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Second Hyperpolarizability of Zethrenes

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We report a study on the static second hyperpolarizabilities (γ) of zethrenes using the UBHandHLYP hybrid density functional theory method. Though zethrenes were originally considered as closed-shell systems, the values of their diradical characters, calculated from the occupation numbers of spin-unrestricted Hartree-Fock natural orbitals (UNOs), demonstrate an open-shell diradical nature, which increases with the size of the middle ring region because of the recovery of the aromaticity in that region. As references, we examine also the γ values of tetrabenzopolyacenes, which are regarded as the corresponding closed-shell systems due to their negligible diradical characters. It is found that the longitudinal γ values for zethrenes are much larger than those of the corresponding reference closed-shell systems, whereas their ratio, γ(zethrene)/γ(reference), is reduced when increasing the length of middle ring regions, i.e., when increasing the diradical character.

Affiliations: 1: Department of Materials Engineering Science, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531, Japan; 2: Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043, Japan; 3: Photonics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577, Japan; 4: Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique Appliquée, Facultés Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix (FUNDP), rue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur, Belgium


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