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The Williams Scale of Attitude toward Paganism: Development and Application among British Pagans

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This article builds on the tradition of attitudinal measures of religiosity established by Leslie Francis and colleagues with the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity (and reflected in the Sahin-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Islam, the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Judaism, and the Santosh-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Hinduism) by introducing a new measure to assess the attitudinal disposition of Pagans. A battery of items was completed by 75 members of a Pagan Summer Camp. These items were reduced to produce a 21-item scale that measured aspects of Paganism concerned with: the God/Goddess, worshipping, prayer, and coven. The scale recorded an alpha coefficient of 0.93. Construct validity of the Williams Scale of Attitude toward Paganism was demonstrated by the clear association with measures of participation in private rituals.

Affiliations: 1: Warwick Religions and Education Research Unit, University of Warwick Coventry UK, Email:; 2: Warwick Religions and Education Research Unit, University of Warwick Coventry UK; 3: St Mary’s Centre, St Deiniol’s Library, Hawarden UK


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