Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Muscle activation and strain patterns of the m. hyohyoideus of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) during opercular movements

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Animal Biology

We investigated the function of the m. hyohyoideus superior (MHS) and inferior (MHI) in the head of three carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 29.7 ± 2.1 cm FL ) during three movements (normal breathing, stressed movements and food uptake). Both muscle parts are located ventrally at the inner side of the operculum and branchiostegal rays and consist of red (mainly in MHI) and white (mainly in MHS) fibres. Contrasting views exist about the functional role of these muscles during ventilation and food uptake. Therefore, we analysed muscle activities of the MHS and MHI using electromyography (EMG) and measured the strain pattern of the MHS using sonomicrometry. Carp were also filmed from a ventral viewpoint using high-speed video at 250 frames s-1. EMG and sonomicrometry data showed an increase in muscle strain amplitudes, cycle frequency and (relative) stimulus duration while stimulus on- and off-times occurred earlier in the strain cycle from normal breathing to stressed movements to food uptake. The MHS and MHI were always simultaneously active. We concluded that: 1) the MHI is not responsible for high frequency movements (i.e. stressed movements and food uptake); 2) both muscle parts assist in the onset of opercular closing, and 3) the MHS and MHI do not act as antagonists in carp.


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Animal Biology — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation