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Friends, Radical and Estranged: Bruno Bauer and Karl Marx

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image of Religion and Theology

Abstract This essay offers a careful and critical commentary on the deep, complex and conflictual relation between Karl Marx and Bruno Bauer – at personal, professional and political levels. I do so with a particular interest in religion, since Bauer was one of the towering biblical scholars in the Germany of his time (mid-nineteenth century). Bauer was Marx’s one-time teacher, friend and mentor who taught him a course on the book of Isaiah at the Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin in 1839. Not many years later, Bauer becomes a target for Marx’s polemic in The Holy Family and The German Ideology, as well as On the Jewish Question. Why the intense polemic? I argue that the problem with Bauer – for Marx – was that he developed a reasonably radical political position – his later works dealt extensively with politics – through his work as a biblical critic. Marx sought to close this path off entirely, although he does admit in a telling phrase that Bauer follows the ‘detour of theology’. Yet, despite all the polemic, Bauer and Marx kept in touch, the former visiting Marx in London many years later and the latter keeping up a lively interest in Bauer’s movements and writings.

Affiliations: 1: School of Humanities and Social Science, University of Newcastle University Drive, Callaghan, NSW 2308 Australia, Email: Roland.Boer@newcastle.edu.au; 2: School of Humanities and Social Science, University of Newcastle University Drive, Callaghan, NSW 2308 Australia Roland.Boer@newcastle.edu.au

10.1163/157430110X597890
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105. Marx Karl"“To Ludwig Feuerbach in Bruckberg, Paris, August 11, 1844.”" Marx and Engels Collected Works 1975 [1958]Vol Vol. 3 Moscow Progress Publishers 354 7
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107. Marx Karl"“Zur Judenfrage.”" Marx Engels Werke 1974 [1844]Vol Vol. 1 Berlin Dietz 347 77
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109. Marx Karl"“Die “Rhein- und Mosel-Zeitung” als Großinquisitor,”" Marx Engels Gesamtausgabe 1975 [1843]Vol Vol. 1 1 Berlin Dietz 360 2
110. Marx Karl"“Differenz der demokritischen und epikureischen Naturphilosophie im allgemenein nebst einem Anhange,”" Marx Engels Gesamtausgabe 1975 [1841]Vol Vol. 1 1 Berlin Dietz 5 92
111. Marx Karl"‘Marx an Engels 10. August 1869’" Marx Engels Werke 1973 [1869]Vol Volume 32 Berlin Dietz 359 61
112. Marx Karl"“Hefte zur epikureischen, stoischen und skeptischen Philosophie,”" Marx Engels Werke 1990 [1839]Vol Vol. 40 Berlin Dietz 13 155
113. Marx Karl"“Marx an Arnold Ruge in Dresden, 13. März 1843,”" Marx Engels Werke 1973 [1902]Vol Vol. 27 Berlin Dietz 416 18
114. Marx Karl"“Marx an Engels 10. Januar 1857,”" Marx Engels Werke 1973 [1929]Vol Vol. 29 Berlin Dietz 92 4
115. Marx Karl"“Marx an Engels 10. Mai 1861,”" Marx Engels Werke 1972 [1861]Vol Vol. 30 Berlin Dietz 165 8
116. Marx Karl"“Marx an Engels 12. Februar 1856,”" Marx Engels Werke 1973 [1856]Vol Vol. 29 Berlin Dietz 11 15
117. Marx Karl"“Marx an Engels 14. Dezember 1855,”" Marx Engels Werke 1973 [1855]Vol Vol. 28 Berlin Dietz 466 7
118. Marx Karl"“Marx an Engels 14. März 1868,”" Marx Engels Werke 1973 [1913]Vol Vol. 32 Berlin Dietz 42 4
119. Marx Karl"“Marx an Engels 16. März 1859,”" Marx Engels Werke 1973 [1859]Vol Vol. 29 Berlin Dietz 411
120. Marx Karl"“Marx an Engels 18. Januar 1856,”" Marx Engels Werke 1973 [1856]Vol Vol. 29 Berlin Dietz 5 7
121. Marx Karl"“Marx an Engels 22. September 1856,”" Marx Engels Werke 1973 [1856]Vol Vol. 29 Berlin Dietz 71 3
122. Marx Karl"“Marx an Engels 23. April 1857,”" Marx Engels Werke 1973 [1857]Vol Vol. 29 Berlin Dietz 129 31
123. Marx Karl"“Marx an Engels 28. Mai 1859,”" Marx Engels Werke 1973 [1859]Vol Vol. 29 Berlin Dietz 445
124. Marx Karl"“Marx an Engels 30. September 1882,”" Marx Engels Werke 1973 [1882]Vol Vol. 35 Berlin Dietz 99 100
125. Marx Karl"“Marx an Ludwig Feuerbach in Bruckberg, 11. August 1844,”" Marx Engels Werke 1973 [1844]Vol Vol. 27 Berlin Dietz 425 8
126. Marx Karl"“Noch ein Wort über „Bruno Bauer und die akademische Lehrfreiheit“ von Dr. O. F. Gruppe. Berlin 1842,”" Marx Engels Gesamtausgabe 1975 [1842]Vol Vol. 1 1 Berlin Dietz 245 8
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2016-12-07

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