Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Development of a German Implicit Measure of Religiosity

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

Theoretical and Methodical Considerations, Initial Construction, and Validation

image of Archive for the Psychology of Religion

This study addressed the lack of implicit measures of religiosity in German research by developing a German Single Category Implicit Association Test (sc-iat) for measuring the associative religious self-concept. The sc-iat was applied to a sample consisting of 389 German students with different subjects of study and internally consistent (r = .72). To estimate the psychometric criteria of construct validity, sc-iat scores were correlated to the Centrality of Religiosity Scale (crs), whose construct psychological approach can be theoretically linked to the concept of associative representations in the research on iats. Corresponding to the average relationship between implicit and explicit measures in literature, the correlation was moderately (r = .33). Group comparisons relating to religious affiliation and subject of study provided initial evidence for criterion validity. There were complications with the attribute category “non-religious,” especially by participants without a religious affiliation, however, the sc-iat could also provide a method to investigate this issue.

Affiliations: 1: Department of Psychology, Free University BerlinGermanyr.bachmann@logou.de

10.1163/15736121-12341286
/content/journals/10.1163/15736121-12341286
dcterms_title,pub_keyword,dcterms_description,pub_author
10
5
Loading
Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/15736121-12341286
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Allport G. W. , Ross J. M. "Personal religious orientation and prejudice" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1967 Vol 5 432 443 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0021212
2. Bertelsmann-Stiftung What the world believes: Analysis and commentary on the Religion Monitor 2008 2009 Gütersloh Bertelsmann-Stiftung
3. Cohen A. B. , Shariff A. F. , Hill P. C. "The accessibility of religious beliefs" Journal of Research in Personality 2008 Vol 42 6 1408 1417 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2008.06.001
4. Dijksterhuis A. , Preston J. , Wegner D. M. , Aarts H. "Effects of subliminal priming of self and God on self-attribution of authorship for events" Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 2008 Vol 44 1 2 9 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2007.01.003
5. Fazio R. H. , Olson M. A. "Implicit measures in social cognition research: Their meaning and use" Annual Review of Psychology 2003 Vol 54 297 327 http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145225
6. Gärtner C. , Pollack D. , Wohlrab-Sahr M. Atheismus und religiöse Indifferenz 2003 Opladen Leske & Budrich [Atheism and religious indifference] http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-663-09301-5
7. Gibson N. J. S. The experimental investigation of religious cognition 2006 UK University of Cambridge (Unpublished doctoral dissertation)
8. Greenwald A. G. , Farnham S. D. "Using the implicit association test to measure self-esteem and self-concept" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2000 Vol 79 6 1022 1038 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.79.6.1022
9. Greenwald A. G. , Banaji M. R. , Rudman L. A. , Farnham S. D. , Nosek B. A. , Mellott D. S. "A unified theory of implicit attitudes, stereotypes, self-esteem, and self-concept" Psychological Review 2002 Vol 109 1 3 25 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.109.1.3
10. Greenwald A. G. , McGhee D. E. , Schwartz J. L. K. "Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The Implicit Association Test" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1998 Vol 74 6 1464 1480 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.74.6.1464
11. Greenwald A. G. , Nosek B. A. , Banaji M. R. "Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: I. An improved scoring algorithm" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2003 Vol 85 2 197 216 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.197
12. Greenwald A. G. , Poehlman T. A. , Uhlmann E. L. , Banaji M. R. "Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: III. Meta-analysis of predictive validity" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2009 Vol 97 1 17 41 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0015575
13. Gschwendner T. , Hofmann W. , Schmitt M. "Moderatoren der Konsistenz implizit und explizit erfasster Einstellungen und Persönlichkeitsmerkmale [Moderators of the consistency of implicitly and explicitly assessed attitudes and personality traits]" Psychologische Rundschau 2006 Vol 57 1 13 33 http://dx.doi.org/10.1026/0033-3042.57.1.13
14. Hill P. C. "Toward an attitude process model of religious experience" Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 1994 Vol 33 4 303 314 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1386490
15. Hill P. C. , Pargament K. I. "Advances in the conceptualization and measurement of religion and spirituality" American Psychologist 2003 Vol 58 1 64 74 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.58.1.64
16. Hofmann W. , Gawronski B. , Gschwendner T. , Le H. , Schmitt M. "A meta-analysis on the correlation between the implicit association test and explicit self-report measures" Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 2005 Vol 31 10 1369 1385 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167205275613
17. Hood R. W. , Belzen J. A. Paloutzian R. F. , Park C. L. "Research methods in the psychology of religion" Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality 2005 New York Guilford Press 62 80
18. Huber S. Zentralität und Inhalt. Ein neues multidimensionales Messmodell der Religiosität 2003 Opladen Leske & Budrich [Centrality and content. A new multidimensional measurement of religiosity] http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-663-11908-1
19. Huber S. Zwingmann C. , Moosbrugger H. "Zentralität und multidimensionale Struktur der Religiosität. Eine Synthese der theoretischen Ansätze von Allport und Glock zur Messung der Religiosität [Centrality and the multidimensional structure of religiosity. A synthesis of the theoretical approaches for the measurment of religion by Allport and Glock]" Religiosität. Messverfahren und Studien zu Gesundheit und Lebensbewältigung 2004 Münster Waxmann 79 105
20. Huber S. "Kerndimensionen, Zentralität und Inhalt. Ein interdisziplinäres Modell der Religiosität [Central dimensions, centrality and content. An interdisciplinary model of religiosity]" Journal für Psychologie 2008 Vol 16 3 Retrieved from
21. Huber S. Bertelsmann-Stiftung "Religion Monitor 2008: Structuring principles, operational constructs, interpretive strategies" What the world believes: Analysis and commentary on the Religion Monitor 2008 2009 Gütersloh Bertelsmann-Stiftung 17 51
22. Huber S. , Huber O. W. "The Centrality of Religiosity Scale (CRS)" Religions 2012 Vol 3 3 710 724 Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/rel3030710
23. Inquisit Web 3.0.6.0. 2011 Seattle, WA Millisecond Software
24. Johnson M. K. , Rowatt W. C. , LaBouff J. P. "Priming Christian religious concepts increases racial prejudice" Social Psychological and Personality Science 2010 Vol 1 2 119 126
25. Johnson M. K. , Rowatt W. C. , LaBouff J. P. "Religiosity and prejudice revisited: In-group favoritism, out-group derogation, or both?" Psychology of Religion and Spirituality 2012 Vol 4 2 154 168 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0025107
26. Jong J. Dawes G. W. , Maclaurin J. "Implicit measures in the experimental psychology of religion" A New Science of Religion 2013 London Routledge 65 78
27. Karpinski A. "Measuring self-esteem using the Implicit Association Test: The role of the other" Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 2004 Vol 30 1 22 34 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167203258835
28. Karpinski A. , Steinman R. B. "The Single Category Implicit Association Test as a measure of implicit social cognition" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2006 Vol 91 1 16 32 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.91.1.16
29. Kelly G. A. The psychology of personal constructs 1955 Vol Vol. 1: A theory of personality New York Norton
30. LaBouff J. P. , Johnson M. K. , Tsang J. , Rowatt W. C. , Thedford M. "Development and initial validation of an implicit measure of religiousness-spirituality" Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 2010 Vol 49 3 439 455 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5906.2010.01521.x
31. LaBouff J. P. The ecological validity of priming religiousness: Context and culture 2011 Baylor University, USA (Unpublished doctoral dissertation)
32. Lane K. A. , Mahzarin R. B. , Nosek B. A. , Greenwald A. G. Wittenbrink B. , Schwarz N. "Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test. IV. What we know (so far) about the method" Implicit measures of attitudes 2007 New York Guilford 59 102
33. Luhmann N. Die Religion der Gesellschaft [The religion of society] 2000 Frankfurt am Main Suhrkamp
34. Nosek B. A. "Moderators of the relationship between implicit and explicit evaluation" Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 2005 Vol 134 4 565 584 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.134.4.565
35. Nosek B. A. , Greenwald A. G. , Banaji M. R. "Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test. II. Method variables and construct validity" Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 2005 Vol 31 2 166 180 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167204271418
36. Powers C. , Nam R. K. , Rowatt W. C. , Hill P. C. "Associations between humility, spiritual transcendence, and forgiveness" Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion 2007 Vol 18 75 94
37. Rowatt W. C. , Franklin L. M. "Research: Christian orthodoxy, religious fundamentalism, and right-wing authoritarianism as predictors of implicit racial prejudice" The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion 2004 Vol 14 2 125 138 http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327582ijpr1402_4
38. Rowatt W. C. , Franklin L. M. , Cotton M. "Patterns and personality correlates of implicit and explicit attitudes toward Christians and Muslims" Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 2005 Vol 44 1 29 43 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5906.2005.00263.x
39. Rowatt W. C. , Powers C. , Targhetta V. , Comer J. , Kennedy S. , LaBouff J. P. "Development and initial validation of an implicit measure of humility relative to arrogance" The Journal of Positive Psychology 2006 Vol 1 4 198 211 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17439760600885671
40. Rowatt W. C. , Tsang J. A. , Kelly J. , LaMartina B. , McCullers M. , McKinley A. "Associations between religious personality dimensions and implicit homosexual prejudice" Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 2006 Vol 45 3 397 406 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5906.2006.00314.x
41. Shariff A. F. , Norenzayan A. "God is watching you priming God concepts increases prosocial behavior in an anonymous economic game" Psychological Science 2007 Vol 18 9 803 809 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01983.x
42. Smith E. R. , DeCoster J. "Dual-process models in social and cognitive psychology: Conceptual integration and links to underlying memory systems" Personality and Social Psychology Review 2000 Vol 4 2 108 131 http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15327957PSPR0402_01
43. Stark R. , Glock C. Y. American piety: The nature of religious commitment 1968 Berkeley, CA University of California Press
44. Tsang J.-A. , Rowatt W. C. "The relationship between religious orientation, right-wing authoritarianism, and implicit sexual prejudice" The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion 2007 Vol 17 2 99 120 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10508610701244122
45. Utsch M. , Klein C. Klein C. , Berth H. , Black F. "Religion, Religiosität, Spiritualität. Bestimmungsversuche für komplexe Begriffe [Religion, religiosity, spirituality. Attempts at definitions for complex terms]" Gesundheit—Religion—Spiritualität. Konzepte, Befunde, Erklärungsansätze 2011 Weinheim Juventa 25 45
46. Van Bavel J. J. , Cunningham W. A. "A social neuroscience approach to self and social categorisation: A new look at an old issue" European Review of Social Psychology 2010 Vol 21 1 237 284 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10463283.2010.543314
47. Ventis W. L. , Ball C. T. , Viggiano C. "A Christian humanist implicit association test" Psychology of Religion and Spirituality 2010 Vol 2 3 181 189 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0018456
48. Wenger J. L. "Implicit components of religious beliefs" Journal of Psychology and Christianity 2003 Vol 22 3 223 229
49. Wenger J. L. "Research: The automatic activation of religious concepts: Implications for religious orientations" The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion 2004 Vol 14 2 109 123 http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327582ijpr1402_3
50. Wenger J. L. "The implicit nature of intrinsic religious pursuit" The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion 2007 Vol 17 1 47 60
51. Wenger J. L. , Daniels A. L. "Who distinguishes between sinners and sins at the implicit level of awareness?" The Journal of Social Psychology 2006 Vol 146 6 657 669 http://dx.doi.org/10.3200/SOCP.146.6.657-669
52. Wenger J. L. , Yarbrough T. D. "Religious individuals: Evaluating their intrinsic and extrinsic motivations at the implicit level of awareness" The Journal of Social Psychology 2005 Vol 145 1 5 16 http://dx.doi.org/10.3200/SOCP.145.1.5-16
53. Zwingmann C. , Klein C. , Büssing A. "Measuring religiosity /spirituality: Theoretical differentiations and categorization of instruments" Religions 2011 Vol 2 3 345 357 Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/rel2030345
54. Zwingmann C. , Klein C. , Höfling V. Klein C. , Berth H. , Black F. "Messung von Religiosität/Spiritualität im Rahmen der Gesundheitsforschung. Ein Überblick über deutschsprachige Fragebogenskalen [The measurement of religiosity/spirituality in the context of health research. A view of German questionnaires]" Gesundheit—Religion—Spiritualität. Konzepte, Befunde, Erklärungsansätze 2011 Weinheim Juventa 65 91
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/15736121-12341286
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/15736121-12341286
2014-09-15
2018-06-21

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    Archive for the Psychology of Religion — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation