Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Critical Evaluation of Adler’s Challenge to the CDC’s Male Circumcision Recommendations

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

We evaluate Peter Adler’s challenge to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) draft recommendations on male circumcision (this issue, see pp. 237–262). The CDC advocates elective male circumcision (MC) to improve public health in the USA based on strong scientific evidence. In marked contrast to the CDC, Adler’s criticisms depend on speculative claims and obfuscation of the scientific data. Adler’s central argument that circumcision in infancy should be delayed to allow a boy to make up his own mind as an adult fails to appreciate that circumcision later in life is a more complex operation, entails higher risk, is more likely to involve general anaesthesia and presents financial, psychological and organisational barriers. These limitations are avoided by circumcision early in infancy, when it is convenient, safe, quick, low risk, usually involves local anaesthesia and provides benefits immediately. Benefits of male circumcision include: protection against: urinary tract infections that are ten times higher in uncircumcised infants; inflammatory skin conditions; other foreskin problems; sexually transmitted infections and genital cancers in the male and his female sexual partners. Circumcision during infancy is also associated with faster healing and improved cosmetic outcomes. Circumcision does not impair sexual function or pleasure. Some authorities regard the failure to offer circumcision as unethical, just as it would be unethical to fail to encourage paediatric vaccination. Since the benefits vastly outweigh the risks, each intervention is in the best interests of the child. In conclusion, Adler’s criticisms of the CDC’s evidence-based male circumcision policy are flawed scientifically, ethically and legally, and should be dismissed as endangering public health and individual well-being.

Affiliations: 1: University of Washington School of Law, Seattle, Washington, USA brivin@uw.edu ; 2: Treuman Katz Center for Pediatric Bioethics, Seattle Children’s Hospital, Seattle, Washington, USA diek@uw.edu ; 3: Section of Urology, VA Puget Sound Health Care System and School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA amastroi@uw.edu ; 4: Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, California, USA, jkrieger@uw.edu; jdklausner@mednet.ucla.edu ; 5: Brian J. Morris DSc PhD, Professor Emeritus, School of Medical Sciences, Building F13, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia

10.1163/15718182-02402004
/content/journals/10.1163/15718182-02402004
dcterms_title,pub_keyword,dcterms_description,pub_author
10
5
Loading
Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/15718182-02402004
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Adam & Eve. “AdamAndEve.com asks women: Do you prefer a circumcised or uncircumcised penis?”: . Adam & Eve, Hillsborough, North Carolina, usa. (2014).
2. Adler P. W. , “"Is it lawful to use Medicaid to pay for circumcision?"”, J. Law. Med. Vol 19 (2011), 335353.
3. Adler P. W. , “"The draft cdc circumcision recommendations: Medical, ethical, legal, and procedural concerns"”, Int. Children’s Rights 24 (2016), 239–264.
4. "American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Bioethics. “Informed consent, parental permission, and assent in pediatric practice”", Pediatrics Vol 95 (1995), 314317.
5. American Academy of Pediatrics, “"Circumcision policy statement. Task Force on Circumcision”", Pediatrics Vol 130 (2012a), e756e785. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-1990
6. American Psychiatric Association, “Diagnostic & Statistical Manual 5th Revision (dsm-5). ”, (2013).
7. American Urological Association, “Circumcision”: (2012b).
8. Anonymous “"Circumcision and autism”", Arch. Dis. Child. Vol 100 (2015), 369.
9. "Attorneys for the Rights of the Child" “Peter W. Adler”: (2015).
10. Auvert B. ,, Taljaard D. ,, Lagarde E. ,, Sobngwi-Tambekou J. ,, Sitta R. , and Puren A. , “"Randomized, controlled intervention trial of male circumcision for reduction of hiv infection risk: The anrs 1265 Trial"”, ploS Med. Vol 2(e298) (2005), 11121122.
11. Badger J. , “"Circumcision. What you think”", Australian Forum Vol 2(11) (1989a), 1029.
12. Badger J. , “"The great circumcision report part 2”", Australian Forum Vol 2(12) (1989b), 413.
13. Bailey R. C. ,, Moses S. ,, Parker C. B. ,, Agot K. ,, Maclean I. ,, Krieger J. N. ,, Williams C. F. ,, Campbell R. T. , and Ndinya-Achola J. O. “"Male circumcision for hiv prevention in young men in Kisumu, Kenya: a randomised controlled trial"”, Lancet Vol 369 (2007), 643656.
14. Bailey R. C. ,, Muga R. ,, Poulussen R. , and Abicht H. "'The acceptability of male circumcision to reduce hiv infections in Nyanza Province, Kenya”", aids Care Vol 14 (2002), 2740.
15. Balci M. ,, Tuncel A. ,, Baran I. ,, Guzel O. ,, Keten T. ,, Aksu N. , and Atan A. , “"High-risk oncogenic human papilloma virus infection of the foreskin and microbiology of smegma in prepubertal boys”", Urology Vol 86 (2015), 368372.
16. Bates M. J. ,, Ziegler J. B. ,, Kennedy S. E. ,, Mindel A. ,, Wodak A. D. ,, Zoloth L. S. ,, Tobian A. A. R. , and Morris B. J. , “"Recommendation by a law body to ban infant male circumcision has serious worldwide implications for pediatric practice and human rights”", bmc Pediatr. Vol 13(Article 136) (2013), 19.
17. Bauer A. Z. , and Kriebel D. , “"Prenatal and perinatal analgesic exposure and autism: an ecological link”", Environ. Health Vol 12 (2013), 41.
18. Benatar D. , “Evaluations of circumcision should be circumscribed by the evidence”, J. Med. Ethics 39(7) (2013), 431–432.
19. Benatar D. , and Benatar M. , “"How not to argue about circumcision”", Am. J. Bioethics Vol 3 (2003a), W1W9.
20. Benatar M. , and Benatar D. , “"Between prophylaxis and child abuse: The ethics of neonatal male circumcision”", Am. J. Bioeth. Vol 3 (2003b), 3548.
21. Bester J. C. , “"Ritual male infant circumcision: the consequences and the principles say yes”", Am. J. Bioeth Vol 15(2) (2015), 5658.
22. Bhat G. H. ,, Bhat M. A. ,, Kour K. , and Shah B. A. , “"Density and structural variations of Meissner’s corpuscles at different sites in human glaborous skin”", J. Anat. Soc. India Vol 57 (2008), 3033.
23. Bossio J. A. ,, Pukall C. F. , and Steele S. S. , “"Examining penile sensitivity in neonatally circumcised and intact men using quantitative sensory testing"”, J. Urol . 195 (2016), 1848–1853.
24. Boyle G. J. , and Bensley G. A. , “"Adverse sexual and psychological effects of male infant circumcision"”, Psychol. Rep. 88(Part 2) (2001), 11051106.
25. Brusa M. , and Barilan Y. M. , “"Cultural circumcision in eu public hospitals - an ethical discussion”", Bioethics Vol 23 (2009), 470482.
26. California Assembly Bill 768, “"Male circumcision"”: (2011).
27. Calnan M. ,, Douglas J. W. B. , and Goldstein H. , “"Tonsillectomy and circumcision: comparison of two cohorts”", Int. J. Epidemiol. Vol 7 (1978), 79.
28. Castellsague X. ,, Bosch F. X. ,, Munoz N. ,, Meijer C. J. ,, Shah K. V. ,, de Sanjose S. ,, Eluf-Neto J. ,, Ngelangel C. A. ,, Chichareon S. ,, Smith J. S. ,, Herrero R. ,, Moreno V. ,, Franceschi S. and International Agency for Research on Cancer Multicenter Cervical Cancer Study Group, “"Male circumcision, penile human papillomavirus infection, and cervical cancer in female partners"”, N. Engl. J. Med. Vol 346 (2002), 11051112.
29. Cathcart P. ,, Nuttall M. ,, van der Meulen J. ,, Emberton M. , and Kenny S. E. , “"Trends in paediatric circumcision and its complications in England between 1997 and 2003"”, Br. J. Surg. Vol 93 (2006), 885890.
30. Catholic Enquiry Centre, “"Frequently asked questions regarding circumcision"”: (2015).
31. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “"Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection following Jewish ritual circumcisions that included direct orogenital suction – New York City, 2000–2011”", mmwr Morb. Mortal Wkly. Rep. Vol 61 (2012), 404409.
32. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “"Recommendations for Providers Counseling Male Patients and Parents Regarding Male Circumcision and the Prevention of hiv Infection, stis, and Other Health Outcomes"”, Docket No. cdc-2014-0012: (2014).
33. Chemtob D. ,, Op de Coul E. ,, Van Sighem A. ,, Mor Z. ,, Cazein F. , and Semaille C. , “"Impact of male circumcision among heterosexual hiv cases: comparison between three low prevalence countries"”, Isr. J. Health Policy Res. Vol 4 (2015), article 36: 3138.
34. Cherpes T. L. ,, Meyne L. A. ,, Krohn M. A. , and Hiller S. L. , “"Risk factors for infection with herpes simplex virus type 2: Role of smoking, douching, uncircumcised males, and vaginal flora”", Sex. Transm. Dis. Vol 30 (2003), 405410.
35. Chinen M. A. , “"Game Theory and Customary International Law: A Response to Professors Goldsmith and Posner"”, Mich. J. Int. Law Vol 23 (2001), 143, 178.
36. Christakis D. A. ,, Harvey E. ,, Zerr D. M. ,, Feudtner C. ,, Wright J. A. , and Connell F. A. , “"A trade-off analysis of routine newborn circumcision”", Pediatrics Vol 105 (2000), 246249.
37. Circumcisioncenter.com, “"Circumcision revision for a gentleman in his late thirties who had done foreskin restoration by stretching"”: (2015).
38. Clark P. A. ,, Eisenman J. , and Szapor S. , “"Mandatory neonatal male circumcision in Sub-Saharan Africa: medical and ethical analysis”", Med. Sci. Monit. Vol 13 (2007), RA205213.
39. Cornell University Law School, Legal Information Institute, 18 U.S. Code 116 – Female genital mutilation: (2013).
40. Cortés-González J. R. ,, Arratia-Maqueo J. A. , and Gómez-Guerra L. S. , “"[Does circumcision has an effect on female’s perception of sexual satisfaction?] (article in Spanish)"”, Rev. Invest. Clin. Vol 60 (2008), 227230.
41. Cortés-González J. R. ,, Arratia-Maqueo J. A. ,, Martínez-Montelongo R. , and Gómez-Guerra L. S. , “"[Does circumcision affect male’s perception of sexual satisfaction?]"” (article in Spanish), Arch. Esp. Urol. Vol 62 (2009), 733736.
42. Cox G. ,, Krieger J. N. , and Morris B. J. , “"Histological correlates of penile sexual sensation: Does circumcision make a difference? (systematic review)”", Sex. Med. Vol 3 (2015), 7685.
43. Daling J. R. ,, Madeleine M. M. ,, Johnson L. G. ,, Schwartz S. M. ,, Shera K. A. ,, Wurscher M. A. ,, Carter J. J. ,, Porter P. L. ,, Galloway D. A. ,, McDougall J. K. , and Krieger J. N. , "“Penile cancer: importance of circumcision, human papillomavirus and smoking in in situ and invasive disease”", Int. J. Vol 116 (2005), 606616.
44. dw news-service, “Circumcision remains legal in Germany”: (2012). Retrieved from: .
45. Earp B. D. , “"Do the benefits of male circumcision outweigh the risks? A critique of the proposed cdc guidelines”", Front. Pediatr. Vol 3 (2015), 18.
46. El Bcheraoui C. ,, Zhang X. ,, Cooper C. S. ,, Rose C. E. ,, Kilmarx P. H. , and Chen R. T. , “"Rates of adverse events associated with male circumcision in us medical settings, 2001 to 2010”", jama Pediatr. Vol 168 (2014), 625634.
47. Elder J. S. , (2007), Urinary tract infections. Textbook of Pediatrics , 18th edn. , Kligeman R. M. ,, Behrman R. E. ,, Jenson H. B. , and Stanton B. F. Philadelphia, Saunders Elsevier. Vol 2007: 22232228.
48. Fergusson D. M. ,, Boden J. M. , and Horwood L. J. , “"Neonatal circumcision: Effects on breastfeeding and outcomes associated with breastfeeding”", J. Paediatr. Child Health Vol 44 (2008), 4449.
49. Fidler D. P. (1996), “"Challenging the Classical Concept of Custom: Perspectives on the Future of Customary International Law”", German Lawbook of International Law Vol 39 (1996), 198.
50. FindLaw Amstrong v. State. Supreme Court of Montana. No. 98–066. Decided 26 October 1999: (1999).
51. Frisch M. ,, Aigrain Y. ,, Barauskas V. ,, Bjarnason R. ,, Boddy S.-A. ,, Czauderna P. ,, de Gier R. P. E. ,, de Jong, T. P. V. M., Fasching G. ,, Fetter W. ,, Gahr M. ,, Graugaard C. ,, Greisen G. ,, Gunnarsdottir A. ,, Hartmann W. ,, Havranek P. ,, Hitchcock R. ,, Huddart S. ,, Janson S. ,, Jaszczak P. ,, Kupferschmid C. ,, Lahdes-Vasama T. ,, Lindahl H. ,, MacDonald N. ,, Markestad T. ,, Märtson M. ,, Nordhov S. M. ,, Pälve H. ,, Petersons A. ,, Quinn F. ,, Qvist N. ,, Rosmundsson T. ,, Saxen H. ,, Söder M. ,, Stehr M. ,, von Loewenich V. C. H. ,, Wallander J. , and Wijnen R ., “"Cultural bias in the aap’s 2012 technical report and policy statement on male circumcision”", Pediatrics Vol 131 (2013) 796800.
52. Frisch M. , and Simonsen J. , “"Ritual circumcision and risk of autism spectrum disorder in 0- to 9-year old boys: national cohort study in Denmark”", J. R. Soc. Med. Vol 108 (2015), 266279.
53. Goldsmith J. L. , and Posner E. A. , “"A Theory of Customary International Law”", University of Chicago Law Review Vol 66 (1999), 1113.
54. Goldsmith J. L. , and Posner E. A. , “"Understanding the Resemblance Between Modem and Traditional Customary International Law”", Va. J. Int. Law Vol 40 (2000), 639640.
55. Gray R. ,, Kigozi G. ,, Kong X. ,, Ssempiija V. ,, Makumbi F. ,, Wattya S. ,, Serwadda D. ,, Nalugoda F. ,, Sewenkambo N. K. , and Wawer M. J. , “"The effectiveness of male circumcision for hiv prevention and effects on risk behaviors in a post-trial follow up study in Rakai, Uganda”", aids Vol 26 (2012), 609615.
56. Gray R. H. ,, Kigozi G. ,, Serwadda D. ,, Makumbi F. ,, Watya S. ,, Nalugoda F. ,, Kiwanuka N. ,, Moulton L. H. ,, Chaudhary M. A. ,, Chen M. Z. ,, Sewankambo N. K. ,, Wabwire-Mangen F. ,, Bacon M. C. ,, Williams C. F. ,, Opendi P. ,, Reynolds S. J. ,, Laeyendecker O. ,, Quinn T. C. , and Wawer M. J. , “"Male circumcision for hiv prevention in men in Rakai, Uganda: a randomised trial”", Lancet Vol 369 (2007), 657666.
57. Gutwein L. G. ,, Alvarez J. F. ,, Gutwein J. L. ,, Kays D. W. , and Islam S. , “"Allocation of healthcare dollars: analysis of nonneonatal circumcisions in Florida”", Am. Surg. Vol 79 (2013), 865869.
58. Guzman A. Y. , “"Saving customary international law"”, Mich. J. Int. Law Vol 115 (2005–2006), 27.
59. Habous, M., Tealab, A., Williamson, B, Binsaleh, S., El Dawy, S., Mahmoud, S., Abdelwahab, O., Nassar, M., Mulhall, J. P., Veale, D. and Muir, G., “Erect penile dimensions in a cohort of 778 Middle Eastern men: establishment of a nomogram.” J. Sex. Med. 12 (2015), 1402–1406.
60. Hammond T. , “"A preliminary poll of men circumcised in infancy or childhood”", bju Int. Vol 83(suppl 1) (1999), 8592.
61. Hoberman A. ,, Wald E. R. ,, Hickey R. W. ,, Baskin M. ,, Charron M. ,, Majd M. ,, Kearney D. H. ,, Reynolds E. A. ,, Ruley J. , and Janosky J. E. , “"Oral versus initial intravenous therapy for urinary tract infections in young febrile children"”, Pediatrics Vol 104 (Pt 1) (1999), 7986.
62. Holligan A. , “"Dutch Jews and Muslims fight for circumcision right"”, bbc News : (2011).
63. ‘"H.R."’, 104th Cong 1946 (1995).
64. Jacobs A. J. , "“The ethics of circumcision of male infants”", Isr. Med. Assoc. J. Vol 15 (2013), 6065.
65. Jacobs A. J. , and Arora K. S. , “"Ritual male infant circumcision and human rights”", Am. J. Bioeth. Vol 15(2) (2015), 3039.
66. Jacobs M. ,, Grady R. , and Bolnick D. A. ,, "“Current circumcision trends and guidelines"”, Surgical Guide to Circumcision , Bolnick D. A. ,, Koyle M. A. , and Yosha A. (eds) London, Springer-Verlag. Vol 2012: 38.
67. Johns Hopkins University. Hippocratic Oath, Modern version: (2015).
68. Joudi M. ,, Fathi M. , and Hiradfar M. , “"Incidence of asymptomatic meatal stenosis in children following neonatal circumcision"”, J. Pediatr. Urol. Vol 7 (2011), 526528.
69. Kadens E. , and Young E. A. , “"How customary is customary international law?"”, Wm & Mary Law Rev. Vol 54 (2012–2013), 885.
70. Kafka M. P. , “"The dsm diagnostic criteria for paraphilia not otherwise specified”", Arch. Sex. Behav. Vol 39(2) (2010), 373376.
71. Kelishadi R. , “"To the readers"”, Int. J. Prev. Med. Vol 1 (2010), i.
72. Kelly P. . “"The twilight of customary international law, 40”", Va. J. Int. Law Vol 40 (2000), 449450.
73. Kigozi G. ,, Lukabwe I. ,, Kagaayi J. ,, Wawer M. J. ,, Nantume B. ,, Kigozi G. ,, Nalugoda F. ,, Kiwanuka N. ,, Wabwire-Mangen F. ,, Serwadda D. ,, Ridzon R. ,, Buwembo D. ,, Nabukenya D. ,, Watya S. ,, Lutalo T. ,, Nkale J. , and Gray R. H. , “"Sexual satisfaction of women partners of circumcised men in a randomized trial of male circumcision in Rakai, Uganda”", bju Int. Vol 104 (2009), 16981701.
74. Kigozi G. ,, Watya S. ,, Polis C. B. ,, Buwembo D. ,, Kiggundu V. ,, Wawer M. J. ,, Serwadda D. ,, Nalugoda F. ,, Kiwanuka N. ,, Bacon M. C. ,, Ssempijja V. ,, Makumbi F. , and Gray R .H. , “"The effect of male circumcision on sexual satisfaction and function, results from a randomized trial of male circumcision for human immunodeficiency virus prevention, Rakai, Uganda”", bju Int. Vol 101 (2008), 6570.
75. Koyle M. A. ,, Barqawi A. ,, Wild J. ,, Passamaneck M. , and Furness P. D. 3rd. , “"Pediatric urinary tract infections: the role of fluoroquinolones”", Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. Vol 22 (2003), 11331137.
76. Krieger J. N. ,, Mehta S. D. ,, Bailey R. C. ,, Agot K. ,, Ndinya-Achola J. O. ,, Parker C. , and Moses S. , “"Adult male circumcision: Effects on sexual function and sexual satisfaction in Kisumu, Kenya”", J. Sex Med. Vol 5 (2008), 26102622.
77. Larke N. L. ,, Thomas S. L. ,, Dos Santos Silva I. , and Weiss H. A. , “"Male circumcision and penile cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis”", Cancer Causes Control Vol 22 (2011), 10971110.
78. Laumann E. O. ,, Masi C. M. , and Zuckerman E. W. , “"Circumcision in the United States. Prevalence, prophyactic effects, and sexual practice”", J. Am. Med. Assoc. Vol 277 (1997), 10521057.
79. Lei J. H. ,, Liu L. R. ,, Wei Q. ,, Yan S. B. ,, Yang L. ,, Song T. R. ,, Yuan H. C. ,, Lv X. , and Han P. , “"Circumcision status and risk of hiv acquisition during heterosexual intercourse for both males and females: A meta-analysis”", PLoS One Vol 10 (2015), e0125436.
80. Leibowitz A. A. ,, Desmond K. , and Belin T. , “"Determinants and policy implications of male circumcision in the United States”", Am. J. Public Health Vol 99 (2009), 138145.
81. Liu C. M. ,, Hungate B. A. ,, Tobian A. A. ,, Ravel J. ,, Prodger J. L. ,, Serwadda D. ,, Kigozi G. ,, Galiwango R. M. ,, Nalugoda F. ,, Keim P. ,, Wawer M. J. ,, Price L. B. , and Gray R. H. , “"Penile microbiota and female partner bacterial vaginosis in Rakai, Uganda"”, mbio Vol 6 (2015), e00589.
82. Liu C. M. ,, Hungate B. A. ,, Tobian A. A. R. ,, Serwadda D. ,, Ravel J. ,, Lester R. ,, Kigozi G. ,, Aziz M. ,, Galiwango R. M. ,, Nalugoda F. ,, Contente-Cuomo T. L. ,, Wawer M. J. ,, Keim P. ,, Gray R. H. , and Price L. B. , “"Male circumcision significantly reduces prevalence and load of genital anaerobic bacteria”", Mbio Vol 4 (2013), 19.
83. Lopez L. M. ,, Otterness C. ,, Chen M. ,, Steiner M. , and Gallo M. F. , “"Behavioral interventions for improving condom use for dual protection”", Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. Vol 10 (2013), cd010662.
84. Mazor J. , “"The child’s interests and the case for the permissibility of male infant circumcision”", J. Med. Ethics Vol 39 (2013), 421428.
85. McIntosh N. , “"Pain in the newborn, a possible new starting point”", Eur. J. Pediatr. Vol 156 (1997), 173177.
86. Merkel R. , and Putzke H. , “"After Cologne: male circumcision and the law. Parental right, religious liberty or criminal assault?"”, J. Med. Ethics Vol 39 (2013), 444449.
87. Mohl P. C. ,, Adams R. ,, Grier D. M. , and Sheley K. A. , “"Prepuce restoration seekers: Psychiatric aspects”", Arch. Sexual Behav. Vol 10 (1981), 383393.
88. Moreton S. (2014), “Debunking anticircumcision pseudoscience”. An annotated version of the National Coalition for Men’s letter to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation: .
89. Morris B. J. , “"Why circumcision is a biomedical imperative for the 21st century”", BioEssays Vol 29 (2007), 11471158.
90. Morris B. J. , “"Commentary on article by Earp entitled: Do the benefits of male circumcision outweigh the risks? A critique of the proposed cdc guidelines”", Front. Pediatr. Vol 3 (2015), 88.
91. Morris B. J. ,, Bailey R. C. ,, Klausner J. D. ,, Leibowitz A. ,, Wamai R. G. ,, Waskett J. H. ,, Banerjee J. ,, Halperin D. T. ,, Zoloth L. ,, Weiss H. A. , and Hankins C. A. , “"Review: a critical evaluation of arguments opposing male circumcision for hiv prevention in developed countries”", aids Care Vol 24 (2012a), 15651575.
92. Morris B.J. ,, Bailis S.A. ,, Waskett J.H. ,, Wiswell T. E. , and Halperin D. T. , “"Medicaid coverage of newborn circumcision: a health parity right of the poor”", Am. J. Public Health Vol 99 (2009), 969971.
93. Morris B. J. ,, Bailis S. A. , and Wiswell T. E. , “"Circumcision rates in the United States: Rising or falling? What effect might the new affirmative pediatric policy statement have?"”, Mayo Clin. Proc. Vol 89 (2014), 677686.
94. Morris B. J. , and Castellsague X. (2011), "“The role of circumcision in preventing stis”, Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Gross, G. E. and Tyring, S. K. (eds), Berlin and Heidelberg", Springer-Verlag. Vol 2011: 715739.
95. Morris B. J. ,, Gray R. H. ,, Castellsague X. ,, Bosch F. X. ,, Halperin D. T. ,, Waskett J. H. , and Hankins C. A. , “"The strong protection afforded by circumcision against cancer of the penis (Invited Review)"”, Adv. Urol. (Article id 812368) (2011), 121.
96. Morris B. J. , and Krieger J. N. , “Does male circumcision affect sexual function, sensitivity, or satisfaction? – A systematic review”, J. Sex. Med. Vol 10 (2013), 26442657.
97. Morris B. J. , and Krieger J. N. , “"The literature supports policies promoting neonatal male circumcision in north america”", J. Sex. Med. Vol 12 (2015a), 1305.
98. Morris B. J. , and Krieger J. N. , “"Male circumcision does not reduce sexual function, sensitivity or satisfaction”", Adv. Sex. Med. Vol 5 (2015b), 5360.
99. Morris B. J. , and Tobian A. A. , “"Legal threat to infant male circumcision”", jama Pediatr. Vol 167 (2013), 890891.
100. Morris B. J. ,, Tobian A. A. R. ,, Hankins C. A. ,, Klausner J. D. ,, Banerjee J. ,, Bailis S. A. ,, Moses S. , and Wiswell T. E. , “"Veracity and rhetoric in pediatric medicine: A critique of Svoboda and Van Howe’s response to the aap policy on infant male circumcision”", J. Med. Ethics Vol 40 (2013), 463470.
101. Morris B. J. ,, Waskett J. H. ,, Banerjee J. ,, Wamai R. G. ,, Tobian A. A. R. ,, Gray R. H. ,, Bailis S. A. ,, Bailey R. C. ,, Klausner J. D. ,, Willcourt R. J. ,, Halperin D. T. ,, Wiswell T. E. , and Mindel A. , “"A ‘snip’ in time: what is the best age to circumcise?"”, bmc Pediatr . 12 (article 20) (2012b), 115.
102. Morris B. J. ,, Waskett J. H. , and Gray R. H. , “"Does sexual function survey in Denmark offer any support for male circumcision having an adverse effect?"”, Int. J. Epidemiol. Vol 41 (2012c), 310312.
103. Morris B. J. , and Wiswell T. E. , “"Circumcision and lifetime risk of urinary tract infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis”", J. Urol. Vol 189(6) (2013) 21182124.
104. Morris B. J. , and Wiswell T. E. , “"Circumcision pain’ unlikely to cause autism"”, J. R. Soc. Med. Vol 108(8) (2015), 297.
105. Morris B. J. ,, Wodak A. D. ,, Mindel A. ,, Schrieber L. ,, Duggan K. A. ,, Dilly A. ,, Willcourt R. J. , and Cooper D. A. , “"The 2010 Royal Australasian College of Physicians policy statement ‘Circumcision of infant males’ is not evidence based”", Intern. Med. J. Vol 42 (2012d), 822828.
106. Morris B. J. ,, Wodak A. D. ,, Mindel A. ,, Schrieber L. ,, Duggan K. A. ,, Dilly A. ,, Willcourt R. J. ,, Cooper D. A. ,, Lumbers E. R. ,, Russell C. T. , and Leeder S. R. , "“Infant male circumcision: An evidence-based policy statement”, Open J ". Prevent. Med. Vol 2 (2012e), 7982.
107. Moses S. ,, Bailey R. C. , and Ronald A. R. , “"Male circumcision: assessment of health benefits and risks”", Sex. Transm. Inf. Vol 74 (1998), 368373.
108. Nelson D. E. ,, Dong Q. ,, Van der Pol B. ,, Toh E. ,, Fan B. ,, Katz B. P. ,, Mi D. ,, Rong R. ,, Weinstock G. M. ,, Sodergren E. , and Fortenberry J. D. , “"Bacterial communities of the coronal sulcus and distal urethra of adolescent males”", ploS One Vol 7 (2012), e36298.
109. Notyourstocut.com, “"The biggest risk factor and the quickest path to change"”: (2014).
110. O’Farrell N. ,, Quigley M. , and Fox P. , “"Association between the intact foreskin and inferior standards of male genital hygiene behaviour: a cross-sectional study”", Int. J. std. aids Vol 16 (2005), 556559.
111. Ouellette A. , “"Shaping Parental Authority over Children’s Bodies”", Indiana Law J. Vol 85 (2010), 9551002.
112. Pallett A. , and Hand K. , “"Complicated urinary tract infections: practical solutions for the treatment of multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria"”, J. Antimicrob. Chemother . 65 Suppl 3 (2010), iii2533.
113. Richters J. ,, Gerofi J. , and Donovan B. , “"Are condoms the right size(s)? A method for self-measurement of the erect penis”", Venereology Vol 8 (1995), 7781.
114. Roth J. D. ,, Keenan A. C. ,, Carroll A. E. ,, Rink R. C. ,, Cain M. P. ,, Whittam B. M. , and Bennett W. E. Jr. , “Readmission characteristics of elective pediatric circumcisions using large-scale administrative data”, J. Pediatr. Urol . 12 (2015), 27. e1–6.
115. Royal Australasian College of Physicians, Paediatrics & Child Health Division, “"Circumcision of infant males"” (2010a): .
116. Royal Dutch Medical Association (knmg), “"Non-therapeutic circumcision of male minors. Utrecht: Royal Dutch Medical Association (knmg)"”, (2010): .
117. Rushton H. G. , “"Urinary tract infections in children. Epidemiology, evaluation, and management”", Pediatr. Clin. North Am. Vol 44 (1997), 11331169.
118. Rushton H. G. , and Majd M. , “"Dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy for the evaluation of pyelonephritis and scarring: a review of experimental and clinical studies”", J. Urol. Vol 148 (Pt 2) (1992a), 17261732.
119. Rushton H. G. , and Majd M. , “"Pyelonephritis in male infants: how important is the foreskin?"”, J. Urol. Vol 148 (1992b), 733736.
120. Russell C. T. , and Chaseling J. , “"Topical anaesthesia in neonatal circumcision: a study of 208 consecutive cases”", Aust. Fam. Physician Vol 25(suppl 1) (1996), 3034.
121. Schlosberger N. M. ,, Turner R. A. , and Irwin C. E. Jr. , “"Early adolescent knowledge and attitudes about circumcision: methods and implications for research”", J. Adolesc. Health Vol 13 (1992), 293297.
122. Schoen E. J. , “"Circumcision for preventing urinary tract infections in boys: North American view”", Arch. Dis. Child Vol 90 (2005), 772773.
123. Schoen E. J. , “"Critique of Van Howe rs. Incidence of meatal stenosis following neonatal circumcision in a primary care setting. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2006;45:49–54"”, Clin. Paediatr. (Phila) Vol 46 (2007), 86.
124. Schultheiss D. ,, Truss M. ,,C., Stief C. ,G. and Jonas, U., “"Uncircumcision: a historical review of preputial restoration”", Plast. Reconst. Surg. Vol 101 (1998), 19901998.
125. Siegfried N. ,, Muller M. ,, Deeks J. J. , and Volmink J. , “"Male circumcision for prevention of heterosexual acquisition of hiv in men”", Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. Issue Vol 2 (2009), cd003362.
126. Simforoosh N. ,, Tabibi A. ,, Khalili S. A. ,, Soltani M. H. ,, Afjehi A. ,, Aalami F. , and Bodoohi H. , “"Neonatal circumcision reduces the incidence of asymptomatic urinary tract infection: A large prospective study with long-term follow up using Plastibell”", J. Pediatr. Urol. Vol 8 (2012), 320323.
127. Singh-Grewal D. ,, Macdessi J. , and Craig J. , “"Circumcision for the prevention of urinary tract infections in boys: a systematic review of randomized trials and observational studies”", Arch. Dis. Child. Vol 90 (2005), 853858.
128. Smith D. K. ,, Taylor A. ,, Kilmarx P. H. ,, Sullivan P. ,, Warner L. ,, Kamb M. ,, Bock N. ,, Kohmescher B. , and Mastro T. D. , “"Male circumcision in the United States for the prevention of hiv infection and other adverse health outcomes: Report from a cdc consultation”", Public Health Reports Vol 125(Suppl 1) (2010), 7282.
129. Sneppen, I. and Thorup, J. “Foreskin morbidity in uncircumcised males”, Pediatrics 137 (2016), e20154340.
130. Sorokan S. T. ,, Finlay J. C. , and Jeffries A. L. , “"Position Statement. Canadian Paediatric Society. Newborn male circumcision”", Paediatr. Child Health Vol 20 (2015) 311315.
131. Res S. , 104th Cong pmbl 984 (1995a).
132. Res S. , 104th Cong 984 (1995b).
133. Stafford N. , “"German ethics council backs religious circumcision if specific conditions met"”, bmj Vol 345 (2012), e5789.
134. Stenram A. ,, Malmfors G. , and Okmian L. , “"Circumcision for phimosis – indications and results"”, Acta. Paediat. Scand. Vol 75 (1986), 321323.
135. Svoboda J. S. ,, “"A treatise from the trenches: Why are circumcision lawsuits so hard to win?"”, Circumcision and Human Rights : in Denniston G. ,, Hodges F. ,, Milos M. ,, Fayre M. (eds), Berlin , Germany, Springer. (2009), 201217.
136. Svoboda J. S. , “"Circumcision of male infants as a human rights violation”", J. Med. Ethics Vol 39 (2013), 469474.
137. Svoboda J. S. , and Van Howe R. S. , “"Out of step: fatal flaws in the latest aap policy report on neonatal circumcision”", J. Med. Ethics Vol 39 (2013), 434441.
138. Taddio A. ,, Chambers C. T. ,, Halperin S. A. ,, Ipp M. ,, Lockett D. ,, Rieder M. J. , and Shah V. , “"Inadequate pain management during routine childhood immunizations: the nerve of it”", Clin. Ther. Vol 31 (Suppl 2) (2009), S152S167.
139. Taddio A. ,, Gurguis M. G. , and Koren G. , “"Lidocaine-prilocaine cream versus tetracaine gel for procedural pain in children"”, Ann. Pharmacother. Vol 36 (2002), 687692.
140. Taddio A. ,, Katz J. ,, Herisch A. L. and Koren, G., “"Effect of neonatal circumcision on pain response during subsequent routine vaccination”", Lancet Vol 349 (1997a), 599603.
141. Taddio A. ,, Pollock N. ,, Gilbert-Macleod C. ,, Ohlsson K. , and Koren G. , “"Combined analgesia and local anesthesia to minimize pain during circumcision”", Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. Vol 154 (2000), 620623.
142. Taddio A. ,, Stevens B. ,, Craig K. ,, Rastogi P. ,, Bendavid S. ,, Shennan A. ,, Mulligan P. , and Koren G. , “"Efficacy and safety of lidocaine-prilocaine cream for pain during circumcision”", N. Engl. J. Med. Vol 336 (1997b), 11971201.
143. "Task Force on Circumcision, “Cultural bias and circumcision: The aap Task Force on Circumcision Responds”", Pediatrics Vol 131 (2013), 801804.
144. Tian Y. ,, Liu W. ,, Wang J. Z. ,, Wazir R. ,, Yue X. , and Wang K. J. , “"Effects of circumcision on male sexual functions: a systematic review and meta-analysis”", Asian J. Androl. Vol 15 (2013), 662666.
145. Tobian A. A. , and Gray R. H. , “"The medical benefits of male circumcision”", jama Vol 306 (2011), 14791480.
146. Toubia N. , “"Female genital mutilation and the responsibility of reproductive health professionals”", Int. J. Gynaecol. Obstet. Vol 46 (1994), 127135.
147. unicef , “"A league table of teenage births in rich nations"”, Innocenti Report Card no. 3 (2001): .
148. United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Convention on the Rights of the Child. 44/25, 20 November 1989: . Retrieved from: .
149. U.S., Meyer v. Nebraska , U.S. 262 (1923), 390.
150. U.S., Pierce v. Society of Sisters , U.S. 268 (1925), 510.
151. U.S., Parham v. J.R., U.S. 442 (1979), 584.
152. U.S., Santosky v. Kramer , U.S. 455 (1982), 745.
153. Van Howe R. S. , “"Incidence of meatal stenosis following neonatal circumcision in a primary care setting”", Clin. Pediatr. (Phila.) Vol 45 (2006), 4955.
154. Van Howe R. S. , “"Infant circumcision: the last stand for the dead dogma of parental (sovereignal) rights”", J. Med. Ethics Vol 39(7) (2013), 475481.
155. Vunda A. ,, Lacroix L. E. ,, Schneider F. ,, Manzano S. , and Gervaix A. , “"Videos in clinical medicine. Reduction of paraphimosis in boys"”, N. Engl. J Med. Vol 368 (2013), e16.
156. Walter G. , and Streimer J. '"Genital self-mutilation: attempted foreskin reconstruction".', Brit. J. Psychiat. Vol 156 (1990), 125127.
157. Wamai R. , and Morris B. J. , “"‘How to contain generalized hiv epidemics’ article misconstrues the evidence”", Int. J. std aids Vol 22 (2011), 415416.
158. Wamai R. G. et al., “"Male circumcision for protection against hiv infection in sub-Saharan Africa: the evidence in favour justifies the implementation now in progress”", Glob. Public Health Vol 10 (2015), 639666.
159. Wamai R. G. et al., “"Male circumcision for hiv prevention: current evidence and implementation in sub-Saharan Africa"”, J. Int. aids Soc. Vol 14 (2011), Article 49:4117.
160. Wamai R. G. et al., “"Criticisms of African trials fail to withstand scrutiny: male circumcision does prevent hiv infection"”, J. Law. Med. Vol 20 (2012), 93123.
161. Wamai R. G. et al., “"Male circumcision is an efficacious, lasting and cost-effective strategy for combating hiv in high-prevalence aids epidemics: Time to move beyond debating the science”", Future hiv Ther . Vol 2 (2008), 399405.
162. Waskett J. H. , and Morris B. J. , “"Fine-touch pressure thresholds in the adult penis. (Critique of Sorrells ml, et al. bju Int 2007;99:864–869)"”, bju Int. Vol 99 (2007), 15511552.
163. Weller S. , and Davis-Beaty K. , “"Condom effectiveness in reducing heterosexual hiv transmission"”, Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. (2002), cd003255.
164. who , “" who and unaids announce recommendations from expert consultation on male circumcision for hiv prevention"” (2007): .
165. Williams N. , and Kapila L. , “"Complications of circumcision”", Brit. J. Surg. Vol 80 (1993), 12311236.
166. Williamson M. L. , and Williamson P. S. , “"Women’s preferences for penile circumcision in sexual partners"”, J. Sex. Educ. Ther. Vol 14 (1988), 812.
167. Wright J. L. ,, Lin D. W. , and Stanford J. L. , “"Circumcision and the risk of prostate cancer”", Cancer Vol 118 (2012), 44374443.
168. Questions Yahoo , “"Should I get re-circumcised after 20 years and restoring improperly?"”, (2015).
169. Yegane R. A. ,, Kheirollahi A. R. ,, Salehi N. A. ,, Bashashati M. ,, Khoshdel J. A. , and Ahmadi M. , “"Late complications of circumcision in Iran”", Pediatr. Surg. Int. Vol 22 (2006), 442445.
170. YouGov, “"Circumcision survey"”: (2015).
171. Zorc J. J. ,, Kiddoo D. A. , and Shaw K. N. , “"Diagnosis and management of pediatric urinary tract infections”", Clin. Microbiol. Rev. Vol 18 (2005), 417422.
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/15718182-02402004
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/15718182-02402004
2016-07-23
2017-11-21

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    The International Journal of Children's Rights — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation