Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Fecal cortisol content of wild giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) to monitor human disturbance level in natural habitats

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Animal Biology
For more content, see Archives Néerlandaises de Zoologie (Vol 1-17) and Netherlands Journal of Zoology (Vol 18-52).

Wild animals are affected by growing human interference in their habitats and inevitably react internally to such stimuli. This study explores inherent physiological parameters to assess the effect of human interference on giant pandas in their wild habitat. Ninety-one fecal samples were collected within four nature reserves on Qinling Mountain. Fecal cortisol determinations were performed by radioimmunoassay. We categorized the intensity of local human disturbance and tested for correlations between the intensity of human disturbance and fecal cortisol metabolite levels. The results show a significant positive correlation between giant panda fecal cortisol metabolite levels and the degree of disturbance in their habitat. This study is the first to use a non-invasive monitoring method to analyze wild giant panda habitat disturbance, and demonstrates that cortisol metabolite levels in panda dung can objectively reflect the degree of panda habitat disturbance. The results provide a relatively objective means and method with which to evaluate the quality of wild giant panda habitat. This study highlights the need to monitor the effects of human disturbance on wildlife and to implement new policies in the management of nature reserves.

Affiliations: 1: 3Shaanxi Rare Wildlife Rescuing and Breeding Research Center, Shaanxi 710402, China; 2: 2College of Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Laboratory of Non-invasive Technology for Endangered Species, Beijing 100083, China; 3: 4MOE, Key Laboratory of Biological Diversity and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China

10.1163/15707563-00002432
/content/journals/10.1163/15707563-00002432
dcterms_title,pub_keyword,dcterms_description,pub_author
6
3
Loading
Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/15707563-00002432
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Apanius V. ( 1998) "Stress and immune defense". Adv. Stud. Behav., Vol 27, 133- 153.
2. Arroyo-Rodríguez V. , Dias P.A.D. ( 2010) "Effects of habitat fragmentation and disturbance on howler monkeys: a review". Am. J. Primatol., Vol 72, 1- 16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.20753
3. Axelrod J. , Reisine T.D. ( 1984) "Stress hormones: their interaction and regulation". Science, Vol 224, 452- 459. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.6143403
4. Barja I. , Silván G. , Rosellini S. , Piñeiro A. , González-Gil A. , Camacho L. , Illera J.C. ( 2007) "Stress physiological responses to tourist pressure in a wild population of European pine marten". J. Stero. Biochem. Mole. Biol., Vol 104, 136- 142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2007.03.008
5. Brashares J.S. , Arcese P. , Sam M.K. ( 2001) "Human demography and reserve size predict wildlife extinction in West Africa". Proc. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci., Vol 268, 2473- 2478. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2001.1815
6. Brooks T.M. , Mittermeier R.A. , Mittermeier C.G. , Fonseca G.A. , et al , ( 2002) "Habitat loss and extinction in the hotspots of biodiversity". Conserv. Biol., Vol 16, 909- 923. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.2002.00530.x
7. Brown J.L. , Wildt D.E. ( 1997) "Assessing reproductive status in wild felids by non-invasive faecal steroid monitoring". Inter. Zoo. Year., Vol 35, 173- 191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-1090.1997.tb01208.x
8. Capezzuto A. , Chelini M.O.M. , Felippe E.C.G. , Oliveira C.A. ( 2008) "Correlation between serum and fecal concentrations of reproductive steroids throughout gestation in goats". Anim. Reprod. Sci., Vol 103, 78- 86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2006.11.001
9. Creel S. , Fox J.E. , Hardy A. , Sands J. , Garrot B. , Peterson R.O. ( 2002) "Snowmobile activity and glucocorticoid stress responses in wolves and elk". Conserv. Biol., Vol 16, 809- 814. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.2002.00554.x
10. Cui Y.Y. , Hu D.F. , Zhang J.G. , Li B. , Lan T. ( 2009) "Fecal steroids assay for tourist disturbance on captive Giant pandas during May day golden week". Sichuan J. Zool., Vol 28, 647- 651.
11. Dehnhard M. , Clauss M. , Lechner-Doll M. , Meyer H.H.D. , Palme R. ( 2001) "Noninvasive monitoring of adrenocortical activity in roe deer ( Capreolus capreolus) by measurement of faecal cortisol metabolites". Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., Vol 123, 111- 120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/gcen.2001.7656
12. Deng W.J. ( 1992) "Comparison of giant pandas’ reproducing holes in Wolong and Foping". Sichuan J. Zool., Vol 11, 45- 46.
13. Fowler G.S. ( 1999) "Behavioral and hormonal responses of Magellanic penguins ( Spheniscus magellanicus) to tourism and nest site visitation". Biol. Conserv., Vol 90, 143- 149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(99)00026-9
14. Gong M.H. , Hou M. , Lin C. , Song Y.L. , Ouyang Z.Y. ( 2012) "The quantitative assessing of trail impacts on giant panda activity based on field track points and GIS". Biodiv. Sci., Vol 20, 420- 426.
15. He L. , Wei F.W. , Wang Z.W. ( 2000) "Nutritive and energetic strategy of giant pandas in Xiangling Mountains". Acta Ecol. Sinica, Vol 20, 177- 183.
16. Ishikawa A. , Kikuchi S. , Katagiri S. , Sakamoto H. , Takahashi Y. ( 2002) "Efficiency of fecal steroid hormone measurement for assessing reproductive function in the Hokkaido brown bear ( Ursus arctosyesoensis)". Japan J. Veteri. Res., Vol 50, 17- 27.
17. Kerbiriou C. , Le Viol I. , Robert A. , Porcher E. , Gourmelon F. , Julliard R. ( 2009) "Tourism in protected areas can threaten wild populations: from individual response to population viability of the chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax ". J. Appl. Ecol., Vol 46, 657- 665. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2009.01646.x
18. Kersey D.C. , Wildt D.E. , Brown J.L. , Snyder R.J. , Huang Y. , Monfort S.L. ( 2010a) "Unique biphasic progestagen profile in parturient and non-parturient giant pandas ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca) as determined by faecal hormone monitoring". Reprod., Vol 140, 183- 193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/REP-10-0003
19. Kersey D.C. , Wildt D.E. , Brown J.L. , Huang Y. , Snyder R.J. , Monfort S.L. ( 2010b) "Parallel and seasonal changes in gonadal and adrenal hormones in male giant pandas ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca)". J. Mammal., Vol 91, 1496- 1507. http://dx.doi.org/10.1644/09-MAMM-A-404.1
20. Kersey D.C. , Wildt D.E. , Brown J.L. , Snyder R.J. , Huang Y. , Monfort S.L. ( 2011) "Rising fecal glucocorticoid concentrations track reproductive activity in the female giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca)". Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., Vol 173, 364- 370. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2011.06.013
21. Li J. ( 2005) The primary studies on stress in giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Dissertation, Sichuan Agricultural University, China.
22. Liu J. , Chen Y. , Guo L.R. , Gu B. , Liu H. , et al , ( 2006) "Stereotypic behavior in relation to fecal cortisol level in captive giant pandas in relation to environmental enrichment". Zoo. Biol., Vol 25, 445- 459. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/zoo.20106
23. Maréchal L. , Semple S. , Majolo B. , Qarro M. , Heistermann M. , MacLarnon A. ( 2011) "Impacts of tourism on anxiety and physiological stress levels in wild male Barbary macaques". Biol. Conserv., Vol 144, 2188- 2193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2011.05.010
24. McEwen B.S. , Wingfield J.C. ( 2003) "The concept of allostasis in biology and biomedicine". Horm. Behav., Vol 43, 2- 15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0018-506X(02)00024-7
25. Millspaugh J.J. , Washburn B.E. ( 2004) "Use of fecal glucocorticoid metabolite measures in conservation biology research: considerations for application and interpretation". Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., Vol 138, 189- 199. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2004.07.002
26. Monfort S.L. , Mashburn K.L. , Brewer B.A. , Creel S.R. ( 1998) "Evaluating adrenal activity in African wild dogs ( Lycaonpictus) by fecal corticosteroid analysis". J. Zoo. Wildl. Med., Vol 29, 129- 133.
27. Morato R.G. , Bueno M.G. , Malmheister P. , Verreschi I.T. , Barnabe R.C. ( 2004) "Changes in the fecal concentrations of cortisol and androgen metabolites in captive male jaguars ( Panthera onca) in response to stress". Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res., Vol 37, 1903- 1907. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X2004001200017
28. Muehlenbein M.P. , Ancrenaz M. , Sakong R. , Ambu L. , Prall S. , Fuller G. , Raghanti M.A. ( 2012) "Ape conservation physiology: fecal glucocorticoid responses in wild Pongo pygmaeus moriofollowing human visitation". PLoS ONE, Vol 7( 3), e33357. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033357
29. Müllner A. , Linsenmair K.E. , Wikelski M. ( 2004) "Exposure to ecotourism reduces survival and affects stress response in hoatzin chicks ( Opisthocomus hoazin)". Biol. Conserv., Vol 118, 549- 558. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2003.10.003
30. Owen M.A. , Swaisgood R.R. , Czekala N.M. , Steinman K. , Lindburg D.G. ( 2004) "Monitoring stress in captive Giant Pandas ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca): behavioral and hormonal responses to ambient noise". Zoo. Biol., Vol 23, 147- 164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/zoo.10124
31. Palme R. , Robia C. , Baumgartner W. , Möstl E. ( 2000) "Transport stress in cattle as reflected by an increase in faecal cortisol metabolite concentrations". Veter. Reco., Vol 146, 108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.146.4.108
32. Piñeiro A. , Barja I. , Silván G. , Illera J.C. ( 2012) "Effects of tourist pressure and reproduction on physiological stress response in wildcats: management implications for species conservation". Wildl. Res., Vol 39( 6), 532- 539. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/WR10218
33. Plame R. ( 2005) "Measuring fecal steroids guidelines for practical application". Ann. NY Acad. Sci., Vol 1046, 75- 80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1196/annals.1343.007
34. Powell D.M. , Carlstead K. , Tarou L.R. , Brown J.L. , Monfort S.L. ( 2006) "Effect of construction noise on behavior and cortisol levels in a pair of captive giant pandas ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca)". Zoo. Biol., Vol 25, 391- 408. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/zoo.20098
35. Romero L.M. , Wikelski M. ( 2002) "Exposure to tourism reduces stress induced corticosterone levels in Galápagos marine iguanas". Biol. Conserv., Vol 108, 371- 374. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(02)00128-3
36. Sands J. , Creel S. ( 2004) "Social dominance, aggression and faecalglucocorti-coid levels in a wild population of wolves, Canislupus ". Anim. Behav., Vol 67, 387- 396. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2003.03.019
37. Sapolsky RM. , Romero L.M. , Munck A.U. ( 2000) "How do glucocorticoids influence stress-responses? Integrating permissive, suppressive, stimulatory, and adaptive actions". Endocr. Rev., Vol 21, 55- 89.
38. Schwarzenberger F. ( 2007) "The many uses of non-invasive fecal steroid monitoring in zoo and wildlife species". Int. Zoo. Yb., Vol 41, 52- 74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-1090.2007.00017.x
39. Shepherd B. , Whittington J. ( 2006) "Response of wolves to corridor restoration and human use management". Ecol. Soci., Vol 11, 1- 15.
40. Sheriff M.J. , Krebs C.J. , Boonstra R. ( 2009) "The sensitive hare: sublethal effects of predator stress on reproduction in snowshoe hares". J. Anim. Ecol., Vol 78, 1249- 1258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2656.2009.01552.x
41. Sheriff M.J. , Krebs C.J. , Boonstra R. ( 2010) "Assessing stress in animal populations: do fecal and plasma glucocorticoids tell the same story?" Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., Vol 166, 614- 619. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2009.12.017
42. Singh N. , Yoccoz N. , Bhatnagar Y. , Fox J. ( 2009) "Using habitat suitability models to sample rare species in high-altitude ecosystems: a case study with Tibetan Argali". Biod. Conserv., Vol 18, 2893- 2908. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10531-009-9615-5
43. Stewart P.M. ( 2003) "The adrenal cortex". In: Larsen P.R. , Kronenberg H.M. , Melmed S. , Polonsky K.S. (Eds.) Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, pp.  491- 551. Saunders, Philadelphia.
44. Store R. , Kangas J. ( 2001) "Integrating spatial multi-criteria evaluation and expert knowledge for GIS-based habitat suitability modelling". Landsc. Urban. Plan., Vol 55, 79- 93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-2046(01)00120-7
45. Terio K.A. , Brown J.L. , Moreland R. , Munson L. ( 2002) "Comparison of different drying and storage methods on quantifiable concentrations of fecal steroids in the cheetah". Zoo. Biol., Vol 21, 215- 222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/zoo.10036
46. Theuerkauf J. , Gula R. , Pirga B. , Tsunoda H. , Eggermann J. , Brzezowska B. , Rouys S. , Radler S. ( 2007) "Human impact on wolf activity in the Bieszczady Mountains, SE Poland". Annales Zoologici. Fennici., Vol 44, 225- 231.
47. von der Ohe C.G. , Wasser S.K. , Hunt K.E. , Servheen C. ( 2004) "Factors associated with fecal glucocorticoids in Alaskan brown bears ( Ursus arctoshorribilis)". Physiol. Biochem. Zool., Vol 77, 313- 320. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/378139
48. Walker B.G. , Boersma P.D. , Wingfield J.C. ( 2005) "Physiological and behavioral differences in Magellanic penguins chicks in undisturbed and tourist visited locations of a colony". Conserv. Biol., Vol 19, 1571- 1577. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00104.x
49. Wasser S.K. , Hunt K.E. , Brown J.L. , Cooper K. , Crockett C.M. , et al , ( 2000) "A generalized fecal glucocorticoid assay for use in a diverse array of nondomestic mammalian and avian species". Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., Vol 120, 260- 275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/gcen.2000.7557
50. Wasser S.K. , Thomas R. , Nair P.P. , Guidry C. , Southers J. , et al , ( 1993) "Effects of dietary fibre on faecal steroid measurements in baboons ( Papiocynocephalus cynocephalus)". J. Reprod. Fertil., Vol 97, 569- 574. http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/jrf.0.0970569
51. Wikelski M. , Cooke S.J. ( 2006) "Conservation physiology". Trends Ecol. Evol., Vol 21, 38- 46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2005.10.018
52. Wingfield J.C. , Suydam R. , Hunt K. ( 1994) "The adrenocortical responses to stress in snow buntings ( Plectrophenax nivalis) and Lapland longspurs ( Calcarius lapponicus) at Barrow, Alaska". Comp. Biochem. Phy. B, Vol 108, 299- 306.
53. Woodroffe R. ( 2000) "Predators and people: using human densities to interpret declines of large carnivores". Anim. Conserv., Vol 3, 165- 173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1795.2000.tb00241.x
54. Yin Y.F. , Wang H. , Chen A. , Liu G.Q. ( 2005) "Accuracy assessment of the Bamboo Stem Fragment distinguishing method used in panda population surveys". Biod. Sci., Vol 13, 439- 444. http://dx.doi.org/10.1360/biodiv.050018
55. Young K.M. , Brown J.L. , Goodrowe K.L. ( 2001) "Characterization of reproductive cycles and adrenal activity in the black-footed ferret ( Mustela nigripes) by fecal hormone analysis". Zoo. Biol., Vol 20, 517- 536. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/zoo.10001
56. Young K.M. , Walker S.L. , Lanthier C. , Waddell W.T. , Monfort S.L. , Brown J.L. ( 2004) "Noninvasive monitoring of adrenocortical activity in carnivores by fecal glucocorticoid analyses". Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., Vol 137, 148- 165. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2004.02.016
57. Yu X.J. , Hu D.F. , Jin X.L. , Ge X.F. , Yang L.L. , et al , ( 2011) "Non-invasive determination of fecal steroid hormones relating to conservation practice in giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca)". Anim. Biol., Vol 61, 335- 347. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/157075511X584263
58. Zeng Z.Y. , Yue B.S. , Ran J.H. , Liu S.Y. , Chen Y.P. , Jiang S.W. ( 2002) "Panda’s exploitation of habitats at Wanglang Nature Reserve". J. Sichuan. Univer., Vol 39, 1140- 1144.
59. Ziegler T.E. , Wittwer D.J. ( 2005) "Fecal steroid research in the field and laboratory: improved methods for storage, transport, processing, and analysis". Am. J. Primatol., Vol 67, 159- 174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.20175
60. Zwijacz-Kozica T. , Selva N. , Barja I. , Silván G. , Martínez-Fernández L. , Illera J.L. , Jodlowski M. ( 2013) "Concentration of fecal cortisol metabolites in chamois in relation to tourist pressure in Tatra National Park (South Poland)". Acta Theri., Vol 58, 215- 222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13364-012-0108-7
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/15707563-00002432
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/15707563-00002432
2014-01-01
2016-12-04

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    Animal Biology — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation