Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Negotiation Breakthrough Analysis: The Case of Climate Negotiations

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

AbstractThe article addresses an important gap in the literature on climate negotiations, namely, the question of breakthroughs: what exactly counts as breakthroughs in climate negotiations, how do you measure them empirically, and what practical implications do they have for the negotiation process? To address these questions, the article draws on market trading theory and develops a framework of negotiation breakthrough analysis for defining, recognizing and measuring negotiation breakthroughs. The article argues that breakthroughs in climate negotiations occur when the outcomes breach the resistance or support level of parties’ expectations regarding the results of climate talks. It concludes with a discussion of the broader contributions that technical analysis can make to the theory and practice of international negotiations.

Affiliations: 1: Department of International Development, University of Oxford3 Mansfield Road, OX1 3TBUnited


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Alasuutari Pertti , Bickman Leonard , Brannen Julia The SAGE Handbook of Social Research Methods 2008 Los Angeles, CA SAGE
2. Barret Scott "“On the Theory and Diplomacy of Environmental Treaty-Making.”" Environmental and Resource Economics 1998 Vol 11 3–4 317 333
3. Barret Scott "“Climate Treaties and the Imperative of Enforcement.”" Oxford Review of Economic Policy 2008 Vol 24 2 239 258
4. Biermann Frank , Pattberg Philipp H. , Zelli Fariborz Global Climate Governance Beyond 2012: Architecture, Agency and Adaptation 2010 Cambridge, UK Cambridge University Press
5. Carifio James , Perla Rocco J. "“Ten Common Misunderstandings, Misconceptions, Persistent Myths and Urban Legends about Likert Scales and Likert Response Formats and their Antidote.”" Journal of Social Sciences 2007 Vol 3 3 106 116
6. Chen James Essentials of Technical Analysis for Financial Markets 2010 Hoboken, NJ Wiley
7. Christoff Peter , EcKersley Robyn Dryzek John S. , Norgaard Richard B. , Schlosberg David "“Comparing State Responses”" Oxford Handbook of Climate Change and Society 2011 Oxford, UK Oxford University Press
8. City of London "“The Total Tax Contribution of UK Financial Services.”" 2010 December 2010. Available at:
9. Coleman Katharina P. "“Locating Norm Diplomacy: Venue Change in International Norm Negotiations.”" European Journal of International Relations 2013 Vol 19 1 163 186
10. Crump Larry "“Multiparty Negotiation and the Management of Complexity.”" International Negotiation 2003 Vol 8 2 189 195
11. Crump Larry "“Negotiation Process and Negotiation Context.”" International Negotiation 2011 Vol 16 2 197 227
12. Crump Larry , Druckman Daniel "“Turning Points in Multilateral Trade Negotiations on Intellectual Property.”" International Negotiation 2012 Vol 17 1 9 35
13. Crump Larry , Glendon A. Ian "“Towards a Paradigm of Multiparty Negotiation.”" International Negotiation 2003 Vol 8 2 197 234
14. Crump Larry , Zartman I. William "“Multilateral Negotiation and the Management of Complexity.”" International Negotiation 2003 Vol 8 1 1 5
15. Downie Christian "“Toward an Understanding of State Behavior in Prolonged International Negotiations.”" International Negotiation 2012 Vol 17 2 295 320
16. Druckman Daniel "“Turning Points in International Negotiation: A Comparative Analysis.”" The Journal of Conflict Resolution 2001 Vol 45 4 519 544
17. Druckman Daniel Doing Research: Methods of Inquiry for Conflict Analysis 2005 Thousand Oaks, CA Sage Publications
18. Dunlap Riley E. , McCright Aaron M. Dryzek John S. , Norgaard Richard B. , Schlosberg David "“Organized Climate Change Denial”" Oxford Handbook of Climate Change and Society 2011 Oxford, UK Oxford University Press
19. Fisher Roger , Ury William , Patton Bruce Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement without Giving in 2011 3rd ed. New York, NY Penguin
20. Freestone David , Streck Charlotte Legal Aspects of Implementing the Kyoto Protocol Mechanisms : Making Kyoto Work 2005 Oxford, UK Oxford University Press
21. Gadermann Anne M. , Guhn Martin , Zumbo Bruno D. "“Estimating Ordinal Reliability for Likert-type and Ordinal Item Response Data: A Conceptual, Empirical, and Practical Guide.”" Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation 2012 Vol 17 3 1 3
22. Garfinkel Alan Forms of Explanation: Rethinking the Questions in Social Theory 1981 New Haven, CT Yale University Press
23. General Electric Stock Information: History 2013 accessed Jan 24, 2013 Available at: .
24. Goltz Jan von der High Stakes in a Complex Game: A Snapshot of the Climate Change Negotiating Positions of Major Developing Country Emitters 2009 Center for Global Development. August 2009. Available at: .
25. Granberg-Rademacker J. Scott "“An Algorithm for Converting Ordinal Scale Measurement Data to Interval/Ratio Scale.”" Educational and Psychological Measurement 2010 Vol 70 1 74 90
26. Hampson Fen Osler , Reid Holly "“Coalition Diversity and Normative Legitimacy in Human Security Negotiations.”" International Negotiation 2003 Vol 8 1 7 42
27. Harris Paul G. ClimateCchange and Foreign Policy: Case Studies from East to West 2009 London, UK Routledge
28. Harstad Bård Aldy Joseph E. , Stavins R. N. "“How to Negotiate and Update Climate Agreements,”" Post-Kyoto International Climate Policy: Implementing Architectures for Agreement 2010 Cambridge, UK Cambridge University Press
29. Hartwig Frederick , Dearing Brian E. Exploratory data analysis 1979 Beverly Hills Sage Publications
30. Harwell Michael R. , Gatti Guido G. "“Rescaling Ordinal Data to Interval Data in Educational Research.”" Review of Educational Research 2001 Vol 71 1 105 131
31. Hattori T. "“The Road to the Kyoto Conference: An Assessment of the Japanese Two-Dimensional Negotiation.”" International Negotiation 1999 Vol 4 2 167 195
32. Hodgson Geoffrey M. "“Meanings of Methodological Individualism.”" Journal of Economic Methodology 2007 Vol 14 2 211 226
33. Hoffmann Matthew J. Climate Governance at the Crossroads: Experimenting with a Global Response after Kyoto 2011 Oxford, UK Oxford University Press
34. Jamieson S. "“Likert Scales: How to (Ab)use Them.”" Medical Education 2004 Vol 38 12 1217 1218
35. Jupp Victor The Sage Dictionary of Social Research Methods 2006 Thousand Oaks, CA SAGE Publications
36. Kanie Norichika "“Leadership in Multilateral Negotiation and Domestic Policy: The Netherlands at the Kyoto Protocol Negotiation.”" International Negotiation 2003 Vol 8 2 339 365
37. Keohane Robert O. , Raustiala Kal Aldy Joseph E. , Stavins R. N. "“Toward a Post-Kyoto Climate Change Architrecture: a Political Analysis”" Post-Kyoto International Climate Policy: Implementing Architectures for Agreement 2010 Cambridge, MA Cambridge University Press
38. King Gary , Keohane Robert O. , Verba Sidney Designing Social Inquiry: Scientific Inference in Qualitative Research 1994 Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press
39. Lewicki Roy J. , Gray Barbara , Elliott Michael Making Sense of Intractable Environmental Conflicts: Frames and Cases 2003 Washington, DC Island Press
40. Marchionni Caterina "“Explanatory Pluralism and Complementarity: From Autonomy to Integration.”" Philosophy of the Social Sciences 2008 Vol 38 3 314 333
41. Michaelowa Katharina , Michaelowa Axel "“Negotiating Climate Change.”" Climate Policy 2012 Vol 12 5 527 533
42. Oberthür Sebastian , Schram Stokke Olav Managing Institutional Complexity: Regime Interplay and Global Environmental Change, Institutional Dimensions of Global Environmental Change 2011 Cambridge, MA MIT Press
43. Putnam R. D. "“Diplomacy and Domestic Politics – the Logic of 2-Level Games.”" International Organization 1988 Vol 42 3 427 460
44. Sandelowski Margarete , Voils Corrine I. , Knafl George "“On Quantitizing.”" Journal of Mixed Methods Research 2009 Vol 3 3 208 222
45. Schwager Jack D. Getting Started in Technical Analysis 1999 New York, NY John Wiley
46. Sjöstedt Gunnar , Penetrante Ariel Sjöstedt Gunnar "“Strategic Faciliation of Climate Change Negotiation: An Introduction”" Climate Change Negotiations: A Guide to Resolving Disputes and Facilitating Multilateral Cooperation 2013
47. Spector Bertram Spector Bertram , William Zartman I. "“Deconstructing the Negotiations of Regime Dynamics”" Getting it Done: Postagreement Negotiation and International Regimes 2003 Washington, DC United States Institute of Peace Press
48. Spector Paul E. Summated Rating Scale Construction: An Introduction 1992 Newbury Park, CA Sage Publications Sage University papers series Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences
49. Steel Daniel "“Methodological Individualism, Explanation, and Invariance.”" Philosophy of the Social Sciences 2006 Vol 36 4 440 463
50. Stern Todd A New Paradigm: Climate Change Negotiations in the Post-Copenhagen Era 2010 [Accessed Feb 4, 2011] Oct 8, 2010. Available at: .
51. Susskind Lawrence E. , Fuller Boyd W. , Ferenz Michèle , Fairman David "“Multistakeholder Dialogue at the Global Scale.”" International Negotiation 2003 Vol 8 2 235 266
52. TD Waterhouse Markets & Research 2013 [Accessed Jan 24, 2013] Available at .
53. Udehn Lars Methodological Individualism: Background, History, and Meaning 2001 London, UK Routledge
54. UNFCCC cop6–2 Decisions 2001 [Accessed Feb 12, 2013] July 2001. Available at .
55. UNFCCC Copenhagen Accord 2009 Dec 18, 2009 [Accessed Jan 10, 2013] Available from
56. UNFCCC Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol 2012 [Accessed Jan 10, 2013] December 21, 2012. Available at .
57. UNFCCC A Brief Overview of Decisions 2013 [Accessed Feb 12, 2013] 2013. Available at .
58. Vogt W. Paul Dictionary of Statistics & Methodology: A Nontechnical Guide for the Social Sciences 2005 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA. Sage Publications
59. Watkins Michael "“Strategic Simplification: Toward a Theory of Modular Design in Negotiation.”" International Negotiation 2003 Vol 8 1 149 167
60. Zartman I. William International Multilateral Negotiation: Approaches to the Management Of Complexity 1994 1st ed. San Francisco, CA Jossey-Bass
61. Zartman I. William "“Conclusion: Managing Complexity”" International Negotiation 2003 Vol 8 1 179 186
62. Zartman I. William Spector Bertram , Zartman I. William "“Negotiating the Rapids: The Dynamics of Regime Formation”" Getting it Done: Postagreement Negotiation and International Regimes. 2003 Washington, D.C. United States Institute of Peace Press

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    International Negotiation — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation