Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Soft Power, Bias and Manipulation of International Organizations in International Mediation

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of International Negotiation

The present study challenges three common assumptions of the international mediation literature. First, it challenges the perception that pure or weak mediators are unable to use manipulative and coercive strategies in the mediation process, but can only resort to facilitating the dialogue and at most formulating a proposal on behalf of the disputants. Secondly, it challenges the perception that only resource-based power can be used to manipulate the process and coerce (and direct) the parties toward mutually acceptable solutions. This misconception is based on the assumption that the expansion of the zone of possible agreement, which is mainly attributed to manipulative strategies, can be achieved only by the employment of carrots and sticks which are often inaccessible to pure or weak mediators. Lastly, it shows how this type of leverage can also indicate a particular bias that an apparent pure mediator might have: bias of outcome.

Affiliations: 1: Conflict Management Program, School of Advanced International Studies, The Johns Hopkins University 1740 Massachusetts Avenue, Washington, d.c.20036 USA sumosika@yahoo.com svukovi1@jhu.edu

10.1163/15718069-12341315
/content/journals/10.1163/15718069-12341315
dcterms_title,pub_keyword,dcterms_description,pub_author
10
5
Loading
Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/15718069-12341315
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Acland Andrew A Sudden Outbreak of Common Sense: Managing Conflict through Mediation 1990 London Hutchinson Business Book
2. Beardsley Kyle C. "“Intervention without Leverage: Explaining the Prevalence of Weak Mediators.”" International Interactions 2009 Vol 35 272 297 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03050620903084547
3. Beardsley Kyle C. Mediation Dilemma 2011 New York Cornell University Press
4. Beardsley Kyle C. , Quinn David M. , Biswas Bidisha , Wilkenfeld Johnathan "“Mediation Styles and Crisis Outcomes.”" Journal of Conflict Resolution 2006 Vol 50 1 58 86 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022002705282862
5. Beber Bernd "“International Mediation, Selection Effects, and the Question of Bias.”" Conflict Management and Peace Science 2012 Vol 9 4 397 424 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0738894212449091
6. Bercovitch Jacob Thakur Ramesh "“The United Nations and the Mediation of International Disputes,”" The United Nations at Fifty – Retrospect and Prospect 1996 Dunedin, New Zealand Otago University Press
7. Bercovitch Jacob Crocker Chester A. , Hampson Fen Osler , Aall Pamela "“Mediation in the Most Resistant Cases,”" Grasping the Nettle: Analyzing Cases of Intractable Conflict 2005 Washington D.C. U.S. Institute of Pease Press
8. Bercovitch Jacob Bercovitch Jacob , Kremenyuk Viktor , Zartman I.W. "“Mediation and Conflict Resolution,”" The Sage Handbook of Conflict Resolution 2009 London Sage Publications
9. Bercovitch Jacob , Anagnoson J. Theodore , Wille Donnette L. "“Some Conceptual Issues and Empirical Trends in the Study of Successful Mediation in International Relations.”" Journal of Peace Research 1991 Vol 28 1 7 17 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022343391028001003
10. Bercovitch Jacob , Houston Allison Bercovitch Jacob "“The Study of International Mediation: Theoretical Issues and Empirical Evidence,”" Resolving International Conflicts 1996 Boulder, CO Lynne Reinner
11. Bieber Florian euConditionality in the Western Balkans 2012 London Routledge
12. Buchannan Allen , Keohane Robert O. "“The Legitimacy of Global Governance Institutions.”" Ethics and International Affairs 2006 Vol 20 4 405 437 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-7093.2006.00043.x
13. Burton John , Dukes Frank Conflict: Practices, Settlement, and Resolution 1990 London Macmillan
14. Carnevale Peter J. "“Strategic Choice in Mediation.”" Negotiation Journal 1986 Vol 2 41 56 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1571-9979.1986.tb00337.x
15. Carnevale Peter J. Bercovitch Jacob "“Mediating from Strength,”" Studies in International Mediation 2002 New York Palgrave Macmillan
16. Carnevale Peter J. , Pruitt Dean G. "“Negotiation and Mediation.”" Annual Review of Psychology 1992 Vol 43 531 582 http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.43.020192.002531
17. Carnevale Peter J. , Pruitt Dean G. , Arad Sharon Bercovitch Jacob "“Bias and Impartiality in International Mediation,”" Resolving International Conflicts: The Theory and Practice of Mediation 1996 London Lynne Rienner
18. Darmanović Srdjan "“The Dilemmas of a Small Republic.”" Journal of Democracy 2003 Vol 14 1 145 154 http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/jod.2003.0004
19. Darmanović Srdjan "“Montenegro: A Miracle in the Balkans?”" Journal of Democracy 2007 Vol 18 2 152 159 http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/jod.2007.0021
20. Fabienne Peter Zalta Edward N. "“Political Legitimacy,”" Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2010 accessed June 15, 2015
21. Favretto Katja "“Should Peacemakers Take Sides? Major Power Mediation, Coercion, and Bias.”" American Political Science Review 2009 Vol 103 2 248 263 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0003055409090236
22. Fearon James D. "“Rationalist Explanations for War.”" International Organization 1995 Vol 49 3 379 414 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300033324
23. Fisher Roger , Ury William Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In 1981 Boston, MA Houghton Mifflin
24. Fisher Ronald , Keashly Loraleigh "“The Potential Complementarity of Mediation and Consultation within a Contingency Model of Third Party Intervention.”" Journal of Peace Research 1991 Vol 28 1 29 42 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022343391028001005
25. French J. , Raven B. Cartwright D. "“The Bases of Social Power,”" Studies in Social Power 1959 Ann Arbor, MI Institute for Social Research
26. Fretter Judith Bercovitch Jacob "“International Organizations and Conflict Management: The United Nations and the Mediation of International Conflicts,”" Studies in International Mediation 2002 New York Palgrave MacMillan
27. Friis Karsten "“The Referendum in Montenegro: The eu’s ‘Postmodern Diplomacy.’ ”" European Foreign Affairs Review 2007 Vol 12 67 88
28. Gent Stephen M. , Shannon Megan "“Bias and the Effectiveness of Third party Conflict Management Mechanisms.”" Conflict Management and Peace Science 2011 Vol 28 2 124 144 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0738894210396774
29. Grabbe Heather The eu’s Transformative Power, Europeanization through Conditionality in Central and Eastern Europe 2006 New York Palgrave Macmillan
30. Hiltrop Jean M. Kressel Kenneth , Pruitt Dean G. "“Factors Affected with Successful Labor Mediation,”" Mediation Research: The Process and Effectiveness of Third Party Intervention 1989 San Francisco Jossey-Bass
31. Hopmann Terrance P. The Negotiation Process and the Resolution of International Conflicts 1996 Columbia, SC University of South Carolina Press
32. Hopmann Terrance P. Crocker Chester A. , Hampson Fen Osler , Aall Pamela "“Bargaining and Problem Solving: Two Perspectives on International Negotiation,”" Turbulent Peace: The Challenge of Managing International Conflict 2001 Washington D.C. U.S. Institute of Peace Press
33. icg "“Montenegro’s Independence Drive.”" International Crisis Group 2005 Accessed June 15, 2015 Europe Report No. 169
34. icg "“Montenegro’s Referendum.”" International Crisis Group 2006 Accessed June 15, 2015 Europe Briefing No.42
35. Inbar E. "“Great Power Mediation: The usaand the May 1983 Israeli-Lebanese Agreement.”" Journal of Peace Research 1991 Vol 28 1 71 84 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022343391028001008
36. Jackson Elmore Meeting of Minds, a Way to Peace through Mediation 1952 New York McGraw Hill
37. Keane Rory "“The Solana Process in Serbia and Montenegro: Coherence in euForeign Policy.”" International Peacekeeping 2004 Vol 11 3 491 507 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1353331042000249064
38. Kleiboer Marieke Bercovitch Jacob "“Great Power Mediation: Using Leverage to Make Peace,”" Studies in International Mediation 2002 New York Palgrave Macmillan
39. Kydd Andrew "“Which Side Are You On? Bias, Credibility and Mediation.”" American Journal of Political Science 2003 Vol 47 4 579 611 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1540-5907.00042
40. Lax A. David , Sebenius K. James 3-D Negotiation 2006 Boston, MA Harvard Business School Press
41. Lipka František "Interview" 2011
42. Lundgreen Magnus , Svensson Isak "“Leanings and Dealings: Exploring Bias and Trade Leverage in Civil War Mediation by International Organizations.”" International Negotiation 2014 Vol 19 2 315 342 http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/15718069-12341280
43. Manners Ian "“Normative Power Europe: A Contradiction in Terms?”" Journal of Common Market Studies 2002 Vol 40 2 235 258 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-5965.00353
44. Malešević Siniša , Uzelac Gordana "“A Nation-State without a Nation? The Trajectories of Nation-Formation in Montenegro.”" Nations and Nationalisms 2007 Vol 13 4 695 716 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8129.2007.00318.x
45. Nye Robert S. "“Public Diplomacy and Soft Power,”" The annalsof the American Academy of Political and Social Science 2008 Vol 616 94 109 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002716207311699
46. Nye Robert S. The Future of Power 2011 New York Public Affairs
47. Papić Marko "“ ‘Rolling Up the Sleeves’ How euPolicy Towards Serbia and Montenegro Acts As a Glue that Holds the State Union Together?”" Review of European and Russian Affairs 2006 Vol 2 2 56 80
48. Powell Robert In the Shadow of Power: States and Strategies in International Politics 1999 Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press
49. Raiffa Howard The Art and Science of Negotiation 1982 Cambridge, MA Belknap
50. Raven Bertram H. Goethals George R. , Sorenson Georgia J. , Burns James MacGregor "“Power, Six Bases of,”" Encyclopedia of Leadership 2004 Thousand Oaks, CA Sage Publications
51. Raz Joseph Ethics in Public Domain: Essays in the Morality of Law and Politics 1995 Oxford Clarendon Press http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198260691.001.0001
52. Rubin Jeffrey Z. "“Experimental Research on Third party Intervention in Conflict.”" Psychological Bulletin 1980 Vol 87 2 379 391 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.87.2.379
53. Rubin Jeffrey Z. , Pruitt Dean G. , et al Social Conflict: Escalation, Stalemate, and Settlement 1994 New York McGraw-Hill
54. Savun Burcu "“Information, Bias, and Mediation Success.”" International Studies Quarterly 2008 Vol 52 1 25 47 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2478.2007.00490.x
55. Schimmelfennig Frank "“International Socialization in the New Europe: Rational Action in an Institutional Environment.”" European Journal of International Relations 2000 Vol 6 1 109 139 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1354066100006001005
56. Schimmelfennig Frank , Sedelmeier Ulrich The Europeanization of Central and Easter Europe 2005 Ithaca, NY Cornell University Press
57. Sisk Timothy D. “International Mediation in Civil Wars: Bargaining with Bullets 2009 New York Routledge
58. Svensson Isak "“Mediation with Muscles or Minds? Exploring Power Mediators and Pure Mediators in Civil Wars.”" International Negotiation 2007 Vol 12 229 248 http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/138234007X223294
59. Svensson Isak "“Who Brings Which Peace? Neutral versus Biased Mediation and Institutional Peace Arrangements in Civil Wars.”" Journal of Conflict Resolution 2009 Vol 53 3 446 469 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022002709332207
60. Touval Saadia Bercovitch Jacob , Rubin J.Z. "“The Superpowers as Mediators,”" Mediation in International Relations 1992 New York St Martin’s Press
61. Touval Saadia Kressel Kenneth , Pruitt Dean G. "“Mediation in International Conflicts,”" Mediation Research: The Process and Effectiveness of Third Party Intervention 1989 San Francisco Jossey-Bass
62. Touval Saadia Crocker Chester A. , Hampson Fen Osler , Aall Pamela "“International Mediation in the Post-Cold War Era,”" Turbulent Peace: The Challenges of Managing International Conflict 2006 Washington, D.C. United States Institute of Peace Press
63. Touval Saadia , Zartman I. William International Mediation in Theory and Practice 1985 Boulder, CO Westview
64. Venice Commission Opinion on the compatibility of the existing legislation in Montenegro concerning the organization of referendum with applicable international standards 2005 Accessed on June 15, 2015 Strasbourg
65. Vuković Siniša "“Strategies and Bias in International Mediation.”" Cooperation and Conflict 2011 Vol 46 1 113 119 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0010836710396848
66. Vuković Siniša International Multiparty Mediation and Conflict Management: Challenges of Cooperation and Coordination 2015 Routledge London
67. Young O.R. "“Intermediaries: Additional Thoughts on Third Parties”" Journal of Conflict Resolution 1972 Vol 16 51 65 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002200277201600104
68. Zartman I. William Ripe for Resolution: Conflict and Intervention in Africa 1989 New York Oxford University Press
69. Zartman I. William Crocker Chester A. , Hampson Fen Osler , Aall Pamela R. "“International Mediation in the Post-Cold War Era,”" Managing Global Chaos: Sources of and Responses to International Conflict 1996 Washington, D.C. United States Institute of Peace Press
70. Zartman I. William Negotiation and Conflict Management: Essays of Theory and Practice 2008 New York Routledge
71. Zartman I. William , Touval Saadia "“International Mediation: Conflict Resolution and Power Politics.”" Journal of Social Sciences 1985 Vol 41 2 27 45
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/15718069-12341315
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/15718069-12341315
2015-10-26
2018-04-22

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    International Negotiation — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation