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Nineteenth-Century Australian Charismata: Edward Irving’s Legacy*

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Abstract In recent decades, most interpreters have argued that as an organized movement, Australian Pentecostalism began in 1909 with Janet Lancaster’s Good News Hall. This article argues that Australian Pentecostal beginnings should be recalibrated to 1853, with the arrival of representatives of the Catholic Apostolic Church in Melbourne. The evidence indicates that the Catholic Apostolic Church continually taught and practiced the charismatic gifts in Australia throughout the second half of the nineteenth century. The existence of an established denomination in Australia embracing and exhibiting the charismatic gifts for the period 1853 to 1900 challenges the dominant Lancaster interpretation. This evidence also argues for a direct historic link between Australian Pentecostalism and the charismata of Edward Irving and the nascent Catholic Apostolic Church in 1830s London.

1. The Argus 1869 April Saturday 17 8
2. Bradford Apostolic Church collection 53D95/1/6, 1893, 118-119, 124; 1896, 432-433; 53D95/1/3, 1880, 169-70; 53D95/1/3, 379-380; 53D95/1/5, 182-183; 53D95/1/4, 505-50653D95/1/4, 506-7.
3. Andrews C. F. What I Owe to Christ 1932 London Hodder & Stoughton
4. Anon Three Sermons Preached in the C.A. Church, Wellington, Nov. 1880. 1881 Wellington Edwards & Green
5. Cardale J. B. Directions on the Subject of Women Prophesying in Church. 1866 Privately issued
6. Chant B. Heart of Fire: The Story of Australian Pentecostalism. 1984 Adelaide House of Tabor
7. Chant B. Hutchinson M., Campion E., Piggin S."“The Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century Origins of the Australian Pentecostal Movement,”" Reviving Australia: Essays on the History and Experience of Revival and Revivalism in Australian Christianity. 1994 Sydney Centre for the Study of Australian Christianity
8. Flegg C. G. “Gathered under Apostles”: A Study of the Catholic Apostolic Church. 1992 Oxford Clarendon Press
9. Hutchinson M."“Edward Irving’s Antipodean Shadow,”" accessible at .
10. Martin J. A Brief Survey of the Lord’s Work in Australia. 1992 Melbourne unpublished document
11. Ritchie J. M. God’s Work by Restored Apostles Also an Answer to Bishop Wallis to His Charge of Spiritual Error against This Work 1900 Wellington Evening Post Press
12. Worsfold J. A History of the Charismatic Movements in New Zealand. 1974 Bradford, UK Puritan Press
13. FN0* I would like to record my gratitude to those people who provided important but elusive sources: Jill Goodwin, Research Librarian at Alexander Turnbull Library and Nicola Frean, Special Materials Librarian at Victoria University Library, both in Wellington, New Zealand, provided, respectively, the pamphlet by J. M. Ritchie and Three sermons. Anthony Hughes and Jennie Kiff of the West Yorkshire Archive Service provided access to the Bradford Apostolic Church collection.
14. FN11 B. Chant, Heart of Fire: The Story of Australian Pentecostalism (Adelaide: House of Tabor, 1984), 36.
15. FN22 B. Chant, “The Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century Origins of the Australian Pentecostal Movement,” in M. Hutchinson, E. Campion, and S. Piggin, eds., Reviving Australia: Essays on the History and Experience of Revival and Revivalism in Australian Christianity (Sydney: Centre for the Study of Australian Christianity, 1994), 103.
16. FN33 James Worsfold wrote that “there was a gradual transformation from spontaneous enthusiasm to ecclesiological authority and sacramental emphasis.” A History of the Charismatic Movements in New Zealand (Bradford, UK: Puritan Press, 1974), 51.
17. FN44 M. Hutchinson, “Edward Irving’s Antipodean Shadow,” accessible at http://webjournals.ac.edu.au/journals/aps/issue-10/edward-irvings-antipodean-shadow/.
18. FN55 J. Martin, A Brief Survey of the Lord’s Work in Australia (Melbourne: unpublished document, 1992), 4, 6-7.
19. FN66 C. G., Flegg, “Gathered under Apostles”: A Study of the Catholic Apostolic Church (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992), 176. The term angel was the CAC equivalent of “pastor” or “minister.”
20. FN77 J. B. Cardale, Directions on the Subject of Women Prophesying in Church (privately issued, 1866), 2. Flegg notes that this work contains comments on prophesying in general, as well as specific information for women. Quoted in Flegg, Gathered under Apostles, 177.
21. FN88 E.g. Andrews, C. F., What I Owe to Christ (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1932), 37, quoted in Worsfold, A History of the Charismatic Movements in New Zealand, 57.
22. FN99 Anon., Three Sermons Preached in the C.A. Church, Wellington, Nov. 1880 (Wellington: Edwards & Green, 1881), 3.
23. FN1010 Ibid., 3, 4, 5.
24. FN1111 Ibid., 9.
25. FN1212 The Argus, Saturday 17 April 1869, 8.
26. FN1313 J. M. Ritchie, God’s Work by Restored Apostles Also an Answer to Bishop Wallis to His Charge of Spiritual Error against This Work (Wellington: Evening Post Press, 1900), preface.
27. FN1414 Ibid., 6.
28. FN1515 Ibid., 12.
29. FN1616 Bradford Apostolic Church collection, 53D95/1/6, 1893, 118-19, Melbourne, Australia.
30. FN1717 Ibid., 124, Sydney, Australia.
31. FN1818 Ibid., 1896, 432-33, Melbourne, Australia.
32. FN1919 Ibid., 53D95/1/3, 1880, 169-70, Melbourne, Australia.
33. FN2020 Ibid., respectively, 53D95/1/3, 379-80; 53D95/1/5, 182-83; 53D95/1/4, 505-6.
34. FN2121 Ibid., 53D95/1/4, 506-7.
35. FN2222 Instead the possibility of CAC influence on these groups should be explored.
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/content/journals/10.1163/157007412x621716
2012-01-01
2015-07-06

Affiliations: 1: Office of Development, Murdoch University 90 South Street, Murdoch, Western Australia 6163 peter_elliott@aapt.net.au

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