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The Development of Surface Roughness Model When Turning Hardened Steel with Ceramic Cutting Tool Using Response Methodology

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This paper presents a study of the development of surface roughness model when turning the mild steel hardened up to 484 HV with mixed alumina ceramic (KY1615) and coated alumina ceramic cutting tools (KY4400). The model was developed in terms of main cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, using response surface methodology. The established equation indicated that the feed rate affected the surface roughness the most, but other parametres remined stable for arithmetic average height parametre (Ra). However, it decreased with increasing the cutting speed, and with the starting and finishing point of cut for ten point height parametre (Rz). The cutting speed and the depth of cut had a slight effect on surface roughness values of Ra, Rz when using KY4400 cutting tools. Furthermore, the average surface roughness value of Ra was about 0.926 μm, 1.089 μm for KY1615, KY4400 cutting tools, respectively. The predicted surface roughness was found to be very close to experimentally observed ones at 95% confidence level. Moreover, analysis of variance indicated that squares terms were significant but interaction terms were insignificant for both cutting tools.

Affiliations: 1: Faculty of Technical Education, Gazi University, Besevler, Ankara/Turkey;, Email:; 2: Machine Programs, College of Technical Sciences, Uludag University, Nilüfer/Bursa/Turkey


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