Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

International Mediation in Africa: Experiences and Challenges

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

Although informal and traditionally driven practices of mediation have existed for many generations, institutionalized and African-driven mediation became more important following the end of the Cold War. Mediation initiatives undertaken over the past 25 years, partly as a consequence of the increase in intra-state conflicts on the continent, have resulted in the generation of a deep body of knowledge and the evolution of a community of practitioners. This article examines two of the first post-1990 African-driven mediation processes – the Arusha Peace Process for Burundi and the Inter-Congolese Dialogue (ICD) for the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) – to highlight key lessons that emerged, including the choice of mediator, who to include in the mediation, the impact of regional and international dynamics on the mediation, the importance and challenges of addressing the root causes of the conflict in a mediation process, and the role of non-state actors and Track II diplomacy.

Affiliations: 1: African Centre for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes (ACCORD) 2 Golf Course Drive, Mt Edgecombe 4300 DurbanSouth Africa


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. African Union 2014 African Union Mediation Support Handbook Durban African Centre for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes
2. Apuuli Kasaija Phillip 2004"“The Politics of Conflict Resolution in the Democratic Republic of Congo: The Inter-Congolese Dialogue Process”" African Journal on Conflict Resolution Vol 4 1 65 84
3. Bentley Kristina A., Southall Roger 2005 An African Peace Process: Mandela, South Africa and Burundi Cape Town HSRC Press
4. Bercovitch Jacob, Gartner Scott Sigmund 2006"“Overcoming Obstacles to Peace: The Contribution of Mediation to Short-Lived Conflict Settlements”" International Studies Quarterly Vol 50 4 819 840 [Crossref]
5. Bercovitch Jacob, Jackson Richard Dean 2009 Conflict Resolution in the Twenty-First Century: Principles, Methods and Approaches Ann Arbor University of Michigan Press [Crossref]
6. Betts Wendy 1999"“Third Party Mediation: An Obstacle to Peace in Nagorno Karabakh”" sais Review Vol 19 2 161 183 [Crossref]
7. Blaydes Lisa, De Maio Jennifer June 2010"“Spoiling the Peace? Peace Process Exclusivity and Political Violence in North-Central Africa”" Civil Wars Vol 12 1 3 28 [Crossref]
8. Boshoff Henri, Rupiya Martin 2003"“Delegates, Dialogue and Desperadoes: The ICD and the DRC Peace Process”" African Security Review Vol 12 3 29 37 [Crossref]
9. Carayannis Tatiana 2009 The Challenge of Building Sustainable Peace in the DRC Background Paper Geneva Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue July Online at
10. Crisis Group 2000a The Mandela Effect: Prospects for Peace in Burundi International Crisis Group Africa Report N. 13 April 18 Online at
11. Crisis Group 2000b Scramble for the Congo: Anatomy of an Ugly War International Crisis Group Africa Report N. 26 December 20 Online at
12. Crisis Group 2002"Storm Clouds over Sun City: The Urgent Need to Recast the Congolese Peace Process" International Crisis Group Africa Report N. 44 May 14 Online at
13. Cunningham David E. 2006"“Veto Players and Civil War Duration”" American Journal of Political Science Vol 50 4 875 892 [Crossref]
14. De Carvalho Vanessa Roque 2010 A Critical Descriptive Analysis of the Role of Track I and Track II Diplomatic Interventions: The Case of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (1998–200) Masters Thesis in International Studies, Stellenbosch University March Online at
15. Falch Åshild, Becker Megan 2008 Power-sharing and Peacebuilding in Burundi: Power-sharing Agreements, Negotiations and Peace Processes Oslo Peace Research Institute of Oslo (PIRO)
16. Hautngimana Adelin, Theorn Jenny, Popic Anton 2007"“Peace Agreements in Burundi: Assessing the Impact”" Conflict Trends accord Vol 3 19 24
17. Havermans Jos 2000 Burundi: Peace Initiatives Help Stem the Violence November Amsterdam Doctors without Borders 1 November Online at
18. Hippler Jochen 2008"“Democratization after Civil Wars – Key Problems and Experiences”" Democratization Vol 15 3 May 550 569 [Crossref]
19. Greig J. Michael, Regan Patrick M. 2008"“When Do They Say Yes? An Analysis of the Willingness to Offer and Accept Mediation in Civil Wars”" International Studies Quarterly Vol 52 4 759 781 [Crossref]
20. Jones Bruce D. 2001 The Challenges of Strategic Coordination: Containing Opposition and Sustaining Implementation of Peace Agreements in Civil Wars Policy Paper Series on Peace Implementation New York International Peace Academy and the Center for International Security and Cooperation at Stanford University Online at
21. Kemba Claude 2004 Perspectives on the Role of Key Stakeholders in the DRC’s Political Transition Occasional Paper N. 26 Electoral Institute of Southern Africa November 26. Online at
22. Khadiagala Gilbert 2005"“Mediating civil conflicts in eastern Africa”" PoliteiaVol 24 3 295 314
23. Khadiagala Gilbert 2007"“Mediation efforts in Africa’s Great Lakes Region”" Background Paper presented at the 2007 Oslo Forum. Humanitarian Dialogue April 25–27 Online at
24. Kydd Andrew 2003"“Which side are you on? Bias, credibility, and mediation”" American Journal of Political Science Vol 47 4 507 611 [Crossref]
25. Lederach John P 1997 Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies Washington, DC United States Institute for Peace
26. Lieberfeld Daniel 2003"“Nelson Mandela: Partisan and Peacemaker”" Negotiation Journal Vol 19 3 229 249 [Crossref]
27. Mapendere Jeffrey 2005 "“Track One and a Half Diplomacy and the Complementarity of Tracks”" Culture of Peace Online Journal Vol 2 1 66 81
28. Maoz Zeev, Terris Lesley G. 2006"“Credibility and Strategy in International Mediation”" International Interactions Vol 32 4 409 440 [Crossref]
29. Mayne Maureen 2005 "Research Project on the Inter-Congolese Dialogue" Democratic Dialogue Network Online at
30. Montville Joseph 1991"“Track Two Diplomacy: The Arrow and the Olive Branch: A Case for Track Two Diplomacy,”" Volkan Vamik D., Montville Joseph V., Julius Demetrios A. The Psychodynamics of International Relations: Unofficial Diplomacy at WorkVol vol. 2 Lanham, MD Lexington Books 161 175
31. Moore Christopher W., Woodrow Peter J. 2010 Handbook of Global and Multicultural Negotiation San Francisco, CA Jossey-Bass Inc
32. Nan Susan A. 2003"“Track I Diplomacy”" Beyond Intractability website Online at
33. Nathan Laurie 2009 The Challenges Facing Mediation in Africa Section 2, The Oslo Forum Network of Mediator – Africa Mediator’s Retreat 2009 Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue Online at
34. Pahad Aziz 2005"“Perspectives on the DRC Transitional Government”" Speech delivered by the Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr Aziz Pahad, to the IGD Conference May 30 Pretoria Online at
35. Park Junhyuk 2010"“Conflict Management and Mediation Theory: South Africa’s Role in Burundi’s Civil Conflict,”" International Area Review Vol 13 3 181 201 [Crossref]
36. Quinn David, Wilkenfeld Jonathan, Smarick Kathleen, Asal Victor 2006"“Power Play: Mediation in Symmetric and Asymmetric International Crises”" International Interactions Vol 32 4 441 470 [Crossref]
37. Rogier Emeric 2004"“The Inter-Congolese Dialogue: A Critical Overview,”" Malan Mark, Gomes João Porto Challenges of Peace Implementation: The UN Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo Pretoria Institute for Security Studies Online at
38. Stedman Stephen John 1997"“Spoiler Problems in Peace Processes”" International Security Vol 22 2 5 53 [Crossref]
39. Svenson Isak 2013"“Research on Bias in Mediation: Policy Implications”" Penn State Journal of Law & International AffairsVol 2 1 17 26
40. Swart Gerrie, Solomon Hussein 2004 A Critical Assessment of Whether the Lusaka Ceasefire Agreement Has Been a Success Centre for International Political Studies. South African Institute of International Affairs Online at
41. Tinsley Catherine H., O’Connnor Kathleen M., Sullivan Brandon A. 2002 "“Tough Guys Finish Last: The Perils of a Distribute Reputation”" Organizational Behavior and Human Decision ProcessesVol 88 621 642 [Crossref]
42. un 1998 The Causes of Conflict and the Promotion of Durable Peace and Sustainable Development in Africa Report of the un Secretary General (S/1998/318) April 13 Online at
43. un 2012 United Nations Guidance for Effective Mediation Department of Political Affairs, United Nations September Online at
44. un Security Council 2013 Statement by the President of the UN Security Council on Peace and Security in Africa United Nations Security Council (S/PRST/2013/4) April 13 Online at
45. Ury William 1999 Getting to Peace: Transforming Conflict at Home, at Work, and in the World. Ann Arbor University of Michigan Press
46. Van Eck Jan 2000"“Mandela Mediation breathes new life into Burundi peace process”" Burundi Report No. 2000/1 Cape Town Centre for Conflict Resolution Online at
47. Van de Walle Nicholas 2000"“The Impact of Multi-Party Politics in Sub-Saharan Africa”" Paper prepared for delivery at the Norwegian Association for Development Research Annual Conference, “The State under Pressure” October 5–6, 2000 Bergen, Norway Online at
48. Walter Barbara F. 2002 Committing to Peace: The Successful Settlement of Civil Wars Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press
49. Wehr Paul, Lederach John Paul 1991"“Mediating conflict in Central America”" Journal of Peace Research Vol 28 1 85 98 [Crossref]
50. Whitman Shelley 2003"“Balancing Act – An insider’s view of the Inter-Congolese Dialogue”" African Security Review Vol 12 4 133 135 [Crossref]
51. Wolpe Howard 2011 Making Peace after Genocide: Anatomy of the Burundi Process Peaceworks N. 70 Washington, DC United States Institute of Peace

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    International Negotiation — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation