Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Age and growth of the common wall lizard, Podarcis muralis (Laurenti, 1768)

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Animal Biology

The present study was designed to compare the life history traits of two Podarcis muralis populations located at sites of different elevation. The age at maturity was similar in both populations, whereas longevity was found to be lower in the lowland one (Dereköy). The males and females of both populations had a similar snout-vent length (SVL) and mean age. Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) was weak in the highland population, males being slightly larger than females, whereas a strong male-biased SSD was observed in the lowland one. The growth coefficient (k) and growth rates were similar in both populations. This study indicates that the age at maturation (2-3 years) and growth rates (2.37 mm/year) are similar in two populations of P. muralis exposed to different climatic and environmental conditions. Longevity was slightly higher in the highland population (16 years) compared to the lowland one (14 years).

Affiliations: 1: Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, 61080 Trabzon, Turkey

*Corresponding author; e-mail:

Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Adolph S.C., Porter W.P. (1993) "Temperature, activity, and lizard life histories". Am. Nat., Vol 142, 273-295. [Crossref]
2. Allan G.M., Prelypchan C.J., Gregory P.T. (2006) "Population profile of an introduced species, the common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis), on Vancouver Island, Canada". Can. J. Zool., Vol 84, 51-57. [Crossref]
3. Andersson M. (1994) Sexual Selection. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.
4. Andrews R.M. (1976) "Growth rate in island and mainland anole lizards". Copeia, Vol 1976, 477-482. [Crossref]
5. Ballinger R.E. (1977) "Reproductive strategies: food availability as a source of proximal variation in a lizard". Ecology, Vol 58, 628-635. [Crossref]
6. Barbault R., Mou Y.-P. (1988) "Population dynamics of the common wall lizard, Podarcis muralis, in southwestern France". Herpetologica, Vol 44, 38-47.
7. Böhme W., Pérez-Mellado V., Cheylan M., Nettmann H.K., Krecsák L., Sterijovski B., Schmidt B., Lymberakis P., Podloucky R., Sindaco R., Avci A. (2009) Podarcis muralis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009. Accessed on 17 February 2017.
8. Boretto J.M., Cabezas-Cartes F., Ibargüengoytía N.R. (2015) "Energy allocation to growth and reproduction in a viviparous lizard endemic to the highlands of the Andes, Argentina". J. Zool., Vol 297, 77-86. [Crossref]
9. Bülbül U., Kurnaz M., Eroğlu A.İ., Koç H., Kutrup B. (2016a) "Age and growth of the red-bellied lizard, Darevskia parvula". Anim. Biol., Vol 66, 81-95. [Crossref]
10. Bülbül U., Kurnaz M., Eroğlu A.İ., Koç H., Kutrup B. (2016b) "Body size and age structure of the endangered Clark’s lizard (Darevskia clarkorum) populations from two different altitudes in Turkey". Amphibia-Reptilia, Vol 37, 450-456. [Crossref]
11. Cabezas-Cartes F., Boretto J.M., Ibargüengoytía N.R. (2015) "Age, growth and life-history parameters of an endemic vulnerable lizard from Patagonia, Argentina". Herpetol. J., Vol 25, 215-224.
12. Caley M.J., Schwarzkopf L. (2004) "Complex growth rate evolution in a latitudinally widespread species". Evolution, Vol 58, 862-869. [Crossref]
13. Castanet J. (1994) "Age estimation and longevity in reptiles". Gerontology, Vol 40, 174-192. [Crossref]
14. Castanet J., Roche E. (1981) "Détermination de l’âge chez le lézard des murailles, Lacerta muralis (Laurenti, 1768) au moyen de la squelettochronologie". Rev. Suisse Zool., Vol 88, 215-226. [Crossref]
15. Castanet J., Smirina E.M. (1990) "Introduction to the skeletochronological method in amphibians and reptiles". Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool., Vol 11, 191-196.
16. Christian K.A. (1986) "Physiological consequences of nightime temperature for a tropical herbivorous lizard (Cyciura nubila)". Can. J. Zool., Vol 64, 836-840. [Crossref]
17. Conover D.O., Duffy T.A., Hice L.A. (2009) "The covariance between genetic and environmental influences across ecological gradients: reassessing the evolutionary significance of countergradient and cogradient variation". Ann. NY Acad. Sci., Vol 1168, 100-129. [Crossref]
18. Cox R.M., Skelly S.L., John-Alder H.B. (2003) "A comparative test of adaptive hypotheses for sexual size dimorphism in lizards". Evolution, Vol 57, 1653-1669. [Crossref]
19. Dunham A.E. (1978) "Food availability as a proximate factor influencing individual growth rates in the iguanid lizard Sceloporus merriami". Ecology, Vol 59, 770-778. [Crossref]
20. Dunham A.E., Grant B.W., Overall K.L. (1989) "Interfaces between biophysical and physiological ecology and the population ecology of terrestrial vertebrate ectotherms". Phys. Zool., Vol 62, 335-355. [Crossref]
21. Eroğlu A.İ., Bülbül U., Kurnaz M. (2017a) "Age structure and growth in a Turkish population of the Crimean wall lizard, Podarcis tauricus (Pallas, 1814) (Squamata: Sauria: Lacertidae)". Herpetozoa, Vol 29, 125-133.
22. Eroğlu A.İ., Bülbül U., Kurnaz M. (2017b) "Age structure and growth in a Turkish population of the Italian wall lizard Podarcis siculus (Rafinesque-Schmaltz, 1810) (Reptilia: Lacertidae)". Acta Zool. Bulg., Vol 69, 209-214.
23. Fairbairn D.J., Blanckenhorn W.U., Szekely T. (2007) Sex, Size and Gender Roles: Evolutionary Studies of Sexual Dimorphism. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. [Crossref]
24. Fox S.F. (1983) "Fitness, home-range quality, and aggresion in Uta stansburiana". In: Huey R.B., Pianka E.R., Schoener T.W. (Eds) Lizard Ecology: Studies of a Model Organism, pp.  149-168. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, USA.
25. Gadgil M., Bossert W.H. (1970) "Life historical consequences of natural selection". Am. Nat., Vol 104, 1-24. [Crossref]
26. Grant B.W., Dunham A.E. (1988) "Thermal imposed time constraints on the activity of the desert lizard Sceloporus merriami". Ecology, Vol 69, 167-176. [Crossref]
27. Guarino F.M., Gia I.D., Sindaco R. (2010) "Age and growth of the sand lizards (Lacerta agilis) from a high alpine population of north-western Italy". Acta Herpetol., Vol 5, 23-29.
28. Gül S., Özdemir N., Kumlutas Y., Ilgaz Ç. (2014) "Age structure and body size in three populations of Darevskia rudis (Bedriaga, 1886) from different altitudes (Squamata: Sauria: Lacertidae)". Herpetozoa, Vol 26, 151-158.
29. Gül S., Özdemir N., Avcı A., Kumlutas Y., Ilgaz Ç. (2015) "Altitudinal effects on the life history of the Anatolian lizard (Apathya cappadocica, Werner 1902) from southeastern Anatolia, Turkey". Turk. J. Zool., Vol 39, 507-512. [Crossref]
30. Halliday T.R., Verrell P.A. (1988) "Body size and age in amphibians and reptiles". J. Herpetol., Vol 22, 253-265. [Crossref]
31. Herrel A., Moore J.A., Bredeweg E.M., Nelson N.J. (2010) "Sexual dimorphism, body size, bite force and male mating success in tuatara". Biol. J. Linn. Soc., Vol 100, 287-292. [Crossref]
32. In den Bosch H.A.J., Bout R.G. (1998) "Relationships between maternal size, egg size, clutch size, and hatchling size in European lacertid lizards". J. Herpetol., Vol 32, 410-417. [Crossref]
33. James C.D. (1991) "Growth rates and ages at maturity of sympatric scincid lizards (Ctenotus) in central Australia". J. Herpetol., Vol 25, 284-295. [Crossref]
34. Jenssen T.A., Andrews R.M. (1984) "Seasonal growth rates in the Jamaican lizard, Anolis opalinus". J. Herpetol., Vol 18, 338-341. [Crossref]
35. John-Alder H.B., Cox R.M. (2007) "The development of sexual size dimorphism in sceloporus lizards: testosterone as a bipotential growth regulator". In: Fairbairn D.J., Blanckenhorn W.U., Székely T. (Eds) Sex, Size and Gender Roles: Evolutionary Studies of Sexual Size Dimorphism, pp.  195-204. Oxford University Press, London, UK. [Crossref]
36. Kaliontzopoulou A., Carretero M.A., Llorente G.A. (2007) "Multivariate and geometric morphometrics in the analysis of sexual dimorphism variation in Podarcis lizards". J. Morph., Vol 268, 152-165. [Crossref]
37. Kleinenberg S.E., Smirina E.M. (1969) "On the method of determination of age in amphibians". Zool. Zh., Vol 48, 1090-1094 [in Russian].
38. Kolarov T.N., Vljevic L.K., Polovic L.D.G., Kalezic M.L. (2010) "The body size, age structure and growth pattern of the endemic Balkan mosor rock lizard (Dinolacerta mosorensis Kolombatovich, 1886)". Acta Zool. Hung., Vol 56, 55-71.
39. Lemos-Espinal J.A., Ballinger R.E. (1995) "Ecology of growth of the high altitude lizard Sceloporus grammicus on the eastern slope of Iztaccihuatl Volcano, Puebla, Mexico". Trans. Nebraska Acad. Sci., Vol 22, 77-85.
40. Lovich J.E., Gibbons J.W. (1992) "A review of techniques for quantifying sexual size dimorphism". Growth Dev. Aging, Vol 56, 269-281.
41. Lu H.L., Xu C.X., Jin Y.T., Hero J.M., Du W.G. (2017) "Proximate causes of altitudinal differences in body size in an agamid lizard". Ecol. Evol., Vol 8, 645-654. [Crossref]
42. Newman S.J., Dunk I.J. (2002) "Growth, age validation, mortality, and other population characteristics of the red emperor snapper Lutjanus sebae (Cuvier, 1828), off the Kimberley Coast of north-western Australia". Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., Vol 55, 67-80. [Crossref]
43. Olsson M., Shine R., Wapstra E., Ujvari B., Madsen T. (2002) "Sexual dimorphism in lizard body shape: the roles of sexual selection and fecundity selection". Evolution, Vol 56, 1538-1542. [Crossref]
44. Pianka E.R. (1970) "On r- and K-selection". Am. Nat., Vol 102, 592-597. [Crossref]
45. Rahman M.D.H., Tachihara K. (2005) "Age and growth of Sillago aeolus in Okinawa Island, Japan". J. Oceanogr., Vol 61, 569-573. [Crossref]
46. Roitberg E.S., Smirina E.M. (2006a) "Adult body length and sexual size dimorphism in Lacerta agilis boemica (Reptilia, Lacertidae): between-year and interlocality variation". In: Corti C., Lo Cascio P., Biaggini M. (Eds) Mainland and Insular Lacertid Lizards: a Mediterranean Perspective, pp.  175-187. Firenze University Press, Florence, Italy.
47. Roitberg E.S., Smirina E.M. (2006b) "Age, body size and growth of Lacerta agilis boemica and L. agilis strigata: a comparative study of two closely related lizard species based on skeletochronology". Herpetol. J., Vol 16, 133-148.
48. Ryser J. (1988) "Determination of growth and maturation in the common frog, Rana temporaria, by skeletochronology". J. Zool. Lond., Vol 216, 673-685. [Crossref]
49. Shine R., Charnov E.L. (1992) "Patterns of survival, growth, and maturation in snakes and lizards". Am. Nat., Vol 139, 1257-1269. [Crossref]
50. Sillero N., Campos J., Bonardi A., Corti C., Creemers R., Crochet P.-A., Isailovic J.C., Denoël M., Ficetola G.F., Gonçalves J., Kuzmin S., Lymberakis P., de Pous P., Rodríguez A., Sindaco R., Speybroeck J., Toxopeus B., Vieites D.R., Vences M. (2014) "Updated distribution and biogeography of amphibians and reptiles of Europe". Amphibia-Reptilia, Vol 35, 1-31. [Crossref]
51. Sinsch U. (2015) "Skeletochronological assessment of demographic life-history traits in amphibians". Herpetol. J., Vol 25, 5-13.
52. Sinsch U., Pelster B., Ludwig G. (2015) "Large-scale variation of size- and age-related life-history traits in the common frog: a sensitive test case for macroecological rules". J. Zool., Vol 297, 32-43. [Crossref]
53. Strijbosch H., Bonnemayer J.J.A.M., Dietvorst P.J.M. (1980) "The northernmost population of Podarcis muralis (Lacertilia, Lacertidae)". Amphibia-Reptilia, Vol 1, 161-172. [Crossref]
54. Tao Y., Mingru C., Jianguo D., Zhenbin L., Shengyun Y. (2012) "Age and growth changes and population dynamics of the black pomfret (Parastromateus niger) and the frigate tuna (Auxis thazard thazard), in the Taiwan strait". Lat. Am. J. Aquat. Res., Vol 40, 649-656. [Crossref]
55. Tinkle D.W., Wilbur A.M., Tilley S.J. (1970) "Evolutionary strategies in lizard reproduction". Evolution, Vol 24, 55-74. [Crossref]
56. Tokarz R.R. (1985) "Body size as a factor determining dominance in stage agonistic encounters between male brown anoles (Anolis sagrei)". Anim. Behav., Vol 33, 746-753. [Crossref]
57. Vogrin N. (1999) "Preliminary note on the morphometric differences between two populations of Podarcis muralis muralis (Laurenti, 1768) and Podarcis muralis maculiventris (Werner, 1891) in Slovenia". Nat. Croat., Vol 8, 325-329.
58. Vollono C., Guarino F.M. (2002) "Analisi scheletrocronologica in alcune specie di Anfibi e rettili del Parco Regionale del Matese". In: Odierna G., Guarino F.M. (Eds) I Vertebrati Ectotermi del Parco Regionale del Matese, pp.  163-171. Centro Stampa dell’Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy.
59. Wapstra E., Swan R., O’Reilly J.M. (2001) "Geographic variation in age and size at maturity in a small Australian viviparous skink". Copeia, Vol 2001, 646-655. [Crossref]
60. Williams G.C. (1966) Adaptation and Natural Selection. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Animal Biology — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation