Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Trait Narcissism and Contemporary Religious Trends

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Archive for the Psychology of Religion

In a large sample of adult Americans, we examined trait narcissism among those who identify as nonreligious, traditionally religious, or “spiritual but not religious” (SBNR). Our study reveals that: 1) those who identify as traditionally religious and those who identify as SBNR exhibit fairly similar levels of narcissism; 2) contrary to conventional wisdom, nonreligious Americans are lower in narcissism than religious/spiritual Americans (with nonreligious individuals particularly lower in the NPI subscales of self-absorption/self-admiration); and 3) higher levels of church attendance are not associated with lower NPI scores, though higher levels of church attendance are associated with higher NPI scores in SBNR individuals.

Affiliations: 1: Department of Psychology, Bradley University 1501 W. Bradley Ave., Peoria, il 61625 ; 2: Department of Religious Studies, Bradley University 1501 W. Bradley Ave., Peoria, il 61625


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Ackerman R. A., Witt E. A., Donnellan M. B., Trzesniewski K. H., Robins R. W., Kashy D. A."What does the Narcissistic Personality Inventory really measure?" Assessment 2011Vol 18 1 67 87
2. American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 2013 5th ed. Arlington, VA American Psychiatric Publishing
3. Ammerman N."Spiritual but not religious? Beyond binary choices in the study of religion" Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 2013Vol 52 2 258 278
4. Batson D. Religion and the individual 1982 New York Oxford University Press
5. Bellah R., Madsen R., Sullivan W., Swidler A., Tipton S. Habits of the heart: Individualism and commitment in American life 1985 Berkeley University of California Press
6. Berinsky A., Huber G., Lenz G."Evaluating online labor markets for experimental research:’s Mechanical Turk" Political Analysis 2012Vol 20 3 351 368 doi:10.1093/pan/mpr057
7. Buhrmester M., Kwang T., Gosling S."Amazon’s Mechanical Turk: A new source of inexpensive, yet high-quality data?" Perspectives on Psychological Science 2011Vol 6 1 3 5
8. Caldwell-Harris C. L."Understanding atheism/non-belief as an expected individual-differences variable" Religion, Brain & Behavior 2012Vol 2 1 4 23
9. Campbell W. K., Green J. D. Wood J. V., Tesser A., Holmes J. G."Narcissism and interpersonal self-regulation" The self and social relationships 2008 New York Psychology Press 73 94
10. Capps D. The depleted self: Sin in a narcissistic age 1993 Minneapolis Fortress Press
11. Carrette J., King R. Selling spirituality: The silent takeover of religion 2005 London Routledge
12. Cook C. L., Cottrell C. A., Webster G. D."No good without God: Antiatheist prejudice as a function of threats to morals and values" Psychology of Religion and Spirituality 2015Vol 7 217 226
13. Corry N., Merritt R. D., Mrug S., Pamp B."The factor structure of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory" Journal of Personality Assessment 2008Vol 90 6 593 600
14. Dubendorff S., Luchner A."The perception of atheists as narcissistic" Psychology of Religion and Personality 2016 Advance online publication doi: rel0000093
15. Edgell P., Gerteis J., Hartmann D."Atheists as “other”: Moral boundaries and cultural membership in American society" American Sociological Review 2006Vol 71 211 234
16. Emmons R. A."Narcissism: Theory and measurement" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1987Vol 52 1 11 17
17. Fuller R. Spiritual, but not religious: Understanding unchurched America 2001 New York Oxford University Press
18. Gebauer J., Sedikides C., Schrade A."Christian self-enhancement" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2017 Advance online publication. doi:10.1037/pspp0000140
19. Hayes A. F. Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach 2013 New York, NY, US Guilford Press
20. Homans P."Introducing the psychology of the self and narcissism into the study of religion" Religious Studies Review 1981Vol 7 3 193 198
21. Iyengar S. Druckman J., Green D., Kulinski J., Lupia A."Laboratory experiments in political science" Handbook of experimental political science 2011 New York Cambridge University Press 73 88
22. Kohut H."Forms and transformations of narcissism" Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 1966Vol 14 243 272 doi:10.1177/000306516601400201
23. Kohut H."Thoughts on narcissism and narcissistic rage" The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child 1972Vol 27 360 400
24. Lasch C. The culture of narcissism: American life in an age of diminishing expectations 1979 New York Norton
25. Lewis A. R., Djupe P. A., Mockabee S. T., Su-Ya Wu J."The (non)religion of Mechanical Turk workers" Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 2015Vol 54 419 428 doi:10.1111/jssr.12184
26. Lowicki P., Zajenkowski M."No empathy for people nor for God: The relationship between the dark triad, religiosity and empathy" Personality and Individual Differences (in press)
27. MacDonald D."Spirituality: Description, measurement, and relation to the Five Factor Model of personality" Journal of Personality 2000Vol 68 1 153 197
28. Maniaci M. R., Rogge R. D."Caring about carelessness: Participant inattention and its effects on research" Journal of Research in Personality 2014Vol 48 61 83
29. Mercadante L. Belief without borders: Inside the minds of the spiritual but not religious 2014 Oxford University Press
30. Miller J. D., Price J., Campbell W. K."Is the narcissistic personality inventory still relevant? A test of independent grandiosity and entitlement scales in the assessment of narcissism" Assessment 2012Vol 19 1 8 13 doi:10.1177/1073191111429390
31. Morf C., Torchetti L., Schürch E. Campbell W. K., Miller J. D."Narcissism from the perspective of the dynamic self-regulatory processing model" The handbook of narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder: Theoretical approaches, empirical findings, and treatments 2011 Hoboken John Wiley & Sons Inc 56 70
32. Murphy J."Beyond “religion” and “spirituality”" Archive for the Psychology of Religion 2017Vol 39 1 26
33. Norenzayan A., Shariff A., Willard A., Slingerland E., Gervais W., McNamara R., Henrich J."The cultural evolution of prosocial religions" Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2016Vol 39 1 65
34. Park N. S., Lee B. S., Sun F., Klemmack D. L., Roff L. L., Koenig H. G."Typologies of religiousness/spirituality: Implications for health and well-being" Journal of Religion and Health 2013Vol 52 3 828 839 doi:10.1007/s10943-011-9520-6
35. Pearce L. D., Hardie J. H., Foster E. M."A person‐centered examination of adolescent religiosity using latent class analysis" Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 2013Vol 52 1 57 79 doi: 10.1111/jssr.12001
36. Pew Research Center U.S. Becoming Less Religious 2015 Online report, Nov. 3, 2015 Retrieved from
37. Pruyser P."Narcissism in contemporary religion" Journal of Pastoral Care 1978Vol 32 219 231
38. Raskin R., Terry H."A principal-components analysis of the narcissistic personality inventory and further evidence of its construct validity" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1988Vol 54 890 902 doi:10.1037/0022-3514.54.5.890
39. Rowatt W., Kang L., Haggard M."A social-personality perspective on humility, religiousness, and spirituality" Journal of Psychology & Theology 2014Vol 42 31 40
40. Saucier G., Skrypinska K."Spiritual but not religious? Evidence for two independent dispositions" Journal of Personality 2006Vol 74 5 1257 1290
41. Schmidt L. Restless souls: The making of American spirituality 2012 2nd ed. New York HarperSanFrancisco
42. Simpson A., Hermann A. D., Lehtman M., Fuller R."Interpersonal transgressions and interest in spiritual activities: The role of narcissism" Current Psychology 2016Vol 35 195 206
43. Twenge J., Foster J."Mapping the scale of the narcissism epidemic: Increases in narcissism 2002-2007 within ethnic groups" Journal of Research in Personality 2008Vol 42 1619 1622 doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2008.06.014
44. Twenge J., Konrath S., Foster J., Campbell W. K., Bushman B."Egos inflating over time: A cross-temporal meta-analysis of the narcissistic personality inventory" Journal of Personality 2008Vol 76 875 902
45. Watson P. J., Morris R., Hood R., Biderman M."Religious orientation types and narcissism" Journal of Psychology and Christianity 1990Vol 9 40 46
46. Wuthnow R. After heaven: Spirituality in America since the 1950s 1998 Berkeley University of California Press
47. Zinnbauer B., Pargament K., Cole B., Rye M. S., Butter E. M., Belavich T. G., Kadar J. L."Religion and spirituality: Unfuzzying the fuzzy" Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 1997Vol 36 549 564
48. Zinnbauer B., Pargament K. Paloutzian R., Park C."Religiousness and spirituality" Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality 2005 New York Guilford Press 21 42

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Archive for the Psychology of Religion — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation