Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Is Reconciliation Negotiable?

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of International Negotiation

AbstractThe purpose of this article is to question some basic assumptions regarding reconciliation after wars and mass atrocities. Indeed, how can numerous policy-makers, practitioners, and scholars contend that reconciliation is necessary while it is often distrusted and rejected by victims? Are there not cases where calls for reconciliation would prove to be fruitless and even detrimental for peace and/or democracy? To answer these questions, it is worth looking at the interactions between reconciliation and negotiation. Beyond a theoretical interest, this question has a direct impact for practitioners; a better understanding of the issue is actually a sine qua non condition for more efficient interventions. In terms of methodology, this study refers to various examples as illustrative cases (Afghanistan, Rwanda, South-Africa, and the Franco-German case). Its objective is not to capture the complexity of each case study but to determine to what extent reconciliation can be considered as negotiable.

Affiliations: 1: Institut de Sciences Politiques Louvain-Europe (ISPOLE), Collège Jacques LeclercqPlace Montesquieu 1, Bte. L2.08.07, 1348 –


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Abu-Nimer Mohammed Reconciliation, Justice, and Coexistence. Theories and Practice 2001 Lanham Lexington Books
2. Ackermann Alice "“Reconciliation as a Peace-Building Process in Post-War Europe: The Franco-German case”" Peace and Change 1994 Vol 19 3 229 250
3. Allen Jonathan "“Balancing Justice and Social Unity: Political Theory and the Idea of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission”" University of Toronto Law Journal 1999 Vol 49 3 315 353
4. Améry Jean Par-delà le crime et le châtiment. Essai pour surmonter le mal 1995 Paris Actes sud
5. Amstutz Mark R. The Healing of Nations. The Promise and Limits of Political Forgiveness 2005 Lanham Rowman and Littlefield Publishers
6. Arendt Hannah Condition de l’homme moderne 1961 Paris Calmann-Lévy
7. Asmal Kader , Asmal Louise , Roberts Ronald S. Reconciliation Through Truth: Reckoning of Apartheid’s Criminal Governance 1997 Cape town David Philips
8. Banusiewicz John D. "“Clinton, Gates Voice support for Afghan Reconciliation”" Defense Department Documents and Publications 2010 October 14, 2010
9. Bargal David , Sivan Emmanuel Bar-Siman-Tov Y. "“Leadership and Reconciliation”" From Conflict Resolution to Reconciliation 2004 Oxford Oxford University Press
10. Bar-Siman-Tov Yaacov Kacowicz Arie M. , et al "“Israel-Egypt Peace: Stable Peace?”" Stable Peace among Nations 2000 Boulder Rowman and Littlefield Publishers
11. Bar-Siman-Tov Yaacov From Conflict Resolution to Reconciliation 2004 Oxford Oxford University Press
12. Bar-Tal Daniel "“From Intractable Conflict Through Conflict Resolution to Reconciliation: Psychological Analysis”" Political Psychology 2000 Vol 21 351 365
13. Biddle Stephen , Fotini Christia , Thier Alexander "“Defining Success in Afghanistan Subtitle: What Can the United States Accept?”" Foreign Affairs 2010 Vol 89 4 48
14. Biggar Nigel Burying the Past. Making Peace and doing Justice after Civil Conflicts 2003 Washington Georgetown University Press
15. Brudholm Thomas Resentment’s Virtue: Jean Amery and the Refusal to Forgive 2008 Philadelphia Temple University Press
16. Brudholm Thomas , Rosoux Valerie "“The Unforgiving. Reflections on the Resistance to Forgiveness after Atrocity”" Law and Contemporary Problems 2009 Vol 72 101 117
17. Cherry Janet "“Just war’ and ‘just means’: Was the TRC wrong about the ANC?”" Transformation 2000 Vol 42 9 28
18. Cohen Raymond Bar-Siman-Tov Yaacov "“Apology and Reconciliation in International Relations”" From Conflict Resolution to Reconciliation 2004 Oxford Oxford University Press
19. de Gaulle Charles Discours et messages 1970 Paris Plon
20. De Greiff Pablo The Handbook of Reparations 2006 Oxford Oxford University Press
21. Delori Mathias Le travail de mémoire au sein de l’OFAJ (1963–2001) 2002 Final dissertation, Institut d’Etudes Politiques de Grenoble.
22. Duclos Nathalie "“Incertaine réconciliation au Kosovo”" Raisons politiques 2003 Vol 9 2 141 159
23. Dwyer Susan "“Reconciliation for Realists”" Ethics and International Affairs 1999 Vol 13 81 98
24. Edkins Jenny Trauma and the Memory of Politics 2003 Cambridge Cambridge University Press
25. Evenson Elizabeth M. "“Truth and Justice in Sierra Leone: Coordination between Commission and The Court”" Columbia Law Review 2004 Vol 104 3 730 767
26. Feron Elise "“Irlande du Nord: la paix en haut, la guerre en bas?”" Critique internationale 2002 Vol 16 3 24 30
27. Forsberg Tuomas Biggar Nigel "“The Philosophy and Practice of Dealing with the Past”" Burying the Past. Making Peace and doing Justice after Civil Conflicts 2003 Washington Georgetown University Press
28. Galtung Johan Abu-Nimer Mohammed "“After Violence, Reconstruction, Reconciliation, and Resolution”" Reconciliation, Justice and Coexistence. Theory and Practice 2001 Lanham Lexington Books
29. Gardner-Feldman Lily "“The Principle and Practice of ‘Reconciliation’ in German Foreign Policy/ Relations with France, Israel, Poland and Czech Republic”" International Affairs 2002 Vol 75 2 333 356
30. Gardner-Feldman Lily Germany’s External Reconciliation as a Defining Feature of Foreign Policy: Lessons for Japan? 2006 Available at: .
31. Garton Ash Timothy Le Gloannec Anne-Marie , Smolar Alexander "“The Waters of Mesomnesia”" Entre Kant et Kosovo. Etudes offertes à Pierre Hassner 2003 Paris Presses de Sciences Po.
32. Geiss Peter , Le Quintrec Guillaume Histoire/Geschichte. L’Europe et le monde depuis 1945 2007 Paris Nathan
33. Gibson James L. Overcoming Apartheid: Can Truth Reconcile a Divided Nation? 2004 New York Russell Sage Foundation
34. Govier Trudy , Verwoerd Wilhelm "“Trust and the Problem of National Reconciliation”" Philosophy of the Social Science 2002 Vol 32 6 178 205
35. Grosser Alfred French Foreign Policy under de Gaulle 1967 Boston Little Brown
36. Hayner Priscilla B. Unspeakable Truths: Confronting State Terror and Atrocity 2001 New York Routledge
37. Hazan Pierre "“Measuring the Impact of Punishment and Forgiveness: a Framework for evaluating Transitional Justice”" International Review of the Red Cross 2006 Vol 88 861 19 47
38. He Yinan The Search for Reconciliation: Sino-Japanese and German-Polish Relations since World War II 2009 New York Cambridge University Press
39. Henderson Jennifer , Wakeham Pauline "“Colonial Reckoning. National Reconciliation? Aboriginal Peopls and the Culture of Redress in Canada”" English Studies in Canada 2009 Vol 35 1 1 26
40. Hermann Tamar S. Bar-Siman-Tov Yaacov "“Reconciliation: Reflections on the Theoretical and Practical Utility of the Term”" From Conflict Resolution to Reconciliation 2004 Oxford Oxford University Press
41. Jospin Lionel , Schröder Gerhard "“Memory and Identity”" Genshagen 1999 Sept. 24–25
42. Kacowicz Arie M. , Bar-Siman-Tov Yaacov Kacowicz Arie M. , et al "“Stable Peace: A Conceptual Framework”" Stable Peace among Nations 2000 Lanham Rowman & Littlefield
43. Kelman Herbert C. Bar-Siman-Tov Yaacov "“Reconciliation as Identity Change: A Social Psychological Perspective”" From Conflict Resolution to Reconciliation 2004 Oxford Oxford University Press
44. Kriesberg Louis Bar-Siman-Tov Yaacov "“Comparing Reconciliation Actions within and between Countries”" From Conflict Resolution to Reconciliation 2004 Oxford Oxford University Press
45. Kurbjuweit Dirk "“Let Down by the US: Why Germany Needs Europe”" Der Spiegel 2010 December 14 Available at: .
46. Lederach John Paul Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies 1997 Washington, D.C. United States Institute of Peace Press
47. Lederach John Paul Weiner Eugene "“Beyond Violence: Building Sustainable Peace”" The Handbook of Interethnic Coexistence 1998 New York Continuum
48. Lloyd Robert B. Zartman William , et al "“Expecting satisfaction: Negotiating a durable peace in South Africa”" Peace versus Justice. Negotiating Forward – and Backward-Looking Outcomes 2005 Lanham Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
49. Long William J , Brecke Peter B. War and Reconciliation. Reason and Emotion in Conflict Resolution 2003 Cambridge The MIT Press
50. Montville Joseph Sandole Dennis , van der Merve Hugo "“The Healing Function in Political Conflict Resolution”" Conflict Resolution theory and Practice: Integration and Application 1993 Manchester Manchester University Press
51. Montville Joseph "“Justice and the Burdens of History”" 2001 paper presented at the 24th conference of the International Society of Political Psychology 14–18 July Cuernavaca, Mexico
52. Mossom Stanekzai Mohammad "“Thwarting Afghanistan’s Insurgency. A Pragmatic Approach toward Peace and Reconciliation”" U.S.I.P. Special Report 2008 212
53. Mujawayo Esther , Belhaddad Saouad Survivantes. Rwanda, histoire d’un génocide 2004 La Tour-d’Aigues Éditions de l’Aube
54. Mukayiranga Speciosa Coquio Catherine "“Sentiments de rescapés”" L’Histoire trouée. Négation et témoignage 2004 Nantes, l’Atalante
55. Murphy Jeffrie G , Hampton Jean Forgiveness and Mercy 1988 Cambridge Cambridge University Press
56. PBS Newshour "“Will ‘Target and Talk’ Approach Work With the Taliban?”" 2010 Interview with David Lamm, air date: October 15.
57. Peyrefitte Alain C’était de Gaulle 1994 Paris Fayard
58. Philipps Ann "“The Politics of Reconciliation Revisited: Germany and East-Central Europe”" World Affairs 2001 Vol 163 4 171 191
59. Philpott Daniel Politics of Past Evil: Religion, Reconciliation, And the Dilemmas of Transitional Justice 2006 Chicago University of Notre-Dame Press
60. Rosoux Valerie Les usages de la mémoire dans les relations internationales 2001 Brussels Bruylant
61. Rosoux Valerie "“Human rights and the ‘work of memory’ in international relations”" International Journal of Human Rights 2004 Vol 3 2 159 170
62. Rosoux Valerie "“La gestion du passe au Rwanda. Ambivalences et poids du silence”" Geneses 2005 Vol 4 61 28 46
63. Schapp Andrew Political Reconciliation 2005 London Routledge
64. Shriver Donald W. An Ethic for Enemies: Forgiveness in Politics 1995 New York Oxford University Press
65. Staub Ervin "“Genocide and Mass Killing: Origins, Prevention, Healing and Reconciliation”" Political Psychology 2000 Vol 21 367 362
66. Truth and Reconciliation Commission Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa Report 1998 Vol Vol. 2 Johannesburg
67. Tutu Desmund No Future without Forgiveness 1999 New York Doubleday
68. Tutu Desmund "“Reconciliation in Post-Apartheid South Africa: Experience of the Truth Commission”" The Art of Peace: Nobel Peace Laureates Discuss Human Rights, Conflict and Resolution 2000 Ithaca, N.Y. Snow Lion Publications
69. Van der Merwe Hugo Biggar Nigel "“National and Community Reconciliation. Competing Agendas in the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission”" Burying the Past. Making Peace and doing Justice after Civil Conflicts 2003 Washington Georgetown University Press
70. Van Ness Daniel "“New Wine and Old Wineskins: Four Challenges of Restorative Justice”" Criminal Law Forum 1993 Vol 4 2 251 276
71. Wilmer Franke "“The Social Construction of Conflict Reconciliation in the Former Yugoslavia”" Social Justice 1998 Vol 25 4 90 113
72. Wilson Richard A. de Brito Alexandra Barahona "“Justice and Legitimacy in South African Transition”" The Politics of Memory. Transitional Justice in Democratizing Societies 2001 Oxford Oxford University Press
73. Zartman I. William Stern Paul , Druckman Daniel "“Ripeness: The Hurting Stalemate and Beyond”" International Conflict Resolution after the Cold War 2000 Washington, D.C. National Academy Press
74. Zartman I. William , Berman Maureen The Practical Negotiator 1982 New Haven Yale University Press
75. Zartman I. William , Kremenyuk Victor Peace versus Justice: Negotiating Forward – and Backward-Looking Outcomes Lanham Rowman & Littlefield Publishers

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    International Negotiation — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation