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Turning Points in Multilateral Trade Negotiations on Intellectual Property 1

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Abstract Application of a turning points analysis to detailed chronologies of events that transpired prior to and during two matched cases of multilateral intellectual property rights (TRIPS) negotiations yields useful lessons for understanding negotiation process and effective negotiator behavior. The unfolding negotiation process is traced in the GATT Uruguay Round and prior to and during the WTO Doha Ministerial. Departures from earlier trends in the chronologies merit special attention. A departure is defined as a clear and self-evident change from earlier events or patterns in the form of an impactful decision taken by one or more parties. By coding the causes (precipitants) and effects (consequences) of the departures, we perform a turning points analysis. The turning points analysis, composed of three-part sequences, reveals the triggers and impacts of departures during the extended TRIPS negotiation process. The analyses will allow a comparison of the patterns that unfolded during the two phases of TRIPS negotiations, which will highlight the breakthroughs that occurred during the Uruguay Round and the crises that emerged later, prior to and during the Doha Ministerial. Improving the effectiveness of multilateral trade negotiations depends in part on understanding how critical turning points emerge.

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50. FN1 1)The order of authorship is alphabetical. The authors contributed equally to this article.
51. FN2 2)Case facts derived from: Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (Annex 1C) 1994; Crump 1998; Devereaux, Lawrence, and Watkins 2006; Drahos 1995; Evans 1994; GATT Ministerial Declaration 1986; Orbinski 2001; Sell 2003; Singh 2006; Stewart 1993.
52. FN3 3)Case facts derived from: Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (Annex 1C) 1994; Amorium 2008; Declaration on the TRIPS agreement and public health 2001; Devereaux, Lawrence, and Watkins 2006; Drahos 2007; Ministerial Declaration 2001; Odell and Sell 2006; Sell 2003; WTO News Item (December) 1998; WTO News Item (February) 1999; WTO News Item (March) 2000; WTO News Item (October) 2000; WTO News Item (February) 2001; WTO News Items (April) 2001; WTO News Item (May) 2001; WTO News Items (June) 2001; WTO News Items (September) 2001; WTO News Items (November) 2001; WTO New Item (Undated) 2001; WTO News Item (March) 2002; WTO Reporter (June) 2001.
53. FN4 4)“Local working” meant manufacturing, although TRIPS indicates that patent rights could be enjoyed if a patent holder is engaged in importation.
54. FN5 5)OXFAM, Médecins Sans Frontières, ACT UP Paris, the Quaker Geneva Secretariat, etc.
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/content/journals/10.1163/157180612x630910
2012-01-01
2015-07-06

Affiliations: 1: Department of International Business, Griffith University Nathan Campus, Brisbane, Qld. 4111 Australia L.Crump@griffith.edu.au ; 2: George Mason University Fairfax, Virginia USA University of Southern Queensland Qld Australia dandruckman@yahoo.com

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