Why is Religion Characterized by Excess and Non-Functionality?
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
You must be logged in to use this functionality
AbstractThe excess and non-functionality of religious practices appear designed to exploit the psychological effects of loss aversion and effort justification in individuals. Collective rituals, for example, include features that seem to maximize these effects inducing pure waste states in its practitioners. I argue that these psychological effects provide Wiebe with a proximate mechanism specific to religion that explains why religion may be particularly effective in building distinct groups. I propose, however, that religion may originally have developed as a technology that exploits loss aversion and effort justification in individuals to recycle their wasted efforts through narratives about gods and magical causation. This recycling technology may, at a later stage, have developed into institutionalized religion which exploits the same psychological effects of loss aversion and effort justification but for social functional purposes. Whether this later development was caused by a growing need for hazard precaution is an open question.
Full text loading...
Aronson Elliot , Mills Judson "The effect of severity of intitiation on liking for a group" Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 1959 Vol 59 177 181 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0047195
Bucanan James M. Durlauf S. N. , Blume L. E. "Opportunity cost" The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. Second edition 2008
Bulbulia Joseph "Religious costs as adaptations that signal altruistic intentions" Evolution and Cognition 2004 Vol 10 1 19 38
Bulbulia Joseph , Schjoedt Uffe Pyysiäinen I. "Religious culture and cooperative prediction under risk: Perspectives from social neuroscience" Religion, Economy, and Cooperation 2010 Berlin DeGruyter 35 59
Cooper Joel Cognitive Dissonance: Fifity Years of a Classical Theory 2007 London Sage Publications Ltd.
Damisch Lysann , Stoberock Barbara , Mussweiler Thomas "Keep your fingers crossed! How superstition improves performance" Psychological Science 2010 Vol 21 7 1014 1020 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797610372631
Festinger Leon A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance 1962 California Standford University Press
Hultkrantz Åke Steinsland G. "Rock drawings as evidence of religion: some principal points of view" Words and Objects: Towards a Dialogue Between Archaeology and History of Religion 1986 Oxford Oxford University Press 43 66
Irons William Nesse R. "Religion as a hard-to-fake sign of commitment" Evolution and the Capacity for Commitment 2001 New York Russel Sage Foundation 292 309
Kirsch I. Changing Expectations 1990 Pacific Grove, California Brooks/Cole Publishing Company
Kahneman Daniel , Knetsch Jack , Thaler Richard "Experimental test of the endowment effect and the coase theorem" Journal of Political Economy 1990 Vol 98 6 1325 1348 http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/261737
Nielbo Kristoffer L. , Schjoedt Uffe , Sørensen Jesper "Hierarchical organization of segmentation in non-functional action sequences" Journal for the Cognitive Science of Religion 2013 Vol 1 1
Pargament Kenneth. I , Brant Curtis R. Koenigs Harold G. "Religion and coping" Handbook of Religion and Mental Health 1998 California Academic Press 112 126
Schjoedt Uffe Religion evolved to recycle wasted efforts 2012 Paper presented 2012, 25 June IACSR Denmark Aarhus University
Schjoedt Uffe , Stødkilde-Jørgensen Hans , Geertz Arnin W. , Lund Torben E. , Roepstorff Andreas "The power of charisma—perceived charisma inhibits the frontal executive network of believers in intercessory prayer" Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 2011 Vol 6 1 119 127 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsq023
Schjoedt Uffe , Sørensen Jesper , Nielbo Kristoffer L. , Xygalatas Dimitris , Mitkidis Panagiotis , Bulbulia Joseph "Cognitive resource depletion in religious interactions" Religion, Brain and Behavior 2013a Vol 3 1 39 55 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2153599X.2012.736714
Schjoedt Uffe , Sørensen Jesper , Nielbo Kristoffer L. , Xygalatas Dimitris , Mitkidis Panagiotis , Bulbulia Joseph "The resource model and the principle of predictive coding: A framework for analyzing proximate effects of ritual" Religion, Brain and Behavior 2013b Vol 3 1 79 86 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2153599X.2012.745447
Sherif Muzafer , Harvey O. J. , White B. Jack , Hood William. R. , Sherif Carolyn W. The Robbers Cave Experiment: Intergroup Conflict and Cooperation 1961 Middletown, Connecticut Wesleyan University Press
Stark Rodney , Bainbridge William S. A Theory of Religion 1987 New York Lang
Xygalatas Dimitris , Schjoedt Uffe , Bulbulia Joseph , Konvalinka Ivana , Jegindø Else-Marie , Reddish Paul , Geertz Armin W. , Roepstorff Andreas "Autobiographical memory in a fire-walking ritual" Journal of Cognition and Culture 2013 Vol 13 1-2 1 16 http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/15685373-12342081