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Multiparty Mediation in Tajikistan: The 1997 Peace Agreement

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This article uses the successful international mediation of the Tajikistan conflict as a case study to show how the presence of multiple mediators can contribute to effective mediation of internal conflicts, especially when the external parties cooperate with each other. After examining the course of the Tajik negotiations leading up to the 1997 peace agreement, the article discusses the roles played by state and non-state mediators in the peace process, particularly Russia, Iran, and other regional powers, as well as the UN and the unofficial dialogue organized under the framework of the Dartmouth Conference. To provide structure for the analysis, the concept of the three roles of a mediator – communication, formulation, and manipulation – is employed. The article argues that multiparty mediation can create unique incentives for conflict management not available through a single mediator.

Affiliations: 1: Department of International Relations, London School of Economics, London, United Kingdom (E-mail:


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