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Masculinities, Violence and Power in Timor Leste Masculinités, la violence et le pouvoir à Timor oriental Ocupação, resistência, domínio e patriarquismo: Notas sobre Masculinidades, Violência e Poder em Timor-Leste

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This article sketches some of the manifestations of violent masculinities which were visible in the Timor Leste conflict from 1975 to 1999. While concentrating on Timorese actors, it points out that this does not in any way mean that Timorese men are inherently more violent than others. In fact, the vast majority of the acts of violence during the conflict were committed by members of the occupying Indonesian security forces. After a brief thematic and historical introduction, the article examines manifestations of violent masculinities within the pro-independence Falintil guerrilla, the pro-Indonesian militias and the civilian population.

As the end of the conflict has not meant an end to, but a "domestication" of violence with extremely high rates of domestic and gender-based sexual violence, the article further examines the impact of the post-conflict situation on violent manifestations of masculinity. Cet article esquisse quelques-unes des manifestations violentes de la masculinité qui ont été visibles au cours du conflit de Timor Leste entre 1975 et 1999. Bien que relatif aux acteurs timorais, il ne saurait en aucun cas signifier que les hommes timorais soient fondamentalement plus violents que les autres. En réalité, au cours du conflit, la grande majorité des actes de violence ont été commis par des membres des forces de sécurité des occupants indonésiens. Après une brève introduction thématique et historique, l'article examine les manifestations violentes de la masculinité entre la guérilla indépendantiste des Falintil, les milices pro-indonésiennes et la population civile.

Étant donné que lafin du conflit n'a pas constitué unefin mais seulement une « domestication » de la violence, avec des taux extrêmement élevés de violence sexuelle domestique et de type sexiste, l'article examine en outre l'impact de la situation d'après-guerre sur les manifestations violentes de la masculinité.
Este artigo esboça algumas das manifestações de masculinidades violentas que são visíveis no conflito de Timor-Leste no período de 1975-1999. Sublinha-se que a concen-tração sobre os actores timorenses de modo nenhum significa que os homens timorenses que os homens timorenses são intrinsecamente mais violentos do que outros. De facto, a grande maioria dos actos de violência durante o conflito foi perpetrada por membros das forças de segurança ocupantes indonésias. Após uma breve introdução temática e histórica, o artigo examina manifestações de masculinidades violentas no seio da guerrilha independentista das Falintil, das milícias indonésias e da população civil.

Como o fim do conflito não trouxe o fim da violência, mas sim a sua « domesticação » com elevada taxa de violência sexual interna e baseada no género, o artigo examina ainda o impacto da situação pós-conflito sobre manifestações violentas de masculinidade.


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