, et utramque gratiam confitetur. Sermo 67, Super Cantica, SBO II:195; On the Song of Songs IV, 15.
35. FN3535 Jean Leclercq dates Sermon 66 sometime after 1144 and Sermon 80 around 1148. The exact dates of Sermons 67 and Sermon 79 are unknown, but they would fall somewhere between 1144 and 1148. See Jean Leclercq’s introduction to On the Song of Songs IV, xii.
36. FN3636 Tenui eum nec dimittam, donec introducam illum in domum matris meae et in cubiculum genitricis meae. Sermo 79, Super Cantica, SBO II:275; On the Song of Songs IV, 141.
37. FN3737 Magna Ecclesia caritas, quae ne aemulae quidem Synagogae suas delicias invidet. Quid benignius, ut quem diligit anima sua, ipsum communicare parata sit et inimicae? Sermo 79, Super Cantica, SBO II: 275; On the Song of Songs IV, 141-142.
38. FN3838 Nec mirum tamen, quia salus ex Iudaeis est. Sermo 79, Super Cantica, SBO II:275; On the Song of Songs IV, 142. Compare this to the First Crusade chronicler Guibert of Nogent of whom Jay Rubenstein writes, “Sometimes Guibert sounds as if he has forgotten the historical connection between Christianity and Judaism.” See Jay Rubenstein, Guibert of Nogent: Portrait of a Medieval Mind (New York, NY: Routledge, 2002), 120.
39. FN3939 Ad locum unde exierat, revertatur Salvator, ut reliquiae Israel salvae fiant. Sermo 79, Super Cantica, SBO II:275; On the Song of Songs IV, 142.
40. FN4040 This is particularly significant in light of the persecution of the Jews taking place at the beginning of the Second Crusade, which occurred approximately at the time Sermo 79 was written.
41. FN4141 Non rami radici, non matri filii ingrati sint: non rami radici invideant quod ex ea sumpsere, non filii matri quod de eius suxere uberibus. Teneat itaque Ecclesia firmiter salutem, quam Iudaea purdidit: ipsa apprehendit, donec plenitudo gentium introeat, et sic omnis Israel salvus fiat. Sermo 79, Super Cantica, SBO II:275; On the Song of Songs IV, 142.
42. FN4242 Quod et nomen sponsae illi optat, et gratiam. Prorsus super salutem hoc. Sermo 79, Super Cantica, SBO II:275; On the Song of Songs IV, 142.
43. FN4343 Salvator indignabundus exierat de domo et hereditate sua; et nunc ad huius gratiam mitigatus inflectitur, ita ut redeat non modo Salvator, sed Sponsa. Sermo 79, Super Cantica, SBO II:276; On the Song of Songs IV, 143.
44. FN4444 . . . et nunc ista pollicetur reducere illum, et domui matris suae perditam salutem restituere. Sermo 79, Super Cantica, SBO II:276; On the Song of Songs IV, 143.
45. FN4545 Benedicta tu a domino, filia, quae et indignationem compescis, et hereditatem restituis. Benedicta tu matri tuae, cuius benedictione avertitur ira, revertitur salus, revertitur qui dicat illi: Salus tua ego sum. Sermo 79, Super Cantica, SBO II:276; On the Song of Songs IV, 143.
46. FN4646 Sed momento quia quae has conciliat amicitias, sponsa est. Quomodo ergo sponsum et hunc sponsum alteri cedit, ne dicam cupit? Sermo 79, Super Cantica, SBO II:276; On the Song of Songs IV, 143.
47. FN4747 Non est ita. Cupit quidem illum matri filia bona, non tamen ut cedat illi, sed ut communicet. Sufficit unus duabus, nisi quod iam non erunt duae, sed una in ipso. Sermo 79, Super Cantica, SBO II:276; On the Song of Songs IV, 143.
48. FN4848 See Jonathan Phillips, The Second Crusade: Extending the Frontiers of Christendom (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2007), 37-60.
49. FN4949 Thomas Asbridge writes, “Bernard of Clairvaux must still be regarded as the primary force behind the preaching of the Second Crusade.” See Thomas Asbridge, The Crusades—The Authoritative History of the War for the Holy Land (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 2010), 209.
50. FN5050 Odo of Deuil, De profectione Ludovici VII in orientum, trans. Virginia Gingerick Berry (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1948), 11. Odo of Deuil was the chaplain of Louis VII.
51. FN5151 This letter is not extant.
52. FN5252 Otto of Freising, The Deeds of Frederick of Barbarossa, trans. Charles Christopher Mierow (Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press, 1994), 74.
53. FN5353 Ephraim of Bonn, “Sefer Zekhirah,” in The Jews and the Crusaders, trans. Shlomo Eidelberg (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977), 122.
54. FN5454 Otto of Freising, 74.
55. FN5555 Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades—Volume One (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1951), 137-138. Matthew Gabriele provides a detailed analysis of the incident demonstrating that many may have thought Count Emicho’s attack on the Jews was in fulfillment of eschatological expectations that the Last Days were at hand and the Jews were to be eliminated. See Matthew Gabriele, “Against the Enemies of Christ,” in Christian Attitudes toward the Jews in the Middle Ages: A Casebook, ed. Michael Frassetto (New York, NY: Routledge, 2007), 61-82.
56. FN5656 Ephraim of Bonn, 122.
57. FN5757 Ibid.
58. FN5858 Otto of Freising, 74.
59. FN5959 Fredriksen, XI-XII. Robert Chazan notes that Bernard’s use of Psalm 59 as a scriptural argument against anti-Jewish violence actually reinforced age-old Jewish hostilities. “Writing with divinely inspired foreknowledge, the psalmist already discerned the Jews as enemies, as assailants, as fierce men moved by groundless hatred. The occasional crusader sense of Jews as the worst of the enemies of Christianity and Christendom was therefore hardly unwarranted.” See Robert Chazan, “From the First Crusade to the Second: Evolving Perceptions of the Christian-Jewish Conflict,” in Jews and Christians in Twelfth-Century Europe, eds. Michael Signer and John van Engen (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2001), 48-49.
60. FN6060 Nonne copiosius triumphat Ecclesia de Iudaeis per singulos dies vel convincens, vel convertens eos, quam si semel et simul consumeret eos in ore gladii? Numquid incassum constituta est illa universalis oratio Ecclesiae, quae offertur pro perfidis Iudaeis a solis ortu usque ad occasum, ut Deus et Dominus auferat velamen de cordibus eorum, ut ad lumen veritatis a suis tenebris eruantur? Nisi enim eos, qui increduli sunt, credituros speraret, superfluum videretur et vanum orare pro eis. Epistola 365, SBO VIII:321; Letter 393, The Letters of St. Bernard, 466.
61. FN6161 Berger writes that Bernard’s use of Psalm 147:2 as a prophecy of Jewish redemption is especially surprising in light of Bernard’s frequent referral to Jerusalem as a spiritual term. See Berger, 97-98. However, the purpose of the Second Crusade was to ensure continued Christian rule over the earthly city of Jerusalem. It was the continued Christian rule over Jerusalem that would expedite the final conversion of the Jews to Christianity.
62. FN6262 Tune es ille qui mendaces facies prophetas et evacuabis omnes thesauros pietatis et misericordiae Iesu Christi? Epistola 365, SBO VIII:322; Letter 393, The Letters of St. Bernard, 466.
63. FN6363 Interrogate eos qui divinas paginas norunt, quid in Psalmo legerint prophetatum de Iudaeis. Epistola 363, SBO VIII:316; Letter 391, The Letters of St. Bernard, 462.
64. FN6464 Denique, cum introierit gentium plenitudo, tunc omnis Israel salvus erit, ait Apostolus. Epistola 363, SBO VIII:316; Letter 391, The Letters of St. Bernard, 462-463.
65. FN6565 Interim sane quimoritur, manet in morte. Epistola 363, SBO VIII:316; Letter 391, The Letters of St. Bernard, 463.
66. FN6666 Convertentur tamen ad vesperam, et in tempore erit respectus eorum. Epistola 363, SBO VIII:316; Letter 391, The Letters of St. Bernard, 462.
67. FN6767 Si Iudaei penitus atteruntur, unde iam sperabitur eorum in fine promissa salus, in fine futura conversio? Epistola 363, SBO VIII:316; Letter 391, The Letters of St. Bernard, 463. Watt writes that in 1063, Pope Alexander II also argued that the Jews should be protected because God has predestined them for salvation. See Watt, 146.
68. FN6868 Est autem christianae pietatis, ut debellare superbos, sic et parcere subiectis his praesertim quorum est legislatio et promissa, quorum patres, et ex quibus Christus secundum carnem, qui est super omnia Deus benedictus in saecula. Epistola 363, SBO VIII:317; Letter 391, The Letters of St. Bernard, 463.
69. FN6969 Interest proinde tua dare operam quam possis, ut increduli convertantur ad fidem, conversi non avertantur, aversi revertantur, porro perversi ordinentur ad rectitudinem, subversi ad veritatem revocentur, subversores invictis rationibus convincantur, ut vel emendentur ipsi, si fieri potest, vel, si non, perdant auctoritatem facultatemque alios subvertendi. SBO III:433; Bernard of Clairvaux, Five Books on Consideration—Advice to the Pope, trans. John D. Anderson and Elizabeth T. Kennan (Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1976), 82.
70. FN7070 Esto, de Iudaeis excusat te tempus: habent terminum suum qui praeveniri non poterit. SBO III:433; Five Books on Consideration, 82.
71. FN7171 Plenitudinem gentium praeire oportet. SBO III: 433; Five Books on Consideration, 82.
72. FN7272 Et quidem quandoque perveniat gentium plenitudo necesse est. Exspectamus ut in eas incidat fides? SBO III:433; Five Books on Consideration, 83. Fred Gladstone Bratton writes that his impression is that Bernard intervened often to prevent the slaughter of the Jews solely because of his desire to convert the Jews to Christianity. However, Bernard’s treatise to Pope Eugenius indicates that he believed the Jews would convert at the time God predestined them to convert, not as a result of mission efforts aimed at the Jews. See Fred Gladstone Bratton, The Crime of Christendom—The Theological Sources of Christian Anti-Semitism (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1969), 113.
73. FN7373 Epistola 549, SBO VIII:512; Letter 396, The Letters of St. Bernard, 469.
74. FN7474 Neque enim terrenam, sed caelestem requirere Ierusalem monarchum propositum est, et hoc non pedibus proficiscendo, sed affectibus proficiendo. Epistola 399, SBO VIII:379-380; Letter 431, The Letters of St. Bernard, 503.
75. FN7575 . . . mores supernae illius Iersalem conversatione honesta et ordinata pro viribus imitantes. Sermo 55, Super Cantica, SBO II:112; On the Song of Songs III, 84.
76. FN7676 Factus est ergo non curiosus tantum spectator, sed devotus habitator et civis conscriptus Ierusalem, non autem terrenae huius, cui Arabiae mons Sina coniunctus est, quae servit cum filiis suis, sed liberae illius, quae est sursum mater nostra. Epistola 64, SBO VII:157; Letter 67, The Letters of St. Bernard, 91. Here Bernard referred to Galatians 4:26.
77. FN7777 Et si vultis scire, Claravallis est. Ipsa est Ierusalem, ei quae in caelis est, tota mentis devotione, et conversationis imitatione, et cognatione quadam spiritus sociata. Epistola 64, SBO VII:158; Letter 67, The Letters of St. Bernard, 91.
78. FN7878 Adriaan H. Bredero, Christendom and Christianity in the Middles Ages, trans. Reinder Bruinsma (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1994), 103.
79. FN7979 Sylvia Schein writes, “Bernard attempted to resolve the active pursuit of Earthly Jerusalem with the contemplative pursuit of Heavenly Jerusalem.” See Sylvia Schein, Gateway to the Heavenly City: Crusader Jerusalem and the Catholic West (1099-1187) (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2005), 121. William J. Purkis writes, “Indeed, the emphasis placed in the Cistercian preaching on the importance of the earthly Jerusalem has frequently been underestimated.” See William J. Purkis, Crusading Spirituality in the Holy Land and Iberia c.1095-c.1187 (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2008), 97.
80. FN8080 SBO III:218; Bernard of Clairvaux, In Praise of the New Knighthood, trans. M. Conrad Geenia (Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 2000), 40. Peter Raedts argues that Bernard’s concern for the earthly Jerusalem was not a relapse into a literal interpretation of the importance of Jerusalem. Bernard saw the earthly Jerusalem as an image of the heavenly city of Jerusalem and thus able to direct the laity to the Jerusalem above. Monks needed no such help and therefore were discouraged from participating in a crusade or even going on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. See Peter Raedts, “St. Bernard of Clairvaux and Jerusalem,” in The Centrality of Jerusalem, eds Marcel Poorthuis and Chana Safrai (Kampen: Kok Pharos Publishing, 1996), 176-189.
81. FN8181 Te solum, inquam, elegit Dominus prae consortibus tuis, ut sis ei in episcopum familiarem, qui per singulos dies introeas in tabernaculum eius et adores in loco ubi steterunt pedes eius. Epistola 393, SBO VIII:365; Letter 217, The Letters of St. Bernard, 295.
82. FN8282 Sanctus ille, sed iste sanctior. Epsitola 393, SBO VIII:365; Letter 217, The Letters of St. Bernard, 295.
83. FN8383 O quam metuendus est locus ille, in quo dulcis et rectus Dominus vulneribus nostris vinum pariter infudit et oleum, in quo abluit sorder filiarum Sion in sanguine Agni, constituit nobiscum pactum foederis Pater misericordiarum et Deus totius consolationis! Epistola 393, SBO VIII: 366-367; Letter 217, The Letters of St. Bernard, 295-296.
84. FN8484 Ecce locus longe sacratior illo in quo stetit Moyses, et longe nobilior, quia locus Domini, locus, inquam, illius est, qui venit per aquam et sanguinem: non in aqua tantum, sicut Moyses, sed in aqua et in sanguine. Epistola 393, SBO VIII:366; Letter 217, The Letters of St. Bernard, 296.
85. FN8585 Ecce locus ubi posuerunt eum. Epistola 393, Letter 217, SBO VIII:366; The Letters of St. Bernard, 296.
86. FN8686 Quam dulce est peregrinis, post multam longi itineris fatigationem, post plurima terrae marisque pericula, ibi tandem quiescere, ubi et agnoscunt suum Dominum quivisse! SBO III:236; In Praise of the New Knighthood, 75. Dominique Iogna-Prat contrasts Bernard’s enthusiasm for the earthly city of Jerusalem with Peter the Venerable who “appears to have been more strongly attracted to the Holy Land as a symbol than to the holy places as physical entities.” See Dominique Iogna-Prat, Order and Exclusion: Cluny and Christendom Face Heresy, Judaism, and Islam (1000-1150), trans. Graham Robert Edwards (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2002), 335.
87. FN8787 SBO III:213-214; In Praise of the New Knighthood, 31 and 33. See Malcolm Barber, The New Knighthood: A History of the Order of the Temple (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), for a discussion on the dating of this treatise.
88. FN8888 Marie Luise Bulst-Thiele, “The Influence of St. Bernard of Clairvaux on the Formation of the Order of the Knights Templar,” in The Second Crusade and the Cistercians, ed. Michael Gervers (New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1992), 60; Barber, 12-16.
89. FN8989 Novum militiae genus ortum nuper auditur in terris, et in illa regione, quam olim in carne praesens visitavit Oriens ex alto, ut unde tunc in fortitudine manus suae tenebrarum principes exturbavit, inde et modo ipsorum satellites, filios diffidentiae, in manu fortium suorum dissipatos exterminet. SBO III:214; In Praise of the New Knighthood, 33.
90. FN9090 In morte pagani christianus gloriatur, quia Christus glorificatur. SBO III:217; In Praise of the New Knighthood, 39. Norman Housley argues that with this statement, Bernard came close to validating sacred acts of violence as possessing spiritual value in themselves rather than as a means to an end. See Norman Housley, Fighting for the Cross: Crusading to the Holy Land (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008), 218.
91. FN9191 Secure proinde dissipentur gentes quae bella volunt, et abscidantur qui nos conturbant, et disperdantur de civitate Domini omnes operantes iniquitatem, qui repositas in Ierosolymis christiani populi inaestimabiles divitias tollere gestiunt, sancta polluere, et hereditate possidere sanctuarium Dei. Exseratur gladius uterque fidelium in cervices inimicorum, ad destruendam omnem altitudinem extollentem se adversus scientiam Dei, quae est christianorum fides. SBO III:218; In Praise of the New Knighthood, 40-41.
92. FN9292 Quibus expulsis revertetur ipse in hereditatem domumque suam. SBO III:218; In Praise of the New Knighthood, 41.
93. FN9393 Norman Daniel writes that some medieval theologians hint at the idea that any belief in a false God is idolatry, and any false belief in God is a belief in a false God. This thinking would justify classifying Muslims as pagans. See Norman Daniel, Heroes and Saracens: An Interpretation of the Chansons de Geste (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1984), 145.
94. FN9494 John V. Tolan, Saracens: Islam in the Medieval European Imagination (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2002), 106.
95. FN9595 Non quidem vel pagani necandi essent, si quo modo aliter possent a nimia infestatione seu oppressione fidelium cohibere. Nunc autem melius est ut occidantur, quam certe relinquatur virga peccatorum super sortem iustorum, ne forte extendant iusti ad iniquitatem manus suas. SBO III:217; In Praise of the New Knighthood, 40.
96. FN9696 Kritzeck writes that the King’s grandfather, Alfonso VI, had promised Cluny an annual census donation of two thousand metcales, a donation which was far in arrears. See Kritzeck, 11. Tolan writes that Peter’s Spanish tour took place over the years 1142-1143. See John V. Tolan, Sons of Ishmael: Muslims through European Eyes in the Middle Ages (Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2008), 51. However, Charles Bishko argues that the “abbot’s Spanish sojourn can now be taken as falling entirely within the calendar year 1142.” See Charles Julian Bishko, “Peter the Venerable’s Traverse of Spain: Some Further Observations,” in Spanish and Portuguese Monastic History, 600-1300 (London: Varorium Reprints, 1984), 3.
97. FN9797 Gavin Langmuir, Toward a Definition of Antisemitism (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1990), 199. Langmuir also points out that some of Peter’s “own monks were even suggesting that Christ had never said openly in the Gospels that he was God.”
98. FN9898 Langmuir cites a sermon Peter preached probably at a crusading assembly in 1147 where he praised the first crusaders who liberated the Holy Sepulcher with their pious swords. See Langmuir, 200.
99. FN9999 Iogna-Prat, 338-339. The Collectio toledana also included three other translations on Islam: Fabulae Sarracenorum, Liber generationes Mahumeth, and Doctrina Muhammad. Thomas Burman makes the point that Robert Ketton’s annotated translation of the Qur’an helped acquaint Latin readers with the broader background of Islamic history and belief, but often attacked the text itself. See Thomas E. Burman, Reading the Qur’an in Latin Christendom 1140-1150 (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007), 60-76. Daniel adds that Ketton’s annotations reinforced the idea of Islam as a violent religion, which led Peter to believe that Muslims thought killing was better than disputing. See Daniel, 94.
100. FN100100 Tolan gives a thorough summary of the Summa totius Saracenorum in Tolan, Saracens in the Medieval European Imagination, 155-158. Kritzeck describes Peter’s struggle to classify Islam a heresy or paganism, and concludes that Peter usually chose to call them heretics. See Kritzeck, 141-144.
101. FN101101 . . . ac denudatam ad nostrorum noticiam venire feci, ut quam spurca et friuola heresis esset sciretur, et aliquis Dei seruus, ad eam scripto refellendam, Sancto inflammante Spiritu incitaretur. Peter the Venerable, Summa totius heresis saracenorum, in Kritzeck, 211.
102. FN102102 Bishko, 8.
103. FN103103 Misi et nouam translationem nostram contra pessimam nequam Mahutmet heresim disputantem. Letter 111, Peter the Venerable, The Letters of Peter the Venerable I, ed. Giles Constable (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1967), 294.
104. FN104104 See Burman, 77; Bishko, 8; Iogna-Prat, 339.
105. FN105105 Qui uerba Latina impolite uel confuse plerumque ab eo prolata poliens et ordinans, epistolam immo libellum multis ut credo propter ignotarum rerum notitiam perutilem futurum perfecit. Letter 111, The Letters of Peter the Venerable I, 294.
106. FN106106 Vestrum est et omnium doctorum uirorum omnem scientiam extollentem se aduersus altitudinem dei, omni studio, uerbo, et scripto impugnare, destruere conculcare. Letter 111, The Letters of Peter the Venerable I, 298. The translation of this phrase is from Gillian R. Knight, The Correspondence between Peter the Venerable and Bernard of Clairvaux (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2002), 149.
107. FN107107 Si igitur reuerentiae uestrae in his laborandi deo aspirante uoluntas affuerit, nam facultas per eius gratium deesse non poterit, rescribite et mittemus librum quem nondum misimus, ut per os uestrum ipsius laude repletum, spiritui nequitiae spiritus benignus respondeat, et thesauros aecclesiae suae gazis uestrae sapientiae suppleat. Letter 111, The Letters of Peter the Venerable I, 298-299.
108. FN108108 Quod si hinc errantes conuerti non possint, saltem infirmis aecclesiae, qui scandalizari uel occulte moueri leuibus etiam ex causis solent, consulere et prouidere doctus uel doctor si zelum habet iustitiae non debet negligere. Letter 111, The Letters of Peter the Venerable I, 298.
109. FN109109 Nec propterea sane nihil se egisse putet qui haerecticum vicit et convicit, haereses confutavit, verisimilia a vero clare aperteque distinxit, prava dogmata, plana et irrefragabili ratione prava esse demonstravit, pravum denique intellectum, extollentem se adversus scientiam Dei, in captivitatem redegit. Sermo 64, Super Cantica, SBO II:170-171; On the Song of Songs III, 176. Perhaps Bernard wrote this sermon in response to an 1144 request from Eberwin, Provost of the Premonstratensians of Steinfeld, to refute the Cathar heresy. See Leclercq’s introduction to On Song of Songs IV, xii. Knight dates Peter the Venerable’s letter to Bernard as somewhere between late 1143 and early 1144. See Knight, 101.
110. FN110110 Kritzek, 45.
111. FN111111 Knight, 153.
112. FN112112 Jean Leclercq, “St. Bernard’s Attitude toward War,” in Studies in Medieval Cistercian History II, ed. John R. Sommerfeldt (Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1976), 33-34.
113. FN113113 Benjamin Z. Kedar, Crusade and Mission: European Approaches toward the Muslims (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984), 60.
114. FN114114 Et nunc, peccatis nostris exigentibus, crucis adversarii caput extulerunt sacrilegum, depopulantes in ore gladii terram benedictam, terram promissionis. Epistola 363, SBO VIII:312; Letter 391, The Letters of St. Bernard, 461.
115. FN115115 Prope est, si non fuerit qui resistat, ut in ipsam Dei viventis irruant civitatem, ut officinas nostrae redemptionis evertant, ut polluant loca sancta, Agni immaculati purpurata cruore. Epistola 363, SBO VIII:312; Letter 391, The Letters of St. Bernard, 461.
116. FN116116 Ad ipsum, proh dolor, religionis christianae sacrarium inhiant ore sacrilego, lectumque ipsum invadere et conculcare conantur, in quo propter nos Vita nostra obdormivit in morte. Epistola 363, SBO VIII:312; Letter 391, The Letters of St. Bernard, 461.
117. FN117117 Excitat vasa iniquitatis suae, ne ulla quidem tantae pietatis signa aut vestigia relicturus. Epistola 363, SBO VIII:313; Letter 391, The Letters of St. Bernard, 461.
118. FN118118 Suam, quam honoravit nativitate sua, illustravit miraculis, dedicavit sanguine, sepultura ditavit. Epistola 458, SBO VIII:435; Letter 393, The Letters of St. Bernard, 465.
119. FN119119 Suam, in qua primi apparuerunt flores resurrectionis. Epistola 458, SBO VIII:435; Letter 393, The Letters of St. Bernard, 465.
120. FN120120 Hanc repromissionis terram coeperunt occupare maligni, et nisi fuerit qui resistat, ad ipsum inhiant religionis nostrae sacrarium, lectumque ipsum maculare conantur, in quo propter nos vita nostra obdormivit in morte, et profanare sancta sanctorum, loca dico Agni immaculati purpurata cruore. Epistola 458, SBO VIII:435; Letter 392, The Letters of St. Bernard, 464.
121. FN121121 Accusatur proditionis Rex noster: imponitur ei quod non sit Deus, sed falso simulaverit quod non erat. Epistola 458, SBO VIII:436; Letter 392, The Letters of St. Bernard, 464.
122. FN122122 Burman, 77.
123. FN123123 Quis in vobis est fidelis eius, surgat, defendat Dominum suum ab impositae proditionis infamia. Epistola 458, SBO VIII:436; Letter 392, The Letters of St. Bernard, 464.
124. FN124124 Plane et gentiles, si essent similiter in fine futura subiugati, in eo quidem iudicio essent similiter expectandi quam gladiis appetendi. Epistola 363, SBO VIII:316; Letter 391, The Letters of St. Bernard, 463.
125. FN125125 Nunc autem cum in nos esse coeperint violenti, oportet vim vi repellere eos, qui non sine causa gladium portant. Epistola 363, SBO VIII:317; Letter 391, The Letters of St. Bernard, 463. Here I disagree with Jeremy Cohen who argues that Bernard understood the crusade as a pilgrimage that did not need to be directed toward the Holy Land. I maintain that Bernard understood the whole purpose of the Second Crusade as defending Jerusalem from Muslim attack. See Jeremy Cohen, “‘Witnesses of Our Redemption’—The Jews in the Crusading Theology of Bernard of Clairvaux,” in Medieval Studies in Honour of Avrom Saltman, ed. Bat-Sheva Albert et al. (Ramat-Gan: Bar-Ilan University Press, 1995), 72.
126. FN126126 See Phillips, 228-243.
127. FN127127 . . . et eos contra hostes crucis Christi, qui sunt ultra Albi, signo sanctae crucis consignarent et armarent. Epistola 457, SBO VIII:433. Letter 394, The Letters of St. Bernard, 467-468.
128. FN128128 Illud enim omnimodis interdicimus, ne qua ratione ineant foedus cum eis, neque pro pecunia, neque pro tributo, donec, auxiliante Deo, aut ritus ipse, aut natio deleatur. Epistola 457, SBO VIII:433; Letter 394, The Letters of St. Bernard, 467. Phillips notes that theologians and historians are perplexed by Bernard’s obvious breach against the Biblical injunction against forced conversions. Phillips speculates that some of the Wends had reneged on previous conversions and thus could be killed as apostates. Another theory is that Bernard learned that the Wends had previously paid off Christian attackers and then underwent a token form of conversion. See Jonathan Phillips, Holy Warriors: A Modern History of the Crusades (New York, NY: Random House, 2009), 86.
129. FN129129 Agitant manus suas inimici eius super montem filiae Sion, collem Ierusalem. Epistola 521, SBO VIII:483; Letter 400, The Letters of St. Bernard, 472.
130. FN130130 Intepuerunt corda principum,; sine causa gladium portant; pellibus mortuorum animalium reconditus est, rubigini consecratus. Nec exerunt eum, cum Christus patiatur. Epistola 521, SBO VIII:483; Letter 400, The Letters of St. Bernard, 473.
131. FN131131 Ephraim of Bonn, 122.
132. FN132132 Kedar notes that some participants of the Second Crusade believed that Bernard intended crusaders to convert the Saracens, although Bernard was never recorded as having expressed that intention. See Kedar, 66-67.
133. FN133133 Bernard McGinn, “St. Bernard and Eschatology,” in Bernard of Clairvaux: Studies Presented to Dom Jean Leclercq (Washington, DC: Cistercian Publications, 1973), 184-185. Brett Whalen gives a thorough treatment of the re-emphasized historicizing eschatological movement occurring in the twelfth century. However, Whalen does not mention Bernard playing much of a role in this movement. See Brett Edward Whalen, Dominion of God: Christendom and Apocalypse in the Middle Ages (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009), 72-99.
134. FN134134 Hans-Dietrich Kahl, “Crusade Eschatology as Seen by St. Bernard in the Years 1146 to 1148,” in The Second Crusade and the Cistercians, ed. Michael Gervers (New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1992), 35. Raedts rejects the thesis that Bernard’s preaching of the Second Crusade had apocalyptic overtones or that crusading was an apocalyptic enterprise. See Raedts, 189.
135. FN135135 Schein, 153. In his The Deeds of Frederick Barbarossa, Otto of Freising, a twelfth century chronicler of the Second Crusade, wote of prophecies found in the Sibylline books. See Otto of Freising, 26.
136. FN136136 Another popular recounting of the Sibylline prophecy of the Last Emperor legend was found in Adso’s De ortu et tempore Antichristi, which John Wright describes as being tremendously influential in the Middle Ages. See John Wright, The Play of the Antichrist (Toronto, ON: The Pontifical Institute of Mediaval Studies, 1967), 100. Adso wrote of the Jews rushing to accept the Antichrist prior to the Last Day. Nam sicut supra diximus, in civitate Babilonie natus Ierosolimam veniens circucidet se dicens Iudeis: “Ego sum Christus vobis repromissus, qui ad salutem vestram veni, ut vos, qui dispersi estis, congregum et defendam.” Tunc confluent ad eum omnes Iudei existimantes deum suscipere, sed suscipient diabolum. See Ernst Sackur, Sybyllinische Texte und Forschungen (Halle: Niemeyer, 1898; repr., Elibron Classics, 2006), 111; Wright, 107. Adso’s scenario on the fate of the Jews does not correspond with Bernard’s insistence of the final conversion of the Jews. Therefore, one can conclude that Bernard either was not aware of Adso’s writing, or he rejected the portion concerning the Jews.
137. FN137137 Bernard McGinn, Visions of the End: Apocalyptic Traditions in the Middle Ages (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1979), 43-50.
138. FN138138 Qui vero cruce Iesu Christi non adoraverit gladio punietur, et cum completi fuerint centum et viginti anni, Iudei convertentur ad Dominum, et erit ab omnibus sepulcrum eius gloriosum. Die Tiburtinische Sibylle, Sackur, 185.
139. FN139139 Cum autem audierit rex Romanorum, convocato exercitu debellabit eos atque prosternet usque ad internicionem et postea veniet Ierusalem et ibi deposito capitis diademate et omni habitu regali relinquet regnum christianorum Deo patri et Iesu Christo filio eius. Die Tiburtinische Sibylle, Sackur, 186.
140. FN140140 McGinn, 72-73. McGinn comments that Pseudo-Methodius was of paramount importance in the Christian confrontation with Islam in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Paul Alexander gives a detailed account of the origins of Pseudo-Methodius and its translation into the Greek. See Paul J. Alexander, The Byzantine Apocalyptic Tradition (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1985), 13-60.
141. FN141141 Alexander, 136.
142. FN142142 Sic etenim filios Ismahel, non quod eos diligat dominus Deus, dabit eis potentiam hanc, ut obteneant terram christianorum, sed propter peccatum et iniquitatem, quae ab eis committitur. Pseudo-Methodius, Die Apokalypse des Pseudo-Methodius: Die ältesten Griechischen Und Lateinischen Übersetzungen, eds W. J. Aerts and G. A. A. Kortekaas (Leuven: Peeters, 1998), 139-141.
143. FN143143 Tunc subito insurgent super eos tribulatio et angustia, et exiliet super eos rex Gregorum, sive Romanorum, in furore magne et expergiscitur tamquam homo a somno vini, quem exaestimabant homines tamquam mortuum esse et in nihilo utilem proficisse. Hic exiet super eos a mare Aethiopiae et mittit gladium et desolationem in Ethribum, que est eorum patria, et captivabit mulieres eorum et filios illorum. Super habitantes autem terram promissiones discendent filii regis in gladio et concidunt eos a terra. Pseudo-Methodius, 175.
144. FN144144 . . . in manus regis Romanorum tradentur in gladio et captivitatem et morte et corruptionem. Pseudo-Methodius, 177.
145. FN145145 Et post haec discendit rex Romanorum et demorabitur in Hierusalem septimana temporum et dimedia. Pseudo-Methodius, 185.
146. FN146146 Whalen, 39-40. Gabriele shows how the Last Emperor Legend led to violence against pagans, Jews, Muslims, and heretics, each of whom were, at various times, considered to be the Antichrist, enemies of Christ who were to be fought against in preparation for the end of the world. See Gabriele, 63-64. Giles Constable writes that there were those who saw the Second Crusade as the fulfillment of Sibylline prophecies. See Giles Constable, “The Second Crusade as Seen by Contemporaries,” Traditio IX (1953): 272.
147. FN147147 Jean Flori, L’Islam et la Fin des Temps: L’interprétation prophétique des invasions muselmanes dans le chrétienté médiévale (Paris: Seuil, 2007), 287-288. Flori’s mention of Conrad is in reference to Kaul’s theory that Bernard recruited Conrad III of Germany as a leader of the Second Crusade to fulfill the condition found in the Tiburtine Sibyl that the initial name of the Last World Emperor would begin with the letter “C”. See Kaul, 35-36.
148. FN148148 Michael Casey, Athirst for God: Spiritual Desire in Bernard of Clairvaux’s Sermons on the Song of Songs (Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1988), 242.
149. FN149149 Ibid.
150. FN150150 Étienne Gilson, The Mystical Theology of St. Bernard, trans. A. H. C. Dowles (Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1990), 152.
151. FN151151 Dilectus meus mihi, et ego illi. Sermo 67, Super Cantica, SBO II:188; On the Song of Songs IV, 4. The text is Song of Songs 2:16.
152. FN152152 Per se ex intimis, non modo cum non vis, sed et cum nescis, erumpit, evulsus potius quam emissus. Sermo 67, Super Cantica, SBO II:191, On the Song of Songs IV, 8.
153. FN153153 Patientem pro iustitia vult me exspectare mercedem in posterum, non recipere in praesenti, quod iustitiae merces, salutare, non saeculi, sed Domini sit. Sermo 67, Super Cantica, SBO II: 191-192; On the Song of Songs IV, 9.
154. FN154154 Casey, 234-235.
155. FN155155 Donec ergo absorpta sit mors in victoria, et noctis undique terminos lux perennis invadet et occupet usquequaque, quatenus et in corporibus gloria caelestis effulgeat, non possunt ex toto animae seipsas exponere et transire in Deum, nimirum ligatae corporibus etiam tunc, etsi non vita vel sensu, certe affectu naturali, ita ut absque his nec velint, nec valeant consummari . . . Valet Deum diligenti animae corpus suum infirmum, valet et mortuum, valet et resuscitatum: primo quidem ad fructum paenitentiae, secundo ad requiem, postremo ad consummationem. SBO III:144-145; Bernard of Clairvaux, On Loving God, trans. Emero Stiegman (Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1995), 32.
156. FN156156 Comedite ante mortem, bibite post mortem, inebriamini post resurrectionem. SBO III:147; On Loving God, 34.
157. FN157157 Hinc illa satietas sine fastidio; hinc insatiabilis illa sine inquietudine curiositas; hinc aeternum illud atque inexplebile desiderium, nesciens egestatem; hinc denique sobria illa ebrietas, vero, non mero ingurgitans, non madens vino, sed ardens Deo. SBO III:147; On Loving God, 35.
158. FN158158 Ad requiem enim exutae a corporibus animae sanctae protinus admittuntur; ad plenam autem gloriam regni non ita . . . Et vox divina ad animas sanctas corporum suorum resurrectionem flagitantes: Sustinete modicum tempus, donec impleatur numerus fratum vestrorum. Sermo 2, Festivitate Ominium Sanctorum, SBO V:348.
159. FN159159 Advertistis, nisi fallor, ex his quae praecedente sermone sunt dicta, tres esse sanctarum status animarum: primum videlicet in corpore corruptibili, secundum sine corpore, tertiam in corpore iam glorificato; primum militia, secundum in requie, tertium in beatitudine consummata; primum denique in tabernaculis, secundum in atriis, tertium in domo Dei. Sermo 3, Festivitate Ominium Sanctorum, SBO V:349.
160. FN160160 Sane glorificatio diem ultimum manet, diem resurrectionis, quando surget in gloria, quod in ignominia interim seminatur. SBO IV:482-483; Sermons on Conversion, 248. Bernard’s twelfth century contemporary Hildegard of Bingen held a similar belief. Beverly Mayne Kienzle writes that Hildegard was of the opinion “that humans receive spiritual bodies at the Resurrection, and that the spiritual body, united inseparably to the soul, will regard the face of God eternally.” See Beverly Mayne Kienzle, “Constructing Heaven in Hildegard of Bingen’s Expositiones euangeliorum,” in Envisaging Heaven in the Middle Ages, eds Carolyn Muessig and Ad Putter (New York, NY: Routledge, 2007), 39.
161. FN161161 Roch Kereszty, “Relationship between Anthropology and Christology—St. Bernard, A Teacher for Our Age,” Analecta Cisterciensia 46 (1990): 293-294.
162. FN162162 Bernard McGinn, “Freedom, Formation, and Reformation: The Anthropological Roots of St. Bernard’s Spiritual Teaching,” Analecta Cisterciensia 46 (1990): 98-99.
163. FN163163 Kenneth R. Stow, “Hatred of the Jews or Love of the Church: Papal Policy toward Jews in the Middle Ages,” in Antisemitism through the Ages, ed. Shmuel Almog (New York, NY: Pergamon Press, 1988), 77. Pope Alexander II’s comment came in a letter congratulating the bishops of Spain in their efforts to prevent Jewish bloodshed during an offensive against Spanish Muslims.
164. FN164164 Robert Chazan argues that millenarian enthusiasm on the part of German crusaders fueled the exterminatory assaults on Rhineland Jews in 1096. However, Chazan does not believe that millenarian enthusiasm played a role in the anti-Jewish violence during the Second Crusade. See Robert Chazan, “‘Let Not a Remnant or a Residue Escape’: Millenarian Enthusiasm in the First Crusade,” Speculum 84 (2009): 312. My thesis is that Bernard’s eschatological hope was behind his opposition to the anti-Jewish violence, as well as his defense of Jerusalem from Muslim attack.
165. FN165165 Quibus expulsis revertetur ipse in hereditatem domumque suam. SBO III:218; In Praise of the New Knighthood, 41.

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Affiliations: 1: Department of Theology, Marquette University Milwaukee, WI USA


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