Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

EU Mediation in Egypt: The Limits of Reactive Conflict Management

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of International Negotiation

This article reviews EU’s mediation attempts in Egypt between 2011 and 2013. After presenting the main challenges and opportunities of EU mediation in the Middle East-North Africa (MENA) neighborhood, EU interventions in Egypt are discussed in relation to the 25 January 2011 revolution, during the presidency of Mohammed Morsi, and after the 3 July 2013 coup d’état, focusing specifically on the choice of mediation styles and their timing. It is argued that three contextual conditions that are typical of the crises that erupt during failed democratic transitions – their fast pace, their eminently domestic nature and significant power asymmetries between the main parties involved – exacerbate the structural problems that the EU faces when intervening in countries that are not current or potential candidates for accession. The analysis of EU mediation styles during Egypt’s transition provides a critical perspective on EU’s foreign policy making after the Treaty of Lisbon.

Affiliations: 1: Department of Political Science, American University in Cairo (AUC) AUC Avenue, P.O. Box 74, New Cairo 11835Egypt


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. AFP 2011 "“EU Fights to Get Envoy Ashton into Egypt.”" Agence France Presse February 10
2. AFP 2013 "“Morsi’s Ouster ‘Major Setback for Democracy’ in Egypt: German FM.”" Agence France Presse July 4
3. Alagappa Muthiah 1995 "“Regionalism and Conflict Management: A Framework for Analysis.”" Review of International Studies Vol 21 359 387 [Crossref]
4. Andemicael B., Davidson N. 1984 "“The OAU: Primacy in Seeking African Solutions within the UN Charter,”" El-Ayouty Yassin, Zartman I. William The OAU after Twenty Years New York Praeger 101 119
5. Ashraf A., Spiegel P., Peel M. 2013 "“EU’s Catherine Ashton Meets Mohamed Morsi for Talks in Egypt.”" The Financial Times July 30
6. Balfour Rosa 2012 Human Rights and Democracy in EU Foreign Policy: The Cases of Ukraine and Egypt Abingdon Routledge
7. Beardsley K., Quinn D. M., Biswas B., Wilkenfeld J. 2006 "“Mediation Style and Crisis Outcomes.”" Journal of Conflict Resolution Vol 50 1 58 86 [Crossref]
8. Beaumont Peter 2012 "“Mohamed Morsi Bars Court Challenges and Order Hosni Mubarak Retrial.”" The Guardian 22 November
9. Blockmans S., Wessel R. A. 2009 "“The European Union and Crisis Management: Will the Lisbon Treaty Make the EU More Effective?”" Journal of Conflict & Security Law Vol 14 2 265 308 [Crossref]
10. Carbone Maurizio 2008 "“Mission Impossible: The European Union and Policy Coherence for Development.”" Journal of European Integration Vol 30 3 323 342 [Crossref]
11. Comelli Michele 2010 Dynamics and Evolution of the EU-Egypt Relationship Within the ENP Framework Istituto Affari Internazionali, Documenti IAI 10.02, February 2010
12. Council of the European Union 2009 "“Concept on Strengthening EU Mediation and Dialogue Capacities.”" General Secretariat of the Council, Brussels 10 November
13. Council of the European Union 2011 "“Council Conclusions on Egypt.”" 3065th Foreign Affairs Council meeting Brussels 31 January
14. Council of the European Union 2013a "“Press Release.”" 3256th Foreign Affairs Council meeting Brussels 21 August
15. Council of the European Union 2013b "“Remarks by EU High Representative Catherine Ashton Following the Extraordinary Meeting of the Foreign Affairs Council on Egypt.”" Brussels 21 August
16. Council of the European Union 2013c "“EU Council Conclusions on the Court of Auditors Report Concerning EU Cooperation with Egypt in the Field of Governance.”" Foreign Affairs Council meeting Luxembourg 21 October
17. Crocker C., Hampson F. O., Aall P. 1999 "“Introduction,”" Crocker Chester, Hampson Fen Osler, Aall Pamela Herding Cats: Multiparty Mediation in a Complex World Washington D.C. USIP Press 3 17
18. Crocker C., Hampson F. O., Aall P. 2015 "“The Shifting Sands of Peacemaking: Challenges of Multiparty Mediation.”" International Negotiation Vol 20 3 363 388 [Crossref]
19. Darwish Passant 2013 "“EU Envoy in Egypt Calls for Dialogue.”" Al-Ahram English 2 August
20. Day Elizabeth 2013 "“How Baroness Ashton’s Gift for Consensus Opened the Door to Mohamed Morsi.”" The Guardian 4 August
21. Diehl P., Lepgold J. 2003 Regional Conflict Management Lanham Rowman & Littlefield
22. Diez T., Stetter S., Albert M. 2006 "“The European Union and Border Conflicts: The Transformative Power of Integration.”" International Organization Vol 60 563 593 [Crossref]
23. Drieskens Edith 2012 "“What’s in a Name? Challenges to the Creation of EU Delegations.”" The Hague Journal of Diplomacy Vol 7 1 51 64 [Crossref]
24. Durac Vincent 2009 "“The Impact of External Actors on the Distribution of Power in the Middle East: The Case of Egypt.”" The Journal of North African Studies Vol 14 1 75 90 [Crossref]
25. ECA 2013a EU Cooperation with Egypt in the Field of Governance European Court of Auditors, Special Report No. 4 /2013
26. ECA 2013b "“EU Support for Governance in Egypt – “Well-Intentioned but Ineffective,” Say EU Auditors.”" ECA/13/18 Press Release Luxembourg 18 June
27. ECPDM 2012 "“Study on EU Lessons Learnt in Mediation and Dialogue.”" European Centre for Development Policy Management December
28. EEAS 2011 "“A New Response to a Changing Neighborhood: A Review of European Neighborhood Policy.”" Joint Communication by the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and the European Commission, Brussels 25 May
29. Elgeneidy Suzy 2013 "“Inclusive Political Dialogue Key to EU Support for Egypt: EU Commissioner.”" Al-Ahram English 31 October
30. ENPI 2012 "“EU-Egypt Task Force – Co-Chairs Conclusions.”" Cairo 14 November
31. EU 2013 "“Statement by EU High Representative Catherine Ashton on Developments in Egypt.”" European Union A 368/13, Brussels 3 July
32. European Council 2011 "“Conclusions.”" European Council meeting Brussels 4 February
33. European Parliament 2012 "“Letter to Baroness Catherine Ashton of Upholland”" (first signatory: Marietje Schaake). Brussels 29 November
34. Essam El-Din Gamal 1997 "“Shura Council Blames Foreigners for Luxor Massacre.”" Al-Ahram Weekly 18–24 December
35. Hearst David 2013 "“Why Saudi Arabia Is Taking a Risk by Backing the Egyptian Coup.”" The Guardian 20 August
36. Hill Christopher 2001 "“The EU’s Capacity for Conflict Prevention.”" European Foreign Affairs Review Vol 6 315 333 [Crossref]
37. Holden Patrick 2009 In Search of Structural Power: EU Aid Policy as a Global Political Instrument Farnham Ashgate
38. Hope Bradley 2013 "“US Joins UAE, Qatar and EU in Egypt Crisis Mediation.”" The National 6 August
39. HRW 2014 "“All According to Plan: The Rab’a Massacre and Mass Killings of Protesters in Egypt.”" Human Rights Watch report 12 August
40. ICG 2017 "“Watch List 2017,”" International Crisis Group First Update 27 April
41. Kirkpatrick David D. 2015 "“3 Persian Gulf Nations Pledge $12 Billion in Aid for Egypt.”" The New York Times 13 March
42. Landau Emily 2006 Arms Control in the Middle East: Cooperative Security and Regional Constraints Eastbourne Sussex Academic Press
43. Lazarou E., Gianniou M., Tsourapas G. 2013 "“The Limits of Norm Promotion: The EU in Egypt and Israel/Palestine.”" Insight Turkey Vol 15 2 171 193
44. Lister Marjorie 1997 The European Union and the South: Relations with Developing Countries London Routledge
45. Nanabhay M., Farmanfarmaian R. 2011 "“From Spectacle to Spectacular: How Physical Space, Social Media and Mainstream Broadcast Amplified the Public Sphere in Egypt’s “Revolution.”" The Journal of North African Studies Vol 16 4 573 603 [Crossref]
46. Nordland Rod 2013 "“Saudi Arabia Promises to Aid Egypt’s Regime.”" The New York Times 19 August
47. Olsen Gorm Rye 1998 "“Europe and the Promotion of Democracy in Post Cold War Africa: How Serious Is Europe and For What Reason?”" African Affairs Vol 97 343 367 [Crossref]
48. Pace Michelle 2009 "“Paradoxes and Contradictions in EU Democracy Promotion in the Mediterranean: The Limits of EU Normative Power.”" Democratization Vol 16 1 39 58 [Crossref]
49. Phillips Leigh 2011 "“Mediterranean EU States Block Stronger Action on Tunisia.”" 14 January
50. Pinfari Marco 2013 "“The EU, Egypt and Morsi’s Rise and Fall: ‘Strategic Patience’ and Its Discontents.”" Mediterranean Politics Vol 18 3 460 466 [Crossref]
51. Pinfari Marco 2014 "“Transnational Civil Society and Regionalism in the Arab World: More of the Same?”" Fioramonti Lorenzo Civil Society and World Regions: How Citizens Are Reshaping Regional Governance in Times of Crisis Lanham Lexington
52. Quine Oscar 2013 "“Hague and Obama Make Cautious Approach to New Regime as International Community Responds.”" The Independent 4 July
53. Rettman Andrew 2011 "“Egypt: Over 100 Dead, Tourists Evacuated, Multiple EU Statements.”" 31 January
54. Rettman Andrew 2013 "“EU Reaction to Egypt Coup: ‘Awkward. Disturbing’.”" 4 July
55. Rouhana N. N., Korper S. H. 1997 "“Power Asymmetry and Goals of Unofficial Third Party Intervention in Intergroup Conflict.”" Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology Vol 3 1 1 17 [Crossref]
56. Spencer Richard 2013 "“Egypt: Mohamed Morsi Detained at Military Facility.”" The Telegraph 4 July
57. Tavares Rodrigo 2010 Regional Security: The Capacity of International Organizations London; New York Routledge
58. Taylor Paul 2013 "“Exclusive – West Warned Egypt’s Sisi to the End: Don’t Do It.”" Reuters 14 August
59. Tietje Christian 1997 "“The Concept of Coherence in the Treaty on European Union and the Common Foreign and Security Policy.”" European Foreign Affairs Review Vol 2 2 211 233
60. Tocci Nathalie 2004 Conflict Resolution in the European Neighborhood: The Role of the EU as a Framework and as an Actor EUI Working Papers, RSCAS No. 2004/29
61. Tocci Nathalie 2007 The EU and Conflict Resolution: Promoting Peace in the Backyard London Routledge
62. Waterfield Bruno 2013 "“Baroness Ashton under Fire for €1bn in ‘Wasted’ Aid to Egypt.”" The Telegraph 18 June
63. Whitfield Teresa 2010 External Actors in Mediation: Dilemmas & Options for Mediators Henry Dunant Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, Mediation Practice Series, No. 1 February
64. Yetiv S. A., Lu C. 2007 "“China, Global Energy, and the Middle East.”" Middle East Journal Vol 61 2 199 218 [Crossref]

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    International Negotiation — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation