Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Deformities in cane toad (Bufo marinus) populations in Bermuda: Part II. Progress towards characterization of chemical stressors

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Applied Herpetology

An alarming high incidence of deformities in mature and newly metamorphosed Bufo marinus was identified in 2002 (29% in adults and 21% in metamorph specimens) in Bermuda. Suspicion of multiple chemical stressors in many of the effected ponds warranted identification of potential causative agents. Short-term embryo-larval, chronic exposure studies through hind limb development, and a battery of toxicity identification studies were performed with B. marinus and the surrogate species, Xenopus laevis, using sediment and water collected from four target ponds and one reference pond in Bermuda. Short-term embryo larval developmental toxicity studies based on a modified FETAX method indicated that samples from each of the target sites were capable of inducing abnormal development. Malformations induced in the early developmental tests were consistent amongst the species and included abnormal development of the craniofacial region, eye, mouth, and gut. Limb reduction deficit defects were identified in the chronic exposure studies with B. marinus and X. laevis. Toxicity characterization studies found that the toxicity of sediment extracts was variably filterable and reduced by C18-SPE, cation exchange, and zeolite treatments. Developmentally toxic samples contained elevated levels of petroleum hydrocarbons, metals (Al, As, Sn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Zn), and ammonia. Sediment spiking studies with reference sediment confirmed that the levels of petroleum hydrocarbons and metals were capable of inducing developmental toxicity individually. Joint mixture interaction studies with sediment extracts prepared from the individually spiked reference sediment suggested however, that these extracts were potentially capable of acting synergistically, producing a greater level of toxicity than would normally be predicted based on the response to the individual spiked samples.


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Applied Herpetology — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation